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DOGMA CENTRAL:

TRANSLASI

Kemas Yakub Rahadiyanto


Dept. Patologi Klinik
FK Unsri
SASARAN PEMBELAJARAN
Pada akhir kuliah ini mahasiswa mampu
memahami tentang :
1. Central Dogma
2. Bagaimana sintesa protein dibentuk
3. Apa perbedaan replikasi dan transkripsi
4. Bagaimana proses translasi
5. Apa perbedaan transkripsi dan translasi
6. Bagaimana kaitan sintesa protein dengan
beberapa masalah kesehatan
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DOGMA CENTRAL
Central dogma
adalah pakem
bagaimana
informasi genetik
diturunkan dari
DNA ke sel untuk
menghasilkan
protein yang akan
mempengaruhi
fungsi sel atau sel
target
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DNA RNA Protein
Gene Protein

Cell Phenotype

REPLICATION :

Old Strand 5 A T T G C C A T T 3

New Strand 3 T A A C G G T A A 5

3 5
Direction of Replication
TRANSCRIPTION
5 3
DNA Sense strand A T T G C C A T T

Template Strand T A A C G G T A A
Anti Sense Strand 3 5

RNA A U U G C C A U U
5 3
5 3
Direction of Transcription

TRANSLATION 5
A U U G C C A U U
Ile Ala Ile
N
N C
Direction of Translation
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TRANSKRIPSI

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Perbedaan antara transkripsi dan
replikasi
1. Hanya 1 pita DNA yang ditranskripsi ke
RNA
2. Pada replikasi, molekul DNA ke seluruhan
dicopy.
Pada transkripsi, RNA dicopy dari bagian
terbatas suatu DNA (cukup untuk
membuat satu atau sedikit protein) pada
suatu waktu

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3. Pada replikasi hanya 1 copy gen dibuat
Pada transkripsi, gen tunggal mungkin
dicopy ribuan kali
4. Setelah replikasi DNA, terbentuk pita baru
dan pita lama DNA,
Setelah transkripsi, pita yang baru dibentuk
memisah dari DNA, dan kedua pita asal DNA
kembali bergabung

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TRANSKRIPSI

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Transkripsi secara akurat adalah penting bagi
kehidupan dan kesehatan.
penderita thalassemia karena sel sel
mereka tidak mentranskrip sejumlah normal
mRNA
akibat dari kekurangan ini, sel-sel tak dapat
menghasilkan cukup rantai hemoglobin

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PERBANDINGAN

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TRANSLASI

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Translation of nucleic acids into
amino acids
The words of the DNA language are triplets
of bases called codons
The codons in a gene specify the amino acid
sequence of a polypeptide
Gene 1 Gene 3

DNA molecule

Gene 2

DNA strand

TRANSCRIPTION

RNA

Codon
TRANSLATION

Polypeptide

Figure 10.7
Amino acid
Virtually all organisms share the same genetic code
unity of life Second Base

U C A G
UUU UCU UAU UGU U
phe tyr cys
UUC UCC UAC UGC C
U ser
UUA UCA UAA stop UGA stop A
leu
UUG UCG UAG stop UGG trp G
CUU CCU CAU his CGU U
CUC CCC CAC CGC C
C leu pro arg

Third Base
First Base

CUA CCA CAA gln CGA A


CUG CCG CAG CGG G
AUU ACU AAU AGU U
asn ser
AUC ile ACC AAC AGC C
A thr
AUA ACA AAA AGA A
lys arg
AUG met (start) ACG AAG AGG G
GUU GCU GAU GGU U
asp
GUC GCC GAC GGC C
G val ala gly
GUA GCA GAA GGA A
glu
GUG GCG GAG GGG G
An exercise in translating the genetic code
Transcribed strand

DNA

Transcription

RNA

Start Stop
codon Translation codon

Polypeptide Figure 10.8B


Transfer RNA molecules serve as
interpreters during translation
Amino acid attachment site
In the cytoplasm, a
ribosome attaches
to the mRNA and
translates its
message into a Hydrogen bond

polypeptide
The process is aided RNA polynucleotide chain

by transfer RNAs

Anticodon
Figure 10.11A
Each tRNA molecule has a triplet anticodon on
one end and an amino acid attachment site on
the other

Amino acid
attachment
site

Anticodon
Figure 10.11B, C
Ribosomes build polypeptides

Next amino acid


Growing to be added to
polypeptide polypeptide
tRNA P site A site
molecules
Growing
Large polypeptide
subunit
tRNA

P A
mRNA
mRNA
binding
site
Codons

mRNA Small
subunit

Figure 10.12A-C
An initiation codon marks the start
of an mRNA message

AUG = methionine

Start of genetic message

End

Figure 10.13A
mRNA, a specific tRNA, and the ribosome
subunits assemble during initiation

Large
Initiator tRNA ribosomal
subunit
P site
A site

Start
codon Small ribosomal
mRNA subunit

1 2

Figure 10.13B
Elongation

The mRNA moves a codon at a time relative to


the ribosome
A tRNA pairs with each codon, adding an amino acid
to the growing polypeptide
A STOP codon causes the mRNA-ribosome complex
to fall apart
Amino acid

Polypeptide
A
P site site
Anticodon

mRNA
1 Codon recognition

mRNA
movement

Stop
codon

New 2 Peptide bond


peptide formation
bond

3 Translocation Figure 10.14


a b

What molecules are present in this


Red object = ? photo?
Table 14.2
Types of RNA

Type of RNA Functions in Function

Messenger RNA Nucleus, Carries DNA


(mRNA) migrates sequence
to ribosomes information to
in cytoplasm ribosomes

Transfer RNA Cytoplasm Provides linkage


(tRNA) between mRNA
and amino acids;
transfers amino
acids to ribosomes

Ribosomal RNA Cytoplasm Structural


(rRNA) component
of ribosomes
Review: The flow of genetic information
in the cell is DNARNAprotein
The sequence of codons in DNA spells out the
primary structure of a polypeptide
Polypeptides form proteins that cells and organisms
use
Mutations can change the meaning of
genes
Mutations are changes in the DNA base
sequence
caused by errors in DNA replication or by mutagens
change of a single DNA nucleotide causes sickle-cell
disease
Normal hemoglobin DNA Mutant hemoglobin DNA

mRNA mRNA

Normal hemoglobin Sickle-cell hemoglobin

Glu Val

Figure 10.16A
Types of mutations
NORMAL GENE

mRNA

Protein Met Lys Phe Gly Ala

BASE SUBSTITUTION

Met Lys Phe Ser Ala

BASE DELETION Missing

Met Lys Leu Ala His Figure 10.16B


Chromosomal changes can be large or small
Deletion

Homologous
chromosomes Duplication

Inversion

Reciprocal
translocatio
n

Nonhomologous
chromosomes Figure 8.23A, B
Summary of DNA TRANSCRIPTION

transcription Stage 1 mRNA is


and mRNA
RNA
transcribed from a
DNA template.
translation Amino acid
polymerase

TRANSLATION
Stage 2 Each amino
acid attaches to its
Enzyme
proper tRNA with the
help of a specific
enzyme and ATP.
tRNA

Initiator Anticodon
tRNA Stage 3 Initiation of
Large polypeptide synthesis
ribosomal
subunit The mRNA, the first
tRNA, and the
ribosomal subunits
Start Small come together.
Codon ribosomal
mRNA
subunit

Figure 10.15
New
peptide
Growing bond Stage 4 Elongation
polypeptide forming
A succession of tRNAs
add their amino acids to
the polypeptide chain as
the mRNA is moved
through the ribosome,
one codon at a time.
Codons
mRNA
Polypeptide

Stage 5 Termination
The ribosome recognizes
a stop codon. The poly-
peptide is terminated and
Stop Codon released.

Figure 10.15 (continued)


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DNA to Polypeptides

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TERIMA KASIH
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