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# Applied Structural

Equation Modeling
for Dummies, by Dummies
February 22, 2013
Indiana University, Bloomington

## Joseph J. Sudano, Jr., PhD

Center for Health Care Research and Policy
Case Western Reserve University at The MetroHealth System

Center for Health Care Research and Policy
Case Western Reserve University at The MetroHealth System
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Thanks So Much!!

Acknowledgements:
Bill Pridemore PhD
David W. Baker MD
Randy Cebul MD
Fred Wolinsky PhD

## No conflicts of interest (but I wish there

were some major financial ones!)
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Presentation Outline
Conceptual overview.
What is SEM?
Basic idea underpinning SEM
Major applications
Shared characteristics among SEM techniques
Terms, nomenclature, symbols, vocabulary
Basic SEM example
Sample size, other issues and model fit
Software and texts
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What Is Structural Equation Modeling?

## SEM: very general, very powerful

multivariate technique.
Specialized versions of other analysis
methods.
Major applications of SEM:
Causal modeling or path analysis.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
Second order factor analysis.
Covariance structure models.
Correlation structure models.

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Multiple Regression
More flexible modeling

coefficients
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variables

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subjects groups

## Ability to handle difficult data

Longitudinal with auto-correlated error
Multi-level data
Non-normal data
Incomplete data

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Shared Characteristics of SEM Methods

SEM is a priori
Think in terms of models and
hypotheses
Forces the investigator to provide lots
of information
which variables affect others
directionality of effect

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Shared Characteristics of SEM Methods

## SEM allows distinctions between

observed and latent variables
Basic statistic in SEM in the covariance
Not just for non-experimental data
View many standard statistical
procedures as special cases of SEM
Statistical significance less important
than for more standard techniques
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Terms, Nomenclature, Symbols, and
Vocabulary (Not Necessarily in That Order)

Variance = s2
Standard deviation = s
Correlation = r
Covariance = sXY = COV(X,Y)
Disturbance = D
X Y D
Measurement error = e or E
A X E
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Terms, Nomenclature, Symbols,
and Vocabulary
Experimental research
independent and dependent variables.
Non-experimental research
predictor and criterion variables

## Latent (or factors)

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Terms, Nomenclature, Symbols,
and Vocabulary
Exogenous of external origin
Outside the model
Endogenous of internal origin
Inside the model

Direct effects
Reciprocal effects
Correlation or
covariance
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Terms, Nomenclature, Symbols,
and Vocabulary
Measurement model
That part of a SEM model dealing with
latent variables and indicators.

Structural model
Contrasted with the above
Set of exogenous and endogenous
variables in the model with arrows and
disturbance terms

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Measurement Model: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

## Observed or manifest variables

Hostility e1
D1

Hopelessness e2
Psychosocial
health GHQ e3

Self-rated health e4

## Singh-Manoux, Clark and Marmot. 2002. Multiple measures of socio-economic 18

position and psychosocial health: proximal and distal measures.

## Observed or manifest variables

Hostility e1
Education D1

Hopelessness e2

Occupation Psychosocial
health GHQ e3

## Singh-Manoux, Clark and Marmot. 2002. Multiple measures of socio-economic 19

position and psychosocial health: proximal and distal measures.
Causal Modeling or Path Analysis and
Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Education
Hostility e1
a= direct effect
b+c=indirect
Hopelessness e2
Income c Psychosocial
health
GHQ e3
D1
D3
Self-rated health e4
Occupation

D2

## Singh-Manoux, Clark and Marmot. 2002. Multiple measures of socio- 20

economic position and psychosocial health: proximal and distal measures.
What Sample Size is Enough
for SEM?

## The same as for regression*

More is pretty much always better
Some fit indexes are sensitive to small
samples

## *Unless you do things that are fancy!

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Whats a Good Model?
Fit measures:
Chi-square test
CFI (Comparative Fit Index)
RMSE (Root Mean Square Error)
TLI (Tucker Lewis Index)
GFI (Goodness of Fit Index)
And many, many, many more
IFI, NFI, AIC, CIAC, BIC, BCC
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How Many Indicators Do I Need?

That depends
How many do you have? (e.g.,
secondary data analysis)
A prior concerns
Scale development standards
Subject burden
More is often NOT better
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Software

## LISREL 9.1 from SSI (Scientific Software

International)
IBMs SPSS Amos
EQS (Multivariate Software)
Mplus (Linda and Bengt Muthen)
CALIS (module from SAS)
Statas new sem module
R (lavaan and sem modules)
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SPSS Amos Screenshot

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Stata Screenshot

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Texts (and a reference)

## Barbara M. Byrne (2012): Structural Equation Modeling with

Mplus, Routledge Press
She also has an earlier work using Amos
Rex Kline (2010): Principles and Practice of Structural Equation
Modeling, Guilford Press
Niels Blunch (2012): Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling
Using IBM SPSS Statistics and Amos, Sage Publications
James L. Arbuckle (2012): IBM SPSS Amos 21 Users Guide,
IBM Corporation (free from the Web)
Rick H. Hoyle (2012): Handbook of Structural Equation
Modeling, Guilford Press
Great fit index site:
http://www.psych-it.com.au/Psychlopedia/article.asp?id=277

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Thanks So Much Again!!

Questions????

jsudano@metrohealth.org

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