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Arthropod (rthron: "joint", andpods: "leg")

the most species-rich members making up


more than 80% of all described living animal
species
Medical entomology The branch of science
that deals with insects that cause disease or
that serve as vectors of organisms that cause
disease in humans.
Directly Entomophobia
Mechanical trauma
injurious Secondary infection
arthropods hypersensitivity

Indirectly Mechanical vector

injurious Biological vector: propagative,


cyclodevelopmental and
arthropods cyclopropagative development
Segmented body, symmetric

A pair of appendages on each segment

Chitinous exoskeleton (cuticle)

Open circulatory system hemolymph through the hemocoel


(body cavity)

Circulatory system on the dorsal part of the body

Nervous system in the ventral part of the body


Metamorphose

The young insect represents the


Ametamorophose
adult insect

Hemimetabolous Incomplete/ simple metamorphose


metamorphose Egg nymph adult

Holometabolous Complete/ complex metamorphose


metamorphose Egg larva pupa adult
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Latreille, 1829
Subphylum Crustacea
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha
Branchiopoda brine
Trilobita trilobites (extinct)
shrimp etc.
Subphylum Chelicerata
Remipedia blind crustaceans
Arachnida spiders, scorpions, etc. Cephalocarida horseshoe
Merostomata horseshoe crabs, sea shrimp
scorpions (extinct), etc. Maxillopoda barnacles, fish
Pycnogonida sea spiders lice, etc.
Subphylum Myriapoda Ostracoda seed shrimp
Chilopoda centipedes Malacostraca -- lobsters
Diplopoda millipedes crabs, shrimp, etc.
Pauropoda sister group to millipedes Subphylum Hexapoda
Symphyla resemble centipedes Insecta insects
Entognatha wingless
Crustacea Chelicerata Hexapoda Myriapoda
(arachnida) (insecta)
Segments Cephal, Cephalo- Cephal, Multi-
thorax, thorax, thorax, segmented
abdomen abdomen abdomen
Antennae 2 pairs no 1 pair
Legs 5 pairs 4 pairs 3 pairs Chilopoda: 1
pair on each
segment
Diplopoda: 2
pairs on
each
segment
Wings No no Yes (1 or 2 no
pairs)
Respiration Blood gills Aerial Aerial
respiration respiration
2 pairs of antennae 2, 5 pairs of legs, living aquatic
or semi-aquatic.

Crabs , lobster, shrimp, cray fish


Intermediate host of P.westermani.
1. Tiwari potamon (water fall crab)
2. Somanian thalphusa (Field crab)

Copepods
1-5 mm, pear-like, dorsoventraly flat
Example: cyclops (IH of Gnathostoma); diaptomus (IH
of Diphyllobothrium dan Dracunculus)
No antennae or wings.
Segmentation Cephalothorax dan abdomen.
Cephalothorax 6 pairs of appendages
4 pairs of "walking legs",
1 pair of chelicerae piercing and tearing
1 pair of pedipalps sensory organ.
Life cycle hemi metabolous metamorphose.
Mostly ovipar, sometimes vivipar.
Larva resembles the adult with 3 pairs of legs
Nympha 4 pairs of legs, no genital organ.
Scorpionidae (scorpions)
Cephalothorax unsegmented, 4 pair of legs, big pedipalp with "claws".
Abdomen: 7 segments wide anterior lebar and 6 segment long & narrow
posterior, caudal end venomous

Araneidae (spiders)
Cephalothorax, 4 pair of legs. Mouth a pair of vanomous jaws (chelicera).
Abdomen unsegmented spinnerets (silk-spinning organ).

Acarina (ticks, mites)


Cephalothorax and abdomen united.
Mouth parts on the anterior part capitulum.
Mouth structure chelicera and palp.
1. Family Ixodidae (hard tick)
2. Family Argasidae (soft tick)
3. Family Trombiculidae (chigger)
4. Family Sarcoptidae (itch mites)
5. Family Demodicidae (follicle mites)
6. Family Tyroglyphidae (vanilla mites)
7. Family Dermatophagoides (dust mites)
Long head & body, dorsoventraly flat, multi-
segmented, thorax & abdomen undistinct.
One pair of legs on each segment. The first
pair venomous claws"

Long head & body, dorsoventraly flat, multi-


segmented, thorax & abdomen undistinct.
Two pair of legs on each segment. The first
pair venomous claws"
The largest and most important
class.
Characteristics:
1.Segmented: head, thorax,
abdomen.
2. One pair of antennae.
3. Three pair of legs.
2 "compound eyes" holoptic (male), dichoptic (female);

Head Mouth consists of labrum (upper lip), mandibula,


maxilla, labium (lower bawah), hypopharynx. Various
mouthparts.

3 segments: prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax; with 1 pair of legs

Thorax
on each segment
Wings ussualy on mesothorax
Legs: coxae, trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, claw

Abdomen 10-11 segments, with a spiracle on each segment


Genitals on segment 8 and 9
Diptera the largest ordo, based on the
antennae, can be classified into:
Subordo nematocera: cullicidae (mosquitos),
psychodidae (sandflies), simulidae (buffalo
flies), ceratopogonidae (bitting midges)
Subordo brachycera: tabanidae (horse fly)
Genus chrysops, tabanus
Subordo cyclorrapha: muscidae, calliphoridae
Siphonaptera (fleas)
Pipih latero-lateral, kecil (1-8 mm), tidak bersayap, kaki "jumping",
mulut biting. Kepala segitiga, sepasang antennae. Siklus hidup:
holometabolous metamorphoses.

Anoplura
Pipih dorso-ventral, tidak bersayap, "sucking mouth part", kaki grasping.
Siklus hidup hemi metabolous metamorfosis.
Ecto parasit pada mammalia, meletakkan telurnya pada rambut atau
pakaian, menghisap darah.
Contoh: Pediculus humanus dan Pthirus pubis

Orthoptera (cockroaches)
Sayap depan sempit dan keras, sayap membraneus.
Vektor mekanis dari beberapa jenis cacing.
Hemiptera Hemimetabolous metamorphose. Sucking
type probocisnya can be bend under the head. Two pairs of
wings. Based on wings, can be classified as:
Homoptera
Heteroptera: Reduvidae, Cimicidae

Collembola (Springtail)

Ephemeria (Mayflies)
Trichoptera (Caddis Flies)

Mallophaga (Bird flies)

Coleoptera (Beetles)
- Vesicating & poisonous effect (meloidae: blister beetle)
- Parasitic larva
- Intermediate host of Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta.
- Mechanical vector
Lepidoptera (Butterflies & Moths)
Wings covered with scales, rounded proboscis, sucking
mouthpart.
Larva caterpillars, pupae "cocoon".

Hymenoptera (Ant, Bees, Wasp)


Two pairs of membraneous wings

Odonata (Dragon flies)


chemotherapy
parasite Chemo-prophylaxis
Vaccination

Reservoir Avoid contact with reservoir host: biological


/ chemical / mechanical barrier
host Reservoir host control

Arthropods Avoid contact with vector


Vector control fly trap, insecticide,
(as vectors) biological control
Introduction + Nyamuk 2 jam
Lalat + myasis + serangga lain 2 jam
Venomous arthropods 2 jam
Insecticide, resistensi, kontrol 2 jam