Anda di halaman 1dari 31

FE

LI
F
O
TY

ONNTIN U I

A T I CO
D
IR NT A N

S P E
R E NAG
EM

. 0E : M
A

1 M
H E
T
CONCEPT MAP: 1.0 RESPIRATION
DO YOU STILL REMEMBER?
Q: WHAT IS RESPIRATION?
A: chemical process whereby energy is released from glucose or
other simple substances.

Cellular respiration
Glucose + oxygen energy + carbon dioxide + water

Q: WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS OF RESPIRATION?


A: energy + carbon dioxide + water
Our body takes in oxygen from the atmosphere and release
carbon dioxide. This process which involves an exchange of
gases is known as breathing.
1.1 THE HUMAN BREATHING MECHANISM
THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
The human respiratory system consists of:
FLOW OF AIR FROM THE ATMOSPHERE TO THE
LUNGS
FLOW OF AIR FROM THE ATMOSPHERE TO THE
LUNGS
STRUCTURE OF ALVEOLI
FLOW OF AIR FROM THE ATMOSPHERE TO THE
LUNGS
Functions of other parts of the respiratory system:
INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES
Move the ribs up and down during breathing

DIAPHRAGM
Lies at the base of the thoracic cavity
Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen
Move the ribs up and down during breathing
STRUCTURE OF THE LUNGS

Lungs are made up


of:
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Blood capillaries

Protected by 12 pairs
of ribs known as the
rib cage.
The thoracic cavity
houses the lungs
THE BREATHING MECHANISM
INHALATION
A process in which air is taking into the lungs
The air which enters the lungs is the inhaled air
EXHALATION
The process of expelling carbon dioxide from the
lungs into the atmosphere.
The expelled air is known as exhaled air
COMPARISON BETWEEN INHALATION AND
EXHALATION
INHALATION EXHALATION
The external intercostal muscle The external intercostal muscle relax
contract
The rib cage moves upward The rib cage moves downward and
and outward inward
The diaphragm contracts and The diaphragm relaxes and curves
flattens upwards
The volume of thoracic the volume of thoracic cavity
cavity increases decreases
The air pressure in thoracic the air pressure in thoracic cavity
cavity decreases increases
Air from the surroundings Air is forced out of the lungs
enters the lungs
IMAGES OF INHALATION AND EXHALATION
PROCESS
SELF ASSESS 1.1
1.Differentiate between
breathing and respiration.
2.Why is the alveolus
efficient in carrying out
gaseous exchange?

- end of section 1.1


1.2 TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE HUMAN BODY
The transport of oxygen involves the following process:
The diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the
blood capillaries
The transport of oxygen by red blood cells
The diffusion of oxygen from the blood capillaries into
the cells
In humans, oxygen is carried by the blood (blood
circulatory system). The heart, blood vessels(veins or
arteries) and blood capillaries make up the blood
circulatory system.
Blood vessels from the lungs carry blood rich in oxygen
to the rest of the body for respiration and vice versa.
The concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is higher than
the concentration of oxygen in the capillaries.
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE HUMAN BODY
PARTS OXYGEN CARBON
CONTENT DIOXIDE
CONTENT
Alveoli High Low
Capillaries Low High
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to
the capillaries. Carbon dioxide
diffuses from the capillaries to the
alveoli.
Once the capillaries are rich with
oxygen, they pass the oxygen to the
cells in the various parts of the body.

X
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE HUMAN BODY
The concentration of oxygen in the blood capillaries and the cells is
shown in the table below. As a result, oxygen will diffuse from the
blood capillaries to the cells
PARTS OXYGEN CARBON
CONTENT DIOXIDE
CONTENT
Blood capillaries High Low
Cells Low High
The process is reversed for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide
diffuses from the cells to the blood capillaries.
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE HUMAN BODY
The figure below shows how oxygen from the surroundings is
absorbed by the cells. It also shows how carbon dioxide which is
expelled from the cells returns to the surroundings.
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN HUMAN BODY
Oxygen is insoluble in blood. It is even less soluble at body
temperature.
Q: BUT HOW DOES BLOOD CARRIES OXYGEN THROUGHOUT
THE WHOLE BODY IF OXYGEN IS INSOLUBLE IN BLOOD?
A: because of the presence of haemoglobin. Oxygen combines
with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin.
Oxygen + haemoglobin oxyhaemoglobin

Oxyhaemoglobin gives out oxygen when it reaches the body tissues


which have low oxygen concentration.
SELF ASSESS 1.2
1. Briefly explain the diffusion of
gas
2. Why is the wall of an alveolus
one-cell thick?
3. The following reactions may
occur either in our lungs or
kidneys. Identify the organ
HAEMOGLOBIN ORGAN in
the table.
REACTION
Oxygen + haemoglobin
oxyhaemoglobin
Oxyhaemoglobin
haemoglobin + oxygen

- end of section 1.2


1.3 HEALTHY RESPIRATION SYSTEM
1.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF A HEALTHY
RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
The air we breathe contains various substances
Because of air pollution, the air that we breathe may contain
harmful substances such as pollutants, bacteria, viruses and other
microorganisms.
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES -
CIGARETTE
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES -
CIGARETTE
Tar collects in the lungs as
tobacco smoke cools. Tar is a
mixture of many toxic
chemicals. Many of these
substances are carcinogens.
More than 40 types of
compounds in cigarette smoke
can cause cancer.
Nicotine causes an
addiction to smoking
Carbon monoxide acidic
and damages lungs tissues
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
Examples of harmful
substances from industrial
wastes:
Cement dusts
Coal dusts
Sulphur dioxide
Asbestos dusts -
carcinogen
When these substances
enters the trachea, the flow
of air between the lungs, the
mouth and the nose is
blocked, causing breathing
difficulties.
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES MOTOR
VEHICLES
Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and
hydrocarbons are harmful
All these have been linked to respiratory
problems such as:
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
Asthma
Lung cancer
Pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen may
contribute to the formation of haze.
Haze cause throat irritation and
inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
which leads to breathing difficulties.
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
MICROORGANISMS
Bacteria, viruses and other
microorganisms cause infections that
affect the respiratory system
These microorganisms produce
toxins which will make the person ill.
Certain viruses cause influenza,
resulting an irritation and swelling of
the upper respiratory tract.
Bacteria and viruses also causes
whooping cough and pneumonia.
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES -
SUMMARY
Chemical Sources Damaging effects
substances
Tar Cigarette Carcinogenic causes lung cancer
smoke
Nicotine Cigarette Causes an addiction to smoking
smoke
Carbon Cigarette Highly poisonous reduces the
monoxide smoke, car amount of oxygen in the blood,
exhaust death may ensue
Sulphur Industry, Acidic damage lung tissues
dioxide vehicles
Hydrocarbons Industry, Carcinogenic cause cancer
vehicles
Oxides of Industry, Interact with hydrocarbons to form
nitrogen vehicles haze
Haze Industry, Causes breathing difficulties,
vehicles, open worsens asthma and pneumonia
burning
IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF AIR
END.