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Training Department

TRAINING ON
PORTABLE
COMPRESSORS
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Introduction
* The most indispensable for human existence is air.
* Nature has given this abundantly in atmosphere.
* Man converts air in to energy for some useful work.
* IR is one such industry who knows the value of air.
* We have made research on compressed air for ages.
* Compressed air has many use full things to do.
1. Flushing of Drilled holes.
2. Combustion in an IC Engine.
3. To blow air in a tube of a vehicle.
4. For a pneumatic tool operation.
5 For Oxygen in an intensive care unit etc.
Our application:- Drill - Flush - Cable lay
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Course contents
A. General Description of Portable compressor.

B . Specification and Parameters of portables.

C. General layout of the machine.

D. Major parts and their functional Description.

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E. Systems Operational details.

1. Regulation system .

2. Cooling and Lubrication system.

3. Blow Down System.

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F. Maintenance.

G. Trouble shooting.

H. Safety aspects.

I. Course Review.

J. Test and Evaluation.

K. Conclusion session .

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General Description
* An asymmetrical rotary Screw compressor coupled
to a NT 495 C Engine runs at 1800 rpm, produces
Compressed air of 300 to 750 cfm at 100 to 200 psig pr.

* The equipment is fitted on a running gear mechanism


in general and at times the same has been mounted
on the machine as it is mounted on ICM 260.
* Purpose of the unit is to cater air supply need for
Drilling and bailing out the cuttings after drilling, for
operation of air tools and may be for laying cables etc.

* The major systems involved in this machines is Starting,


Regulating, Cooling and Lubrication , Shut down and
Blow down system. 8
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* The starting System of the Engine consists Battery ,
Starter, alternator fuel shut off solenoid , throttle cylinder
and start and run valve etc.

* Cooling system is incorporated in the system for cooling


compressor oil and water cooling of engine body. Major
Parts are Cooler with fan, Temperature by pass valve etc.

* There Shut down system in the machine which brings the


system to a halt and blows out air or empties the
separator tank with out any pressure air in the system.

* Entire unit is covered with a canopy for protection from


dust, dirt and rain. 9
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CLASSIFICATION
AND
SPECIFICATION
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Classification of Portable Compressors

TYPE P300 HP450 Cbl Layir HP600 HP650 HP750


FLOW cfm 300 450 400 600 650 700

PR psig 100 150 170 150 150 150


A.E SIZE MM 125.75 178.5 178.5 226 226 226
ENGINE ALU6.65 NT495C NT495C N743TC NT743C NT855C

FULL RPM 2500 2100 2100 2100 1800 1800


1100
IDLE RPM 1200 1100 1100 1000 1000
FUL TNK CAP 140 ltr 275 ltr 275 ltr 340 ltr 340 ltr 340 ltr
BHP 109 180 180 240 253 253

TRK Wdth mt 1.68 1.62 1.62 1.7 1.7 1.7


WEIGHT kg 2050 3300 3400 4000 4000 4000
Small range Mid range Large Range
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PARAMETERS AND SPECIFICATION
Small range Mid range
TYPE P300 P400 BLAST AIR P500 HP450 P600

FLOW cfm 300 400 400 500 450 600

PR. psig 100 100 170 100 150 100


A.E SIZE MM 125.75 178.5 178.5 178.5 178.5 178.5
ENGINE ALU6.65 ALU402 NT495C NT 495C NT495C NT495C

FULL RPM 2500 2400 2100 1800 2100 2100


1100
IDLE RPM 1200 1200 1100 1100 1100
FUL.TNK CAP 140 ltr 140 ltr 275 ltr 275 ltr 275 ltr 275 ltr
BHP 109 122 180 180 180 180
TRK Wdth mt 1.68 1.68 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62
WEIGHT kg 2050 2050 3400 3300 3300 3300

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.
. GENERAL LAYOUT
PORTABLE
COMPRESSOR

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MPV S.V S.R.V ABV
THROTTLE CYL
SEP.
TANK

COF TBV
PR.REG
SER VLV

CONTROL U/V
PANEL R
O
COMPRESSOR ENGINE C

RUNNING GEAR
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MAJOR PARTS AND THEIR


FUNCTIONAL DETAILS

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LIST OF MAJOR PARTS
1. AIR END
2. ENGINE
3. UNLOADER
4. TEMPRATURE BYPASS VALVE
5. SEPERATOR TANK
6. AUTO BLOWDOWN VALVE
7. RADIATOR OIL COOLER
8. PRESSURE REGULATOR
9. START AND RUN VALVE
10 . MINIMUM PRESSURE VALVE

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1. SCREW COMPRESSOR

Air Discharge end Air intake Point


Housing front brg

seal
Drive
Female rotor shaft
Housing
rear bearing
Bellow
housing
Male rotor
Gear
Set
Bearing
Bearing Rotor housing

226 mm air end 17


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BELLHOUSING
REAR BEARING ROTOR HOUSING
HOUSING AIR INTAKE
AIR OUT POINT
FMALE
ROTOR DRIVE
SHAFT

BEARING

OIL
SEAL

DRIVEN SHAFT

GEAR SET
MALE ROTOR

178.5 MM AIR END INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION


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BLADE VANES

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EO Filter
Safety valve Air filters and Separator element
Fuel filter Start and run Valve
PR. Regulator
Service valve

COF Gauge

Temp Switches
Gaskets Thermo stat Level Gauge

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Turbo charger
Exhaust

Fan

Engine Crank case body


Starter
Oil tray 30
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ENGINE RPM AND COMPRESSOR OUT PUT

A %
I C
R A
P
A
D
C
E I
L T
I Y
V
E C
R F
Y M

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000


ENGINE RPM
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UNLOADER VALVE
Controls amount of air entry
to air end.

Anti rumble Valve incorporated


to avoid vacuum creation.

When the Engine is in idle


no air entry in the UV valve

In Idle position

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UNLOADER VALVE
Controls amount of air
entry to air end.

When the Engine is in


Full Load air entry in
the Unloader valve.

In Load position

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In Start
run condition
Condition

To Thrtle cyl.
& UL 99

Separator tank

START AND RUN VALVE


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Only air

Only oil Air and oil


Mixture

SEPERATOR RECEIVER 37
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AUTO BLOWDOWN VALVE LOCATION


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AUTO BLOWDOWN VALVE

Purpose
To Blow air out of system
to maintain atmospheric
pressure in system

Working principle
* In full load/ Idle no Action on the Diaphragm
* Spring force retain ball in closed position
* In Blow down position Pilot pressure activates diaphragm
* Ball is pressed against the spring pressure
* Exhaust port gets opened and air is relived through this port 40
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Engine
air filter MPV
Compressor
oil filter Cooler Fan

Separator
ROC Tank
Fuel pump
Fuel filter

Main Parts in the power pack 41


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LOCATION OF TEMPRATURE BY PASS VALVE


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FULL LOAD POSITION INITIAL START POSITION

TEMPRATURE
BY PASS VALVE

FROM
TANK

TO FILTER
DIRECTLY

PRESSURE
WHEN OIL IS BY-PASS WHEN OIL IS
IN HEAT UP VALVE HANDY BELOW 65 deg.C
OILDIVERTED TO
WHEN COOLER OIL PASSES
IS CHOCKED
COOLER & THEN THRU TBV TO
TO OIL FILTERS. OILFILTERS

OIL TEMPRATURE BY PASS VALVE 43


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In Idle condition MPV Spring


Pressure does not allow air in
the the line

In Run condition MPV Spring is


pushed back and air escapes in
to air line
MINIMUM PRESSURE VALVE 44
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Minimum Pr. Valve

Pressure Regulator

Safety Valve

PARTS MOUNTED
ONSEPARATOR.TANK

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BREATAHER

LOOK AT THE WAY THE THROTTLE CYLINDER IS MOUNTED TO ENGINE

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MPV Open
Working Principle
1. Air oil mist entry in to tank MPV

2. Most of the oil falls down

3 Next Oil Filtration


4. Dry air at service line
5. Oil thru scavenger
line to air end.
Scavenger line

From Air end To oil cooler

SEPERATION SYSTEM 48
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Blow down valve
6. Diaphragm Question
activation 8. Air blown out What happens
when the
1. Air intake is cut off
7.Ball engine is off
Shift

5. Pilot line
2.High pressure
in separator
Air end
Separator tank

Discharge line
3.Low pressure Question
in air end What happens
4. Air gushing in to air end when Engine
is in load ?
AUTO BLOW DOWN CIRCUIT

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AIR AND OIL CIRCUIT


OF A MID RANGE

PORTABLE

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Make an animation to bleed out air in the run positrion

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THROTTLE CYL
MPV
S.V S.R.V
50 PSI P.R
SEP.
TANK
B
A
COF
C
TBV
SER VLV ABV OUT

CONTROL UV
R
PANEL
1 Start position
Run5.Shut
4.Full
2.3.Warming load down O
upcondition
Position system
AIR END 1.1.SRV
1.
SayAir1.Air
open.
1.Cylinder
50ENGINE
cutPSIentry
off
isthru toSRV
Auto Blow
Stroking
reached C down valve
2.passes
2.2.Throttle
Air Passes Pilot
2.Engine
2.Air operation
thru
Run SRV
thru
cylinder atP.R& TC
full
retracts.from
load air end.
3.System
3. Air
3.Air 3.Diaphragm
3.Set warm
ADPout
Supply
bleeding up ULof
to.of
increase 99ABV activation.
orifice IN

4.4.Spring
Pressure
4. air 4. buildsSpeed
Venting
toaction/
Throttle up
of slowly
air from air end
Cylinder
drop

RUNNING GEAR

SERVICE
COOLING
DISCHARGE
COOLING
LINE
ANDFROM
AND
LUBRICATION
LINELUBRICATION
FROM
SEPARATOR
AIR
SYSTEM
END
BEFORE
TOTO
SERVICE
AFTER
SEPARATOR
WARMING
WARMING
VALVE
TANK 51
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REGULATION SYSTEM
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REGULATION SYSTEM
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TROUBLE SHOOTING

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AIR END OVER HEATING
Low oil OK Fan belt broken OK Oil cooler exterior OK
level or slipping matrix blocked

Fill to the center


of the sight glass Replace Clean

Is air re circulation OK OK OK
Is the correct Faulty oil
takes place
oil being used TBV?

Reposition Replace Remove thermostat


unit & close door and test

Is the unit operate at OK Oil filters OK Is the air end Temperature


wrong Pr and Del. blocked shut down switch is faulty

Adjust
reg. system Replace Replace 56
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INSUFFICIENT AIR PRESSURE
Air demand too OK OK Air end air filter OK
high System leakage
blocked

Match demand to
rated out put Rectify Clean

Is Pressure reg . Is the main


Is Start and Run OK Valve faulty / OK Pr. Valve OK
valve faulty? wrong setting defective

Adjust or Repair or Replace


Replace Replace

Is the Sep. element OK Is UL 99not OK


Is there a fault inside air end
Blocked or restricted opening fully

Replace the Check air end


element Repair /Replace for leaks 57
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Is the engine
speed is too low

Is regulation valve
Is the speed contol OK orifice/ silencer OK Air filters OK
cylinder sticky or blocked, Frozen or blocked
defective wrong size

Rectify Replace
Replace

Is air intake filter


is blocked or Replace
restricted

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Oil carry over problem
High oil OK Check shut down OK Check blow down OK
level procedure Procedure

Drain oil and ensure


correct Level Abrupt stoppage at full Opening manual blow down
load may saturate the valve on shut down May
separator filter element saturate filter element

Check discharge OK OK
Is the Scavenger Is the separator
Pressure (75 PSI)
line blocked element is ruptured

Replace min. Pr. Clear line


Valve if not blockage Replace

Is unit at angle
Level unit > 15 Deg . 59
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EXCESSIVE AIR PRESSURE
Is Pressure regulating OK Is UL 99 not OK Is the valve OK
Valve faulty?/wrong set closing properly sticking

Adjust or replace
parts Is the Diaphragm
ruptured? Free off or replace the
damaged parts

Replace

Are there any leak


OK Is separator
in Regulator piping
element blocked

Replace min. Pr. Clear


Valve if not blockage

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MAINTENANCE

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INTRODUCTION

To Prevent major failures

To avoid repairs and to avoid cost involvement

Preventive maintenance is less expensive

Facilitates easy servicing

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CAUTION
* No warranty for any unauthorized modifications.

* While on Service function of any kind


* Disconnect Battery cables
* Open manual Blow down valve

* Ensure no pressure in discharge piping

* Avoid coming in contact with the hot surface

* Never operate machine in guard open condition

* Both Metric and British system is used in design


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COMPRESSOR OIL LEVEL
* Oil level should be mid way of the sight glass

* Do not over fill, drain excess oil filled

* Add oil only when the level drops down near


bottom

AIR FILTER ELEMENT


Daily maintenance required
Dust collection box may be allowed only half fill.
Replace filter once Red indication is seen
Short of new element used cleaned old element
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CAUTION
* Never Remove and Replace element
when the compressor is running

* Never use compressed air to blow


through the element media

* Never operate Unit with defective


safety shut down switch or by
shorting over a switch.
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REMOVAL AND CLEANING OF AIR FILTER ELEMENT
Clean exterior of filter housing

Remove end cap and empty dust collector box

Unscrew nut securing main element to housing

Remove element

Clean inside of housing

Clean element with 5 Bar air pressure

Mark number of services in the main element Max 3.

Safety element must not be cleaned and re used

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Engine Radiator
Engine cooling avoids combustion chamber damage
To maintain operating temperature in the safe limits
To maintain efficiency of the engine
To prevent damage to moving parts
Maintenance of Radiator and oil cooler
Clean outside and fins with air . Keep the core clean
Prevent sludge and rust in ROC
Use right coolent oil not Plain water in Radiator
Air cooling is by fan ensure proper mounting of fan
Efficiency reduces when dust accumulates on fins.
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GAUGES * Essential for safety of the system
Inspect Gauges
* To Maximize Productivity
Periodically
* Long service life of the machine

FUEL TANK * Avoid condensation


* Fill daily or after 8 hours of operation Clean Fuel tank
* Use clean fuel Periodically
* Use non- metallic funnel for fuel filling

BATTERY * Keep terminals free of corrosion Disconnect cabl


* Keep correct Electrolyte level in cells
while mnt.
* Secure hold clamps

BELTS * No tight or no lose


Loose tight belt
* Replace in a set
* Belt adjustment as per procedure effects Bearing

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SAFETY SHUT DOWN SYSTEM
Maintain the three switches EOT --- EOP ---- ADT

Calibrate switches periodically.

Engine oil pressure avoid damage due to starvation.

Check the shut down system once in a month.

CAUTION
Never operate the unit with a defective
safety shut down switch or by shorting
over a switch.
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HOSES * Inspect intake line hoses to cooler and filter
* Clean brake and fuel line hoses
* Ensure no hose leakages
* Ensure No contact with rotating parts
* Ensure all the hoses are clamped and secured
* check for the damage of the hose fittings

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REQUIRED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

3 MO 6 MO 12 MO
ITEM
TYPE Daily week month
500 hrs 1000 hrs 1500 hrs
C
Comp oil lvl
Engine oil C

A.E SIZE MM C
ROC coolent
ENGINE
Air filter clog C

Gauges
FULL RPM C

Fuel tank lvl C

FUL
FanTNK
BeltsCAP C

BHP Elect
Battery C
Shut down C
Cooler external C

C Check and Replace R Replace 71


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3 MO 6 MO 12 MO
ITEM
TYPE Daily week month
500 hrs 1000 hrs 1500 hrs
Hoses C
Comp oil filter R
Fasteners C
ENGINE
Wheel Bearing C

Sep.
FULLelement
RPM C

Safety switch C

FUL TNKline
Scav. CAP C
BHP
C Check and Replace R Replace

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SAFETY
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SAFETY
TO OPERATOR
TO THE MACHINE
TO OTHERS

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SAFETY TO THE OPERATOR


Use Safety Appliances like shoes, Goggles, Helmet and Ear Plugs
Do not expose yourself to the pressure air.
Ensure all the air hose clamps are secured properly
Do not use compressed air for blowing out chips. Dust etc.
Use compressed air only when necessary

Excise utmost vigil and alertness while on operation on the unit


Compressed air entered to blood stream leads to fatal results

Ear muff is a must while operating the machine to avoid over noise

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SAFETY TO THE MACHINE
Ensure the machine is fully secured in the running gear mechanism

Ensure the fins of the Radiator and oil cooler is clean and not chocked

Ensure the throttle cylinder orifice is clean air easily bleeds out

Ensure all the air and hydraulic hoses are tightened and secured properly

Ensure all the thermal cut outs like ADT, EOT, EWT, etc are proper

Ensure no air leakage in the air lines and replace damaged parts

Periodically make a walk around test and ensure all bolts/ nuts are secured

Check for the cleanliness of oil in the separator and other areas.

Ensure proper oil level in all units and top up if required

Ensure periodic replacement of filters and dust caps etc 76


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SAFETY TO OTHERS
Do not allow other to stand closer to the machine

Close air valve imeadetly after the work is completed

Do not clean others dress/ body with compressed air

Never used compressed for filling Auto tyre with out Aids

Do not encourage horse play while working on compressor

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Course Review
Selection of compressor depending the CFM and Pressure requirement
Mostly 100 to 150 PSI 300 to 700 CFM

What are all the parts involved in a portable


Air end, Engine, Separator tank, ROC, Temp. By pass Valve, SRV
Auto Blow down valve, Minimum pressure valve Filter elements

What are the grade of oil used in the different units


Separator tank, Engine oil, Cooler.

What are the Pressure settings done in the compressor


ADP, Safety valve, Pressure switch Tyre pressure etc.

What should be the safe EWT, EOP, COP, COT, ADT etc
EWT < 95degC. EOP 4kg/cm2, COP 4 kg/cm2, COTor ADT 105degC

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Understanding Maintenance peoridics


Air filter, Separator element replacement,Condense drain, Battery electrolyte,
Anti freeze solution to engine, Separator tank etc filling.

Understand the systems involved in the power pack


Regulation, Blow down, and cooling system

Understand the individual component internal details and their functions


Air end, Engine, ABV , SRV,TBV, Safety Valve, MPV, Pr. Regulator etc.

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ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK


BATTERY DOWN CHARGE BATTERY.
STARTER STUCK. SERVICE STARTER.
STARTER/FLYWHEE CHANGE PARTS.
L-GEAR TEETH
FAILURE.
ENGINE JAMMED. CHECK & RECTIFY.
A/E SEIZED. CHECK & RECTIFY.

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ENGINE DOES NOT START


BATTERY DOWN. CHARGE BATTERY.
CLOGGED CLEAN/CHANGE.
FILTER/LINES.
AIR LOCK IN FUEL
SYSTEM. REMOVE AIRLOCK.
INJECTORS BLOCKED.
Pump solinioid electrical CLEAN &
not ok. CALIBERATE.

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ENGINE DOES NOT PICK UP


SPEED
FUEL LINE CLEAN FUEL LINE.
BLOCKAGE.
FUEL FILTER REPLACE FILTER.
CHOCKED.
STICKY THROTTLE RECTIFY.
CYLINDER.

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ENGINE DYING ON LOAD


CLOGGED FUEL CLEAN THE FUEL
SYSTEM. SYSTEM.
INJECTORS CLEAN &
BLOCKED. CALIBERATE.
HIGH ADJUST PRESSURE.
A.D.P.SETTING.
CLOGGED CHANGE ELEMENT.
SEP.ELEMENT. CHECK& RECTIFY.
LOW E.O.P.
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HIGH ENGINE WATER
TEMPERATURE
LESS WATER IN FILL WATER
RADIATOR. CORRECTLY.
AIR LOCK IN THE RECTIFY.
WATER LINE.
LOW FAN SPEED. CORRECT BELT
WRONG FAN TENSION.
ALLIGNMENT. CORRECT
AIR LEAK THRO ALLIGNMENT.
COWL. RECTIFY.
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HIGH E.W.T

RADIATOR CLEAN THE


BLOCKAGE RADIATOR
EXTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY AND
INTERNALLY. INTERNALLY.

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HIGH AIR DISCHARGE
TEMPERATURE.
LOW COMP. OIL FILL TO CORRECT
LEVEL. LEVEL.
GRADE OF OIL USED. USE RECOMMEND.
OIL COOLER OIL.
BLOCKED CLEAN.
EXTERNALLY.
OIL COOLER
BLOCKED INTERN. CLEAN. CONT.
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HIGH A.D.T.
LOW FAN SPEED. RECTIFY.
COMP.OIL FILTER CHANGE OIL
BLOCKED. FILTER.
A/E DISCHARGE O/HAUL THE A/E.
CLEARENCE MORE
DEFFECT. TEMP. CHANGE.
BYPASS VALVE.
RECIRCULATION RECTIFY. CONT.
OF COOLING AIR.
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HIGH A.D.T.

FAULTY CHECK &


TEMP.SHUT DOWN. CORRECT.

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OIL CARRY OVER
OIL FILLED MORE DRAIN EXCESS OIL.
THAN MAX.LEVEL.
BLOCKED SCAVEGE CLEAN,CHECK
LINE. ORIFICE ADPT. ON
SHORTER SCAVENGE A/E.
TUBE. CHANGE & ADJUST
DAMAGED SEP. CHANGE.
ELEMENT.
LOW SYSTEM PRES. CHECK M.P.C.V.SET.
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OIL BLOWS BACK THROUGH
AIR FILTER
U.L.PISTON STUCK. RECTIFY.
U.L.PISTON SPRING CHANGE THE
LOST ITS TENSION. SPRING.
U.L. DIAPHRAM CHANGE THE
PUNCTURE. DIAPHRAM.
PISTON SEATING CHANGE THE U.L.
DAMAGED. ASSY.
PISTON/ BUSHING CHANGE THE
WORN OUT. REPAIR KIT.
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EXCESSIVE VIBRATION /
RUMBLING NOISE
LESS ,ENGINE LOW SET ENGINE LOW
IDLE SPEED. IDLE SPEED.
ANTIVIBRATION REPLACE.
PAD DAMAGE.
STUCK RECTIFY.
ANTIRUMBLE
VALVE.

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AIR END OIL SEAL LEAKING


SEAL DAMAGED. REPLACE OIL
IMPROPER SEAL.
FITMENT OF SEAL. RECTIFY/REPLACE.
DUST ENTRY.
CLEAN THE
SYSTEM
CHANGE AIR & OIL
FILTER IN TIME.

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LOW AIR DISCHARGE


CAPACITY.
STUCK MIN. PR. RECTIFY.
VALVE.
LINE LEAKAGE. RECTIFY

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ENGINE SHUTS DOWN
PREMATURELY.
LESS FUEL SUPPLY. CHECK FUEL
SAFETY SUPPLY.
SHUTDOWNS CHECK ALL SAFETY
MALFUNCTIONS. SYSTEMS.
ELECTRICAL FAULT.
LOW ENGINE OIL RECT. ELECTRICAL
PRESSURE. FAULT.
CHECK OIL LEVEL
& PRESSURE.
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SAFETY VALVE BLOWS


OP. PR. TOO HIGH. ADJUST PR. REGUL.
FAULTY REPLACE SEAL KIT.
REGULATOR.
U.L. DIAPHRAM REPLACE.
FAILED.
LOW SAFETY SET CORRECTLY.
VLV.SETTING. CHANGE SEAL
SAFTY VALVE KIT /VALVE.
FAILURE.
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MOISTURE COMES WITH AIR


AUTO DRAIN TRAP RELEASE
NOT WORKING OK MOISTURE
MANUALLY .
OPEN A.D.T & DO
SERVICE.

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COMPRESSOR OIL BECOMES


MILKY
HIGH HUMIDITY.
MOIST WHETHER
MOISTURE IN OIL DRAIN WATER
DAILY BEFORE
STARTING,TILL
LITTLE OIL COMES
OUT.

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Ammeter Ignition switch
Alternator
MCB 20 A
Fuel D+
6 L B R
solenoid G B+ B 6
valve S

2 Fuse
EOP safety switch 2
No charge lamp
Start bush button
No 2
Nc

Toggle switch

2 2
No
No Nc

Nc
H. ADT Switch EWT safety switch
7

+ +
- - 7 Starter Motor

24V - ve ground Batteries

Engine Electrical circuit 98


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Y ou
a nk
Th

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