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AP Biology Math Review

1)Take out an APPROVED calculator and

formula sheet.

2) Pick a grid sheet. You will solve each

problem and grid in the answer.
Grid LEFT to right
Use the formula sheet
Dont round until the end

Look at HOW the answer should be given

round to nearest

The 1 is in the tenths place
The 2 is in the hundreds place
The 3 is in the thousandths place
Q1: Chi Square
A hetero red eyed female was crossed with a
red eyed male. The results are shown below.
Red eyes are sex-linked dominant to white,
determine the chi square value. Round to
the nearest hundredth.
Phenotype # flies observed

Red Eyes 134

White Eyes 66
Chi Square Strategy

You have to figure out expected.

Usually to do a Punnett square to
figure this out

Plug in + +
Observed134 red eyes, 66 white eyes

Expected Chi-Square
red white


(134-150)2 (66-50)2
/150 /50
3:1 ratio
134+ 66=200
1.70666 + 5.12
150 red
50 white
Q2: Surface Area and Volume
What is the SA/V for this cell? Round your
answer to the nearest hundredths.
SA= 4 r2
=4(3.14) 52


Volume of a sphere= 4/3 r3

=4/3 (3.14)53


Q3: Water Potential and Solution Potential
Solute potential= iCRT

i = The number of particles the molecule will make in water; for NaCl
this would be 2; for sucrose or glucose, this number is 1
C = Molar concentration (from your experimental data)
R = Pressure constant = 0.0831 liter bar/mole K
T = Temperature in degrees Kelvin = 273 + C of solution

Sample Problem
The molar concentration of a sugar solution
in an open beaker has been determined to
be 0.3M. Calculate the solute potential at
27 degrees celsius. Round your answer to
the nearest tenths.
Solute potential= iCRT
-i= 1
C= 0.3
R = Pressure constant = 0.0831
T= 27 +273=300K

Solute concentration= -7.5

Q4: Hardy Weinberg
A census of birds nesting on a Galapagos
Island revealed that 24 of them show a
rare recessive condition that affected beak
formation. The other 63 birds in this
population show no beak defect. If this
population is in HW equilibrium, what is
the frequency of the dominant allele? Give
your answer to the nearest hundredth
Hardy Weinberg Strategy
Figure out what you are given

Allele (p or q) or Genotypes (p2, 2pq, q2)

Figure out what you are solving for
Manipulate formulas to go from given to
solving for
Always dealing with decimals
Q4:Looking for
pdominant allele
Homozygous Recessive=q2=24/87= .2758

q2= .2758

Q5: Rate
Hydrogen peroxide is broken down to water and
oxygen by the enzyme catalase. The following
data were taken over 5 minutes. What is the
rate of enzymatic reaction in mL/min from 2 to
4 minutes? Round to the nearest hundreds
Time Amount of
(mins) O2
d (mL)
1 2.3
2 3.6
3 4.2
4 5.5
5 5.9

Rise/run= rate= 5.5-3.6/4-2

Rise/run= rate=1.9/2
Rise/run= rate= .95
Q6: Laws of Probability

Calculate the probability

of tossing three coins
simultaneously and
obtaining three heads.
Express in fraction form.
Probability of a heads is
Probability of heads AND a heads AND a

X X =1/8
Q7: Population Growth
There are 2,000 mice living in a field. If
1,000 mice are born each month and 200
mice die each month, what is the
population growth rate and per capita
growth rate of mice over a month?
Round to the nearest tenths.
Hint: pop growth rate = #of organisms
born per unit time. Per capita growth rate
= pop growth rate value / initial pop size
Population size (N)=2000
Pop. Growth Rate (Birth-Death)=
1000-200=800 mice per month
Per Capita Growth Rate=
800/2000= 0.4 or 40%
The net annual primary productivity of a
particular wetland ecosystem is found to
be 8,000 kcal/m2. If respiration by the
aquatic producers is 12,000 kcal/m2 per
year, what is the gross annual primary
productivity for this ecosystem, in kcal/m2
per year? Round to the nearest whole
Hint: GPP R = NPP
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
Respiration (R)
GPP 12,000 = 8,000
8,000+ 12,000= GPP
Q9:Standard Deviation
Grasshoppers in Madagascar show
variation in their back-leg length. Given
the following data, determine the
standard deviation for this data. Round
the answer to the nearest hundredth.

Length(cm): 2.0, 2.2, 2.2, 2.1, 2.0, 2.4 and 2.5

Average = 2.0 + 2.2 +2.2+2.1+2.0
+2.4 +2.5/7=2.2
Dev = -.2+ 0+ 0+-.1+-.2+.2+.3
Dev Squared = .04+0+0+.01+.04
Sum of the Devs Squared = 0.22
Divide by n-1 and square root = 0.19
Q10: Dilution

Joe has a 2 g/L solution. He

dilutes it and creates 3 L of
a 1 g/L solution. How much
of the original solution did
he dilute? Round to the
nearest tenths.
We are looking for V1:

C1V1 = C2V2
2V1 = 1(3)
V1= 1.5
Q11: log

What is the
hydrogen ion
concentration of a
solution of pH 8?
Round to the nearest
whole number

[H+] if pH = 8.0
[H+] = 10 -pH

[H+] = 10 -8.0

110 = 0.00000001
Q13:Gibbs Free Energy

A chemical reaction is most likely to occur

spontaneously if the

a) Free energy is negative

b) Entropy change is negative
c) Activation energy is positive
d) Heat of reaction is positive

Answer: A