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Smartphones - experiences from Latin America

MBB projects
SVU session, September 8, 2010
Poul Larsen, NPO Expertise Leverage

Internal
1 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Content

Introduction
Different methods to measure smartphone penetration and impact
What tools are available?
How does the choice of tools impact the results?
Smartphone behaviour
Impact to the RAN and the Packet Core
What can be done to reduce the impact from smartphones?

Internal
2 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Background - Impact of smartphones and applications

Many operators have launched smart phones


recently
Google, iPhone, Nokia 97 etc
Applications which require always on
connectivity have become very popular in
many networks
email, instant messaging, presence, etc.
Smartphone applications are increasing
Control Plane load compared to the typical
and more widespread CS, PS and HSPA
services used until now.
High control plane load has created new type
of challenges for WCDMA RAN operators and
wireless infrastructure suppliers.

Internal
3 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Some networks are suffering from Smartphones

Internal
4 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Sudden changes in behaviour can happen

In Smart phone dominated network changes can happen overnight, caused by new
firmware or killer application
For example iPhone user-friendly firmware upgrade makes upgrades unheard fast: in one
network 50% of phones were upgraded within 1 week after the new firmware came
available boosting the impact of new firmware
Internal
5 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Other SVU sessions about smartphones
There have already been several NPO SVU sessions on the
smartphone topic
Jussi Reunanen (Impact to the RAN, October 2009)
https://sharenet-
ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/livelink/livelink?func=ll&objId=412467347&objAction=Browse

Simon Browne (UE profiling from ICSU logs, March 2010)


https://sharenet-
ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/livelink/livelink?func=ll&objId=417176223&objAction=Browse

Carsten Langer (Smartphones from SOA perspective, May 2010)


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/419011103

Probably more.....
This session will focus on how smartphone analysis have been
done during the MBB projects delivered in Latin America over the
last year
Not dedicated smartphone analysis, rather an "extra", piggybacked
with the MBB project to test our abilities

Internal
6 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
How to define a smartphone?
Ideally based on the UE behaviour
Which applications are running (always-on, presence, lots of clients
with keep-alive packets etc.)
Signalling generated by chatty applications and fast dormancy
Different subscribers will use the same device in different ways. For
example Nokia N97 used as pure voice phone, as modem or as
smartphone
However, in practice all projects so far have identified the UE
from the IMEI and from there decided if it is a smartphone or not
This does not take the behaviour of the individual subscriber into
account but assumes that for example all iPhone users are using their
UE as a "smartphone"

Internal
7 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
How to define a smartphone?
So the process is......
Get IMEI (100.000s in a given analysis)
Extract Type Approval Code from the IMEI (first 8 digits). There is probably 1000s
different TACs in a given network
Use a mapping table from TAC to UE model, and concentrate on the most used UE
models. Around 50 - 100 different UE models are typically handling most of the traffic in
the network
Manually decide which UEs are "smartphones"
In Latin America, we have used the following categories
USB dongles
iPhones
Blackberries
Other smartphones
Plain handsets
In order to avoid the discussion of whether a UE is a smartphone or a handset,
alternative is to present e.g. the top-10 UEs
Pekka Ranta (Capability Management) maintains a table with TAC codes, UE
categories and whether or not the UE uses fast dormancy
List of TACs should be complete but the rest of the information is updated on best effort
basis
Can be found at
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/D420083934

Internal
8 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Are smartphones dangerous at all?
The introduction of smartphones into a network can follow different
scenarios
Network mainly used for voice and some occasional browsing
etc. from the handsets
Low user plane, low control plane => Medium user plane, heavy
control plane
Network is used as ADSL replacement (broadband access)
Heavy user plane, medium control plane => Medium user plane,
heavy control plane

For example the Latin America networks are used mostly as


ADSL replacements, and while smartphones do generate more
of certain signalling than USB dongles, they generate far less
user plane traffic => Smartphones have not been big issue so far
in Latin America
Internal
9 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Content

Introduction
Different methods to measure smartphone penetration and impact
What tools are available?
How does the choice of tools impact the results?
Smartphone behaviour
Impact to the RAN and the Packet Core
What can be done to reduce the impact from smartphones?

Internal
10 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Using counters
Average DL payload pr RAB

4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0 RNC1
MByte

2.5 RNC2
2.0 RNC3
1.5 RNC4
1.0
0.5
0.0
01-08-10

02-08-10

03-08-10

04-08-10

05-08-10

06-08-10

07-08-10

08-08-10

09-08-10

10-08-10

11-08-10

12-08-10

13-08-10

14-08-10

15-08-10
Knowing how smartphones behave (for example that the typical
smartphone transfer much less data in a RAB connection than a
modem) allows one to look at counter statistics and make some
guesses - but this is still just guesses, not facts

Internal
11 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
More sophisticated methods

In order to minimize the guessing, it is necessary with knowledge


of how individual subscribers behave
Information sources include
RNC log files ("ICSU logs")
RNC Traffica If NSN equipment
SGSN Traffica
Billing records
Interface traces - especially Gn
Operator's sales information
Etc.
The results depend on which measurement method is used!
Also the duration of the measurement period plays a role, as well
as the location (capital city vs whole country)
Therefore it can be difficult to compare results from different
networks
Internal
12 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Before we continue.......
......some fundamentals about 3G data connections

To better understand the following discussion, the next couple of


slides explains the different connections established when
transferring data in a 3G network
Use case is web browsing from handset

Some terminology
PDP context is between UE and GGSN
Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is between UE and SGSN
Radio Bearer is between UE and RNC
Radio link is between UE and BTS

Internal
13 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
3G web browsing session
Attach

UE is always
attached 4 5
1 2 3 6
PDP context

RAB

Cell_DCH
Radio Bearer Cell_FACH
Cell_PCH

1. User clicks on link. Browser starts. Direct Tunnel PDP context and RAB is established, and a radio bearer is allocated in cell_DCH to
transfer data
2. Page is transferred and user starts to read. After a short period of inactivity, the radio bearer is released and the RRC state changes
first to cell_FACH and then to cell_PCH
3. User clicks on next link. New radio bearer is established in the cell_DCH state
4. After long period of inactivity, network releases the RAB, and the PDP context is transformed to two-tunnel
5. User clicks on another link, new RAB is established, PDP context changes to Direct Tunnel, RRC state changes to cell_DCH and
radio bearer is allocated
6. User closes browser. RAB and PDP context is released
Internal
14 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
ICSU log files from the NSN RNC
The Integrated Control and Signalling Units in the RNC are handling all the
signalling that passes through the RNC, and logging this gives a huge
knowledge of how each individual UE behaves
For detailed analysis, the Emil tool can be used but for mass traffic analysis,
the "UE profiling tool" developed by Simon Browne is better
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/livelink/livelink?func=ll&objId=417176223&objAction=Browse

Advantages
Information about Radio Bearer signalling
Both CS and PS domains
Easy to get data
Well documented process
Probably the closest we have to a "standard smartphone analysis tool", hence
reference data available
Disadvantages
Requires NSN RAN
Not much 2G information
Requires long monitoring periods to catch the IMEI and the beginning/ending
of RABs - and this can be difficult to persuade the Care engineers to do =>
Much of the traffic is filtered away
Internal
15 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Example of ICSU log analysis - UE penetration
UE category Europe Asia LAT 1 LAT 2 LAT 3 LAT 4 LAT 5
USB dongle 1% 4% 22% 60% 22% 24% 41%
iPhone 87% 78% 34% 10% 45% 58% 41%
Blackberry 5% 3% 27% 6% 5% 8% 10%
Other smartphones 15% 23% 19% 10% 5%
7% 16%
Plain handset 2% 2% 9% 1% 3%

Data is taken in same way in all networks, so results are roughly


comparable
All results from Capital cities
In general, the Latin American networks have higher usage of
USB dongles, even in the capital cities

Internal
16 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Example of ICSU log analysis - Payload pr RAB and RB
Payload pr RAB
From ICSU logs, we can see

3323
how high the payload is pr RAB 3500

2489
2436
2384
3000
and pr Radio Bearer for different

2051
2500
UE models

KByte
2000

Charts show the numbers for 1500


1000
The 2 dominant models of

335
316

251
193
139
112
500

89

83
37
13
18
18
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Top 5 Nokia UEs Payload pr Radio Bearer
Top-2 Android devices (very few

402
450

366
367
Androids in the network, so 400

332

318
350
don't trust too much in the 300
figures) KByte
250
200
USB dongles have high payload

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Internal
17 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
RNC Traffica
RNC Traffica is part of the Traffica family and uses the familiar concept
A Traffica server is connected to the RNC and stores real-time-traffic records
and counter info in a Solid database
The collected information can be analysed with Traffic News (very limited
analysis is possible) or by exporting to external tool, for example MS Access
(this method is preferred for mass analysis)
Advantages
Includes both CS & PS domains
Has limited information about Radio Bearer signalling (all failures are
recorded)
All RABs which has either started or ended within the monitoring period are
included
Running constantly
Disadvantages
Requires NSN RAN and doesn't tell much about 2G
Optional tool - operator may not have it
IMEI is not available. "UE hash" is there, but the value of this is questionable.
External IMSI=>IMEI mapping table is needed
Does not have full information about Radio Bearer signalling
No information about payload
Requires "Database Export Licence" for easy analysis
Internal
18 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Example of RNC Traffica analysis
PS RAB release reasons

80000
70000
60000
50000 UE request
40000 Normal Release
30000 Others
20000
10000
0
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or b n iP
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teg ack Ha M ar
ca Bl Sm
Un

Charts show the release reason for the PS RABs in in RNC


In case of smartphones, >80% of the RABs are released due to UE request
For handsets and modems, it is "only" 50% of the RABs which are released
due to UE request
95% of the iPhone RABs are released due to UE request, and since there are
so many iPhones in the RNC, it means that overall, 90% of the PS RABs are
released due to UE request
Similar chart can also be made from ICSU logs
Internal
19 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
SGSN Traffica
SGSN Traffica is part of the Traffica family and uses the familiar concept
A Traffica server is connected to the SGSN and stores real-time-traffic records and
counter info in a Solid database
The collected information can be analysed with Traffic News (very limited analysis is
possible) or by exporting to external tool, for example MS Access (this method is
preferred for mass analysis)
Advantages
Includes both 3G and 2G
Covers multivendor RAN and BSS
Relatively easy to monitor for longer periods, for example 24 hours
Information about mobility management, session management and RAB creations
Running constantly
IMEI is there, even if the context was activated outside the period that data was
extracted from
Disadvantages
Requires NSN SGSN
Doesn't cover the CS domain
Optional tool - operator may not have it
Does not know anything about Radio Bearer and only limited info about RABs
No information about payload if Direct Tunnel is used
Requires "Database Export Licence" for easy analysis

Internal
20 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Example of SGSN Traffica analysis
Successful 3G RAB creations pr subscriber pr hour

25

20
Network 1 - NSN
15 Network 2 - NSN
Network 4 - NSN
10 Network 3 - Huawei
Network 4 - Ericsson
5

0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

Both in Huawei and Ericsson RAN areas, there are significantly more RAB creations than in NSN
RAN area
Presumeably this is because cell_PCH is enabled in NSN RAN but not in Huawei/Ericsson RAN
Even in NSN area, the Blackberry has many RAB creations
Probably because Blackberry use aggressive "fast dormancy" which does not respect the current RRC state
The "other smartphone" category in the NSN part of network 4 has many more RAB creations than in
networks 1 and 2
This UE category does not contain exactly the same UEs in all networks. For example in network 4, Android
UEs are starting to appear
Internal
21 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Billing records ("CDRs")
Billing records come either from the Charging Gateway (CG)/Charging
Mediation Device (CMD) or from the operator's own billing system
Advantages
If available, they normally cover a longer period (several days)
Multivendor
2G + 3G & CS + PS
Has payload of all APNs (if the right records are available)
Disadvantages
Can be exceedingly difficult to get. Often the department that has bought the
MBB service doesn't have access to the CDRs themselves but need to ask
other departments. There may also be legal issues involved
Large files, so buy a big harddisk (1 day unprocessed records can for example
be 15 GByte)
Different setup in each network, which makes it even more difficult to get the
data
Contains only chargeable traffic. Routing area updates for example not there,
so full view of mobility cannot be made. Other kinds of signalling (Radio
Beares, RABs) also not visible

Internal
22 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Example of information from billing records
Average throughput pr user

30
DL + UL throughput

25 Blackberry
20 Basic handset
(kbps)

15 iPhone
10 USB dongle
5 Other smartphone
0
00

02

04

06

08

10

12

14

16

18

20

22
July 22

By counting all the unique subscribers active during the 24 hours, and dividing
this up into the network throughput, the average throughput pr subscriber can
be calculated
This tells how much the average user "loads" the network
Smartphones transfer much less user plane traffic than USB dongles

Internal
23 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Interface trace
MBB projects usually involve taking a mass capture of at least the Gn
interface
Different tools exists. In Latin America we have used freeware tools
(dumpcap) to take the capture and BroadMax to convert the capture files into
a MySQL database
Advantages
Multivendor. 2G + 3G
User plane traffic is captured, so it can be checked which applications are in
use, and the performance of those applications
Disadvantages
Taking the trace can be difficult. Special hardware needed, especially when
throughput starts to be measured in Gbps, and configuring mirror ports etc. in
the routers can also be a challenge
Big harddisks are nice. Database from 1 hour capture can easily be 10 GByte
(plus 100s of GBytes for the intermediate postprocessing)
In practice the capture time will be short, perhaps 1 hour. In order to get
IMSI/IMEI information from before the capture time starts, some work-arounds
are needed
No view of the RAN signalling
Internal
24 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Other methods.....

Megamon: The "commercial" way to take ICSU logs. Available for


operators
Other products in Traffica family
Traffica for PS probes
MSC Traffica
Traffica for CS probes
IP Flow Analyzer Traffica (will be trialled in Mexico soon)
Charging Gateway Traffica (similar to billing records)
Other interface tracers
Mutina's IPXplorer
Astelia
Operator's sales info. Includes also inactive users. Does not take
"grey" market into account

Internal
25 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Bias in the results

One of the first question in any analysis of smartphone impact is "How big is the
penetration of smartphones in the network"
It turns out that the answer to this question depends heavily on how the
smartphone penetration has been measured
The penetration of smartphones are normally higher in the city areas, so if the
analysis of one network is based on the capital only while in another network there is
data from the whole country, the figures are not comparable
If the statistics only cover a short timespan (like a couple of hours), only a few of
those people that occasionally use the network are included. If the statistics cover for
example a whole week, it is more likely that everyone is included - and as the people
that constantly use the network probably have different UEs than those that only use
the network occasionally, this can lead to a bias in the results
Not all the signalling procedures may be collected for analysis. For example any
analysis based on billing records will only include those UEs that have had active
PDP contexts, while RNC Traffica analysis may also include UEs that are doing CS
voice calls
The next few slides show some examples of these effects

Internal
26 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
City vs rural areas

Not surprisingly, it turns out that the highest penetration of


smartphones are in the city areas
In the rural areas, mobile broadband is the only way to get a broadband
connection while ADSL or cable are alternatives in the city
In many countries, city people are also more affluent and can afford
expensive toys
Even within a city, there can be big differences between districts

Internal
27 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
One network in Latin America
Charts based on PS billing Nbr of UEs pr category pr LAC
Capital city
records for 24 hours 30000

The UE distribution in the 15


25000

USB dongle
20000
Location Areas with most Other smartphone
iPhone
15000
subscribers is shown Blackberry
Basic handset
10000

In the capital city, there is 5000


Uncategorized

large share of smartphones 0

For example LAC=20001 with

1
50

10

10

00

00

00

00

10

40

30

00

00

30

40

50
62

62

62

21

21

20

20

62

64

64

26

27

64

64

38
2% dongles and 94%
Nbr of UEs pr category pr LAC
smartphones
In the provinces, USB
100%
90%

dongles are much more 80%


70% USB dongle

common 60% Other smartphone


iPhone
50%
Blackberry
40%
Basic handset
30% Uncategorized
Billing
20%
records
10%
0%
Internal
0

1
50

10

10

00

00

00

00

10

40

30

00

00

30

40

50
28 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
62

62

62

21

21

20

20

62

64

64

26

27

64

64

38
UE mix in the capital city

LAC20001 and LAC20002 have the highest penetration of smartphones (95%)


Downtown office area
Probably most residents use ADSL for broadband access
Probably most commuters leave their personal laptop at home but brings their
smartphones when going to office
Internal
29 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact of the measurement period duration

Naturally, any statistics from the network which is accurate down to


IMSI level will result in huge amount of data to be analysed
If heavy filtering is done, it's possible to handle a few days of data
If no filtering is done, it is normally just a couple of hours which are
processed
=> It is not unusual to have data only for a couple of hours
If the statistics only cover a short timespan (like a couple of hours),
only a few of those people that occasionally use the network are
included. If the statistics cover for example a whole week, it is more
likely that everyone is included - and as the people that constantly
use the network probably have different UEs than those that only
use the network occasionally, this can lead to a bias in the results

Internal
30 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact of the measurement period duration
Duration of measurements vs nbr of users Duration of measurements vs share between UE categories
Based on all signalling procedures Based on all signalling procedures

180000 100%

Share between UE categories


160000 90%
Nbr of unique IMEIs
140000 Smartphone 80% Smartphone
120000 Modem 70%
Modem
100000 iPhone 60%
iPhone
50%
80000 Handset Handset
40%
60000 Blackberry Blackberry
30%
40000 Unknown Unknown
20%
20000 10%
0 0%
1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days
Duration of measurements Duration of measurements

SGSN
Traffica Duration of measurements vs nbr of users Duration of measurements vs share between UE categories
Based on all signalling procedures Based on all signalling procedures

90000 100%

Share between UE categories


80000
Nbr of unique IMEIs

70000 Smartphone 80% Smartphone


60000 Modem Modem
60%
50000 iPhone iPhone
40000 Handset Handset
40%
30000 Blackberry Blackberry
20000 Unknown 20% Unknown
10000
0 0%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Duration of measurements Duration of measurements

One full week of SGSN Traffica data was available, and the share of different UE categories has been calculated
based on just 1 hour of data, on 2 hours of data and so on. All signalling procedures are included here, and the data
covers the whole 3G network
Naturally, more subscribers are included when looking at 7 days of data (156.000 unique IMSIs) than when looking
at just 1 hour of data (25.000 unique IMSIs)
But also the share between different UE categories have changed - e.g. 55% of the subscribers in the 1 hour
sample are modem users while only 37% of the subscribers in the 7 days sample use a modem
Internal
31 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
What kind of signalling is captured?

Depending on the data source, different signalling procedures may


contribute to the statistics. For example
Billing records will typically just contain data from subscribers that have done
some kind of session management signalling, for example activating or
deactivating a PDP context
SGSN Traffica data contains mobility management (attach, detach, RAUs),
session management (context activation/modification/deactivation) and
RANAP (RAB creations)
In order to reduce the amount of data to something handable,
some filtering may be applied
For example only looking at billing records where some data was transferred
For example only looking at session management statistics in SGSN Traffica

Internal
32 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
What kind of signalling is captured
Duration of measurements vs nbr of users Duration of measurements vs share between UE categories
Based on all signalling procedures Based on all signalling procedures

180000 100%

Share between UE categories


160000 90%
Nbr of unique IMEIs

140000 Smartphone 80% Smartphone


120000 Modem 70%
Modem
60%
100000 iPhone iPhone
50%
80000 Handset Handset
40%
60000 Blackberry Blackberry
30%
40000 Unknown Unknown
20%
20000 10%
0 0%
1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days
Duration of measurements
SGSN Duration of measurements

Traffica
Duration of measurements vs nbr of users Duration of measurements vs share between UE categories
Based on context deactivation procedures Based on context deactivation procedures

120000 100%

Share between UE categories


100000 80%
Nbr of unique IMEIs

Smartphone Smartphone
80000 Modem Modem
60%
iPhone iPhone
60000
Handset Handset
40%
40000 Blackberry Blackberry
Unknown 20% Unknown
20000

0 0%
1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days 6 days 7 days
Duration of measurements Duration of measurements

Top pair of charts show the case where all signalling procedures from SGSN Traffica are processed. Bottom pair shows the case where
only PDP context deactivations are included - as would be the case if billing records were used
Again, there is significant difference both in the absolute number of subscribers (156.000 vs 114.000 for the 7-day case) and in the
relative share between UE categories (37% vs 48% modem share for the 7-day case)

Internal
33 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Content

Introduction
Different methods to measure smartphone penetration and impact
What tools are available?
How does the choice of tools impact the results?
Smartphone behaviour
Impact to the RAN and the Packet Core
What can be done to reduce the impact from smartphones?

Internal
34 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Smartphone behaviour

During the MBB projects, various aspects of the smartphone


behaviour has been investigated
As this has not been the focus of the projects, it has not been done
systematically, and some of the following charts have only been
constructed for a single network
For a stand-alone smartphone project, more systematic analysis is
needed. Also from reference networks!

Internal
35 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
User behaviour - mobility SGSN
Traffica

Nbr of cells pr subscriber in 24 hours, handsets Nbr of cells pr subscriber in 24 hours, modems

18% 70%
16%

Share of subscribers
Share of subscribers

60%
14%
50%
12% Apple iPhone
10% 40% ZTE MF626
Nokia E71-2
8% 30% Huawei E226
6% Blackberry 9000
20%
4%
2% 10%
0% 0%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >10
Nbr of cells Nbr of cells

Table shows the distribution of number of cells used by the top-3 handsets and top-2
modems
For example, 7.5% of the iPhone users have only been doing signalling in 1 cell during the
24 hours, while 13.6% of the iPhone users have been doing signalling in more than 10
cells
Especially iPhone users seems to have high mobility - although it could also simply mean
that iPhones are more frequently in contact with the network and therefore cell changes
are more easily recorded
~50% of the modem users have only been using 1 cell for GMM and SM signaling => low
mobility for most of the modem users

Internal
36 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
User behaviour - PDP context duration SGSN
Traffica

Distribution of PDP context duration Distribution of PDP context duration

90% 100%
Share of samples

Share of samples
80% Apple iPhone
80% Apple iPhone
70%
60% Nokia E71-2 Nokia E71-2
50% 60%
ZTE MF626 ZTE MF626
40% 40%
30% Huawei E226 Huawei E226
20% 20%
10% Sony Ericsson MD300 Sony Ericsson MD300
0% 0%
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

10 10 0

11 1 10

20
- 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 1 1 - 1 2 >12

20 0

30 0

40 0

50 0

60 0

70 0

80 0
90 90
-2

10 0

20
<1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

-8
<1

-1

>1
-
10 20 0 0 0 0 0 0

-
3 4 5 6 7 8 90 10 0 11 0

0
PDP context duration (minutes) PDP context duration (seconds)

Since Traffica records both the beginning and the end of each PDP context, it is in principle
possible to calculate the duration. In practice, this data is not available for all contexts
(contexts started/ended outside the time/area that Traffica data covers)
Only Internet contexts that starts and ends in 3G are included in this chart
Handsets clearly have different behaviour (much shorter PDP contexts) than modems

Internal
37 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
User behaviour - mobility SGSN
Traffica

Marketing Name Manufacturer Type Context Complete Same Share of


activations contexts cell? stationary
contexts
iPhone 3G A1241 Apple Handset 40155 37099 30181 81%
E71-2 Nokia Corporation Handset 20351 18266 15247 83%
MF626 ZTE Modem 4239 3300 2821 85%
Huawei E226 Huawei Technologies Co Ltd Modem 2334 1945 1596 82%
MD300 Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB Modem 2074 1541 1335 87%

Table shows how many PDP contexts that are ended in the same cell as they started
Only Internet contexts on July 6
Only contexts that have started and ended in the 3G coverage area of one specific RNC
"Context activations" is the number of successfully activated Internet PDP contexts on July 6
"Complete contexts" is the number of contexts where both the beginning and the end is included in the data. Reasons for
incomplete data include
Context started/ended on date other than July 6
Context started/ended in 3G outside this RNC
Context started/ended in 2G
End of context due to some abnormal case which has not been recorded

It seems the greater mobility of handsets is roughly compensated by the shorter PDP context duration time
The assumption of BroadMax and similar tools that the data transfer takes place in the same cell as where the PDP
context is activated is more or less true
Note that if the UE starts the context in cell A, moves to cell B to do data transfer, then moves back to cell A to end
the context, this analysis will show that cell A has been used all the time

Internal
38 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
How many subscribers switch between 2G and 3G?
UE category IMSI only IMSI in IMSI only Total Share, 3G Share, 2G Share, 2G
in 3G 2G and in 2G IMSIs only and 3G only
3G
Modem 30882 9263 1286 41431 75% 22% 3%
iPhone 1756 1595 451 3802 46% 42% 12%
Smartphone 1598 875 115 2588 62% 34% 4%
Blackberry 974 807 321 2102 46% 38% 15%
Handset 151 33 27 211 72% 16% 13%
Not categorized 249 80 12 341 73% 23% 4%
Total 35610 12653 2212 50475 71% 25% 4%

Table shows the behaviour of those subscribers which have 3G-capable UEs
On April 29, how many used their UE only in the 3G layer, only in the 2G layer, or
in both layers?
Based on session management signalling from SGSN Traffica
Only 2G & 3G cells in the capital city
For example, 12% of the iPhone users have only been using 2G while 42% have
been using both 2G and 3G
Especially among iPhone/Blackberry/Handset users, there are many that only
uses the 2G layer
SGSN
Traffica
Internal
39 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Has the UE been set to "GSM-only"?
Especially handsets may have been manually set to "GSM-only" by the users
Deactivating the UE's search for 3G layer may improve the battery life in marginal 3G coverage
and perhaps even inside 3G coverage?
Better voice quality in 2G than in 3G?
During the establishment of the radio connection, the UE sends the "Radio Access
Capability" information element to the network
Among many other things, this field indicates if the UE supports 3G or not
For at least some UEs, the users decision of "GSM-only" vs "Dual-mode" decides the
value of the RAC
=> In principle, the RAC can be used to determine if users have set their UE to GSM-only
Nokia N95 set to dual mode: Nokia N95 set to GSM only

Internal
40 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Has the UE been set to "GSM-only"? SGSN
Traffica

Share of IMSIs with UEs set to "GSM Only"


UE model Network 1 Network 2 Network 3 Network 4
iPhone 15% 18% 6% 12%
Blackberry 8% 14% 4% 14%
Huawei modems 5% 2% 1% 1%

Table compares 4 Latin American networks


The exact Huawei modem models differ between the networks
In all networks, handset users are more likely to force their UEs to 2G than
modem users

Internal
41 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
User plane traffic volume Billing
records

Average throughput pr user

30
DL + UL throughput

25 Blackberry
20 Basic handset
(kbps)

15 iPhone
10 USB dongle
5 Other smartphone
0

00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
July 22

Chart shows data from 24 hours billing records from one network in
Latin America
Smartphones clearly have much less user plane traffic than USB
dongles

Internal
42 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Cell_PCH not in use
Attach

UE is always
attached 1 2 3 4
PDP context

RAB

Cell_DCH
Radio Bearer Cell_FACH

1. User clicks on link. Browser starts. Direct Tunnel PDP context and RAB is established, and a radio bearer is
allocated in cell_DCH to transfer data
2. Page is transferred and user starts to read. After a short period of inactivity, the radio bearer is released and the
RRC state changes first to cell_FACH then to Idle. The RAB is released and the PDP context is transformed to
two-tunnel
3. User clicks on next link, new RAB is established, PDP context changes to Direct Tunnel, RRC state changes to
cell_DCH and radio bearer is allocated
4. User closes browser. PDP context is released
Internal
43 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling Flows
From idle Large packet from PCH Small packet from PCH
PS Call setup PCH to DCH PCH to FACH
1. RRC Connection Request (RRC) 1. Cell update with TVM (RRC) 1. Cell update (RRC)
2. Radio Link Setup (NBAP) 2. Radio Link Setup (NBAP) 2. Cell update confirm (RRC)
3. Radio Link Setup Response (NBAP) 3. Radio Link Setup Response (NBAP) 3. UMI confirm (RRC)
4. Establish Requests (ALCAP) 4. Establish Requests (ALCAP)
5. Establish Confirm (ALCAP) 5. Establish Confirm (ALCAP)
6. RRC Connection Setup (RRC) 6. Establish Requests (ALCAP)
7. NBAP Synchronization (NBAP) 7. Establish Confirm (ALCAP)
8. RRC Connection Setup Complete (RRC) 8. CU confirm with RB reconfig (RRC)
9. Initial Direct Transfer (GPRS) (RRC) 9. NBAP Synchronization (NBAP)
10. Initial UE Message (RANAP) 10. RB reconfiguration complete (RRC)
11. Common Id (RANAP) 11. Measurement Control (HO) (RRC)
12. Security Mode Command (RANAP) 12. Measurement Control (TVM) (RRC)
13. Security Mode Command (RRC)
14. Security Mode Complete (RRC)
15. Security Mode Complete (RANAP)
16. Downlink Direct Transfer (P-TMSI) (RRC)
17. Uplink Direct Transfer (P-TMSI) (RRC)
18. RAB Assignment Req (RANAP)
19. GTP Tunnel Setup (RANAP)
20. RB Setup (RRC)
21. Radio Link Setup (NBAP)
22. Radio Link Setup Response (NBAP)
23. Establish Requests (ALCAP)
24. Establish Confirm (ALCAP)
25. Establish Requests (ALCAP)
26. Establish Confirm (ALCAP)
27. RB Setup Complete (RRC)
28. RANAP:RAB Assignment Resp (RANP)
29. Measurement Control (HO) (RRC)
30. Measurement Control (TVM) (RRC)

Internal
44 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling pr UE category - RAB creations SGSN
Traffica

Successful 3G RAB creations pr subscriber pr hour

25

20
Network 1 - NSN
15 Network 2 - NSN
Network 4 - NSN
10 Network 3 - Huawei
Network 4 - Ericsson
5

0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

Both in Huawei and Ericsson RAN areas, there are significantly more RAB creations than in NSN
RAN area
Presumeably this is because cell_PCH is enabled in NSN RAN but not in Huawei/Ericsson RAN
Even in NSN area, the Blackberry has many RAB creations
Probably because Blackberry use aggressive "fast dormancy" which does not respect the current RRC state
The "other smartphone" category in the NSN part of network 4 has many more RAB creations than in
networks 1 and 2
This UE category does not contain exactly the same UEs in all networks. For example in network 4, Android
UEs are starting to appear
Internal
45 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling pr UE category - PDP context modifications
Successful 3G PDP context modifications pr subscriber pr hour
SGSN
18 Traffica
16
14
Network 1 - NSN
12
Network 2 - NSN
10
Network 4 - NSN
8
Network 3 - Huawei
6
Network 4 - Ericsson
4
2
0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

RAB creations are closely associated with PDP context modifications - but only if
the APN uses Direct Tunnel
Blackberry APN does not use Direct Tunnel in networks 1, 2 and 3, while it uses
Direct Tunnel in network 4
Only part of the Internet APN uses Direct Tunnel in network 3. That explains why the
signalling for modems in network 3 is much smaller than the Ericsson part of network
4
Internal
46 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling pr UE category - Attaches
SGSN
Successful 3G Attaches pr subscriber pr hour Traffica

1.6

1.4

1.2
Network 1 - NSN
1.0 Network 2 - NSN
0.8 Network 4 - NSN
0.6 Network 3 - Huawei
Network 4 - Ericsson
0.4

0.2

0.0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

Notice the scale on the y-axis: Much less attaches than RAB
creations
No big difference between the networks
iPhone and Blackberry are probably always-attached
Internal
47 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling pr UE category - Context Activations
Successful 3G PDP context activations pr subscriber pr hour
SGSN
Traffica
1.8
1.6
1.4
Network 1 - NSN
1.2
Network 2 - NSN
1.0
Network 4 - NSN
0.8
Network 3 - Huawei
0.6
Network 4 - Ericsson
0.4
0.2
0.0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

Notice the scale on the y-axis: Much less context activations than
RAB creations
No big difference between the networks

Internal
48 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Signalling pr UE category - RAUs
SGSN
Successful 3G Routing Area Updates pr subscriber pr hour Traffica

3.0

2.5

Network 1 - NSN
2.0
Network 2 - NSN
1.5 Network 4 - NSN
Network 3 - Huawei
1.0
Network 4 - Ericsson

0.5

0.0
Blackberry Plain handset iPhone Modem Other
smartphone

Notice the scale on the y-axis: Much less Routing Area Updates
than RAB creations
Network 2 has clearly more RAUs for smartphones than the other
networks. The reason was not investigated
Internal
49 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Payload and signalling pr UE category
Traffic distribution between UE categories Number of RABs and Radio Bearers

100% 40000
90% 35000
80%
Uncategorized 30000
70% Uncategorized
Modem 25000 Modem
60%
Plain handset Plain handset
50% 20000
Other smartphone Other smartphone
40% 15000
Blackberry Blackberry
30% iPhone iPhone
10000
20%
5000
10%
0% 0
Payload RABs Radio Bearers RABs Radio Bearers

96% of the payload (DL + UL) generated by modems


60% of the RABs generated by some kind of smartphone
Modems generating 78% of the Radio Bearers
4 times more Radio Bearers than RABs
UE category LAT 2
USB dongle 60%
ICSU
logs iPhone 10%
Blackberry 6%
Internal Other smartphones 23%
50 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Plain handset 2%
Signalling from different UE categories
Subscriber share RAB share between UE categories
Category RNC1 RNC2 RNC3 RNC4
USB dongle 53% 58% 6% 57% 100%
iPhone 33% 26% 70% 27%
90%
Blackberry 5% 2% 11% 3%
Other smartphones 8% 11% 9% 8% 80%
Basic handset 2% 3% 4% 4% 70% USB dongle
60% Other smartphone
50% iPhone
In all RNCs, and especially in 40% Blackberry
RNC3, iPhones are generating 30% Basic handset

many RABs 20%


10%
In most of the RNCs, except 0%
RNC3, USB dongles are RNC1 RNC2 RNC3 RNC4

generating most of the Radio Radio Bearer share pr UE category


Bearers
100%
90%
80%
70% USB dongle
60% Other smartphone
50% iPhone
40% Blackberry
30% Basic handset
ICSU
logs 20%
10%
0%
Internal
51 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010 RNC1 RNC2 RNC3 RNC4
3G web browsing session - Fast Dormancy
Attach

UE is always
attached 1 2 3 4 6
PDP context

RAB

Cell_DCH
Radio Bearer Cell_FACH
Cell_PCH

1. User clicks on link. Browser starts. Direct Tunnel PDP context and RAB is established, and a radio bearer is
allocated in cell_DCH to transfer data
2. Page is transferred and user starts to read. After a short period of inactivity, the radio bearer is released and the
RRC state changes first to cell_FACH and then to cell_PCH
3. UE has also detected the inactivity, and after a short pause, it requests the SGSN to release the RAB.
4. User clicks on next link. New RAB and new radio bearer is established in the cell_DCH state
5. User closes browser. PDP context is released

Internal
52 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact from Fast Dormancy

Especially iPhone v. 3.0 and onwards is notorious for it's use of Fast Dormancy -
mostly because iPhone is very popular
Also the Blackberries use Fast Dormancy to increase the network signalling
Latest Nokia handsets use "Quick Release"
When the UE detects inactivity, it waits a few seconds. If it then is in cell_PCH, it does
nothing (so the RAB if left open). If it is in cell_DCH or cell_FACH, it asks for RAB
release
Network timers can be optimized to ensure that UE is already in cell_PCH by the time
it makes the decision to ask for RAB release or not
3GPP release 8 UEs must include the release reason in the release request,
permitting the SGSN to keep RABs that UE wants to release due to inactivity
From ICSU logs we can see the case where the UE requests RAB release

Internal
53 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
RAB release reasons
RAB release reasons, UMMT1

Charts show the most 100%

frequent RAB release 80%


reasons in one RNC1

Nbr of cases
Others
60%

Although the Blackberries


User inactivity
Inter system HHO
40%
UE requested
have high share of "Fast 20%
Dormancy" releases, in 0%
absolute terms it is the

em

ed
ry

e
et

ne
on
er

ds

ho

iz
od
iPhone that is the culprit

h
kb

or
an

iP

tp
M

eg
ac

ar

at
Bl

Sm

nc
U
Note that the USB dongles RAB release reasons, UMMT1

have very high risk of 12000

loosing their RABs due to 10000

Inter-System handover 8000

Nbr of cases
Others

Wrong ISHO parameter 6000


User inactivity
Inter system HHO
settings in 2G and 3G 4000 UE requested

2000

em

ed
ry

ne
et

ne
er

ds

ho

ho

iz
ICSU

od
kb

or
an

iP

tp
M

eg
ac

ar
logs

at
Bl

Sm

nc
U
Internal
54 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
RAB release reasons pr iPhone version
iOS 2.x doesn't iPhone RAB releases in UMMT1
IPhone model S/W Nbr of Inter- User UE
use Fast version RABs System inactivity request
Dormancy
iPhone 3G 2.0 7 14% 86% 0%
Very few people iPhone 3G
iPhone 3G
2.0.1
2.0.2
5
2
0%
0%
80%
100%
0%
0%
use iOS 2.x iPhone 3G 2.1 3 0% 67% 0%
iPhone 3G 2.2 3 0% 33% 0%
Large number of iPhone 3G 3.0 189 4% 66% 15%
users already iPhone 3G
iPhone 3G
3.0.1
3.1
66
23
2%
0%
65%
9%
24%
9%
upgraded to iOS iPhone 3G 3.1.2 656 2% 50% 39%
iPhone 3G 3.1.3 1228 4% 48% 34%
4.x (released iPhone 3G 4.0 444 1% 60% 27%
June 21) iPhone 3G 4.0.2 666 3% 50% 31%
iPhone 3G S 3.0.1 44 0% 39% 23%
The first iPhone iPhone 3G S 3.1 138 0% 36% 59%
iPhone 3G S 3.1.2 795 2% 41% 41%
4s are beginning iPhone 3G S 3.1.3 2118 3% 47% 37%
to appear iPhone 3G S 4.0 848 4% 47% 36%
iPhone 3G S 4.0.2 2843 2% 51% 35%
iPhone 4 4.0? 11 0% 36% 55%
ICSU
logs

Internal
55 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
iPhone Fast Dormancy

Due to the problems with high signalling load from the iPhones,
some operators have raised this issue with Apple
At least in some networks, Apple has disabled Fast Dormancy in
latest s/w versions
When iPhone connects to iTunes, application store etc., the server checks
the SIM and decides if patched s/w should be offered to the user
In case cell_PCH is not in use, this will damage battery time. With iPhone new SW
cell_PCH, no impact on battery time gets widely
used in 3
iPhone fast months
dormancy
removed

iPhone fast
dormancy
introduced

Internal
56 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Content

Introduction
Different methods to measure smartphone penetration and impact
What tools are available?
How does the choice of tools impact the results?
Smartphone behaviour
Impact to the RAN and the Packet Core
What can be done to reduce the impact from smartphones?

Internal
57 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact to the RAN and Packet Core

For the RAN, the major impact comes from


Large number of Radio Bearer setups in the BTSs. Can especially be a
problem with Ultra Site. However, USB dongles also generates many Radio
Bearers....
Increased processor load in the RNCs
On the other hand, the user plane traffic is much smaller with smartphone
than with USB dongles, and hence less need for BTS processing capacity
(Channel Elements), transmission capacity etc.
For the Packet Core, it is mainly the large amount of RAB creations
and PDP context modifications that could be an issue

Internal
58 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact on network - NSN RNC
Subscriber share
Throughput vs CPU load Category
iPhone
RNC1
36%
RNC2
22%
Blackberry 5% 3%
Other smartphone 6% 9%
DMPG load (average of

100 USB dongle 15% 34%


Plain handset 1% 1%
Unknown 36% 29%
80
average) (%)

Uncategorized 2% 2%

60 RNC1
40 RNC2
20 RNC counters &
ICSU logs
0
0 100 200 300 400
DL Throughput (Mbps)

Both RNCs are RNC450/450 in RU10


RNC2 has higher penetration of USB dongles, and at given
throughput therefore has lower CPU load

Internal
59 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
RNC2 and RNC3
Impact on network - Huawei RNC have 20%
RNC1 has 40% smartphone
smartphone penetration
Throughput vs CPU load
penetration Note that average
50 SPU load is used -
this assumes that
45 CPU load balancing is
40 working!
Average SPU load (%)

35 RNC1
RNC2
30
RNC3
25
Expon. (RNC1)
20
Expon. (RNC2)
15 Expon. (RNC3)
10
5
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
RNC counters &
DL throughput (Mbps)
ICSU logs

In some Huawei RNCs, there is a tendency that RNCs with


higher smartphone penetration has higher CPU load for a
given throughput
Unfortunately, in this network there were no Huawei RNCs with
very high smartphone penetration
Internal
60 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact on network - NSN SGSN SGSN counters &
SGSN Traffica

PAPU CPU load vs active PDP contexts users, 3G only SMMU CPU load vs active PDP contexts, 2G + 3G

40
14
35

Average SMMU CPU load


Average PAPU CPU load

12
30
10
25
Area 2 8 Area 2
20
Area 1 Area 1
15 6

10 4

5 2
0 0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000
Nbr of active 3G PDP contexts Peak active PDP contexts, 2G + 3G

Either the Packet Processing Units (PAPUs) or the


Signalling and Mobility Management Units Successful 3G signalling procedures in the SGSNs
(SMMUs) might be impacted from increased NSN, Area 2 Ericsson, Area 2
signalling NSN, Area 1
350000
In this network, the PAPUs were not dual-mode,
so it is possible to separate 2G and 3G impact 300000
Area 1 is purely NSN RAN. Area 2 is mix of Ericsson InterRAT RAU
and NSN RAN. Ericsson RAN doesn't use cell_PCH 250000
Events pr hour

so has much more RAB signalling and PDP context RAU


modifications 200000 RAB Creation
In Area 2 SGSN it is not possible to distinguish NSN 150000 Context modification
and Ericsson RNCs, since they use the same PAPU
group Context activation
100000
A given SMMU handles both 2G and 3G Attach
signalling, so it's even harder to isolate a possible 50000
effect from the high signalling in the Ericsson 0
RNCs

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5
Only little impact on the SGSN processor load

3
n

n
RN

RN

RN

RN

RN

so

so

so
ics

ics

ics
Internal
N

N
NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

Er

Er

Er
61 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Impact on network - Huawei SGSN SGSN counters &
Billing Records

Smartphone share
Users vs CPU load SGSN1 = 58%
SGSN2 = 23%
SGSN3 = 37%
70
60 SGSN1
Load of UGTP-C

50 SGSN2
40 SGSN3
30 Linear (SGSN1)
20 Linear (SGSN2)
10 Linear (SGSN3)
0
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
3G users with active PDP context

SGSN1 has higher smartphone share than the other SGSNs


Despite this, it seems it has roughly same performance as the other two
SGSNs in terms of control plane CPU load pr user

Internal
62 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Content

Introduction
Different methods to measure smartphone penetration and impact
What tools are available?
How does the choice of tools impact the results?
Smartphone behaviour
Impact to the RAN and the Packet Core
What can be done to reduce the impact from smartphones?

Internal
63 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Examples of actions to reduce impact from
smartphones
Decrease the amount of RAB signalling
Enable cell_PCH
Make sure the Nokia handsets are in cell_PCH before their Quick Release
timer expires
Discuss with Apple to disable Fast Dormancy in iPhones
Decrease the amount of PDP context signalling
Same actions as for RAB + consider separate APN for smartphones, which
does not use Direct Tunnel
Decrease the amount of Radio Bearer signalling
Keep the UEs in cell_FACH for keep-alive packets (increase traffic volume
thresholds)
Make sure RBs are not prematurely released (not too aggressive inactivity
timers)
Use Common Channel Setup to push e.g. registrations to cell_FACH -
leaving more resources to handle real user requests

Internal
64 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Concluding remarks

A wide range of information sources are available to analyse the


smartphone issue
Although lots of hype about smartphones, their impact is not
catastrophic in all networks - analysis is needed to determine if
problems exists
Network optimization can to some extend reduce the impact from
high signalling

Internal
65 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010
Concluding remarks

More details can be requested from the presenter


poul.larsen@nsn.com +45 2573 1526

Material can be found at


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/422900878

Internal
66 Nokia Siemens Networks Smartphone SVU session / Poul Larsen / September 8, 2010