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Interactive Model

Hilda Taba
Hilda Taba (7 December 1902 6 July 1967) was an
architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer,
and a teacher educator.
Taba was born in a small village in southeastern Estonia.
Taba was introduced to Progressive education ideas at
Tartu University by her philosophy professors.
Taba was a student of John Dewey.
She wrote a book entitled Curriculum Development:
Theory and Practice (1962).
Tylers highly influential model was modified by Hilda
Taba (1962)Tabas Interactive Model 3
Tylers Model Tabas Model
Deductive Inductive

Argues from the administrator Reflects the teachers approach


Believes that administration should Believes that the teachers are aware of
design the curriculum and the the students needs. Hence, teachers
teacher implement it should be the one to develop curriculum
and implement in practice.

Lays the main stress on aims, Does not start with objectives, as she
evaluation and control believes that the demand for education in
a particular society should be studied
Tabas Interactive Model

Tabas Interactive Model
Taba model is inductive approach.

Taba advocated an inductive approach to curriculum


In the inductive approach, curriculum workers start with the

specifics and build up to a general design as opposed to
the more traditional deductive approach of starting with the
general design and working down to the specifics.
Tabas Interactive Model

Taba model is teacher approach.

Taba believed that teachers are aware of the students

needs hence they should be the one to develop the

The main idea to this approach is that the needs of the

students are at the forefront to the curriculum.
Taba proposed 7 major steps to her grass-roots model in
which teachers would have a major input throughout the
curriculum development process.

Some of Tabas philosophical ideas on
curriculum development
Social processes, including the socialization of
human beings, are not linear, and they cannot be
modeled through linear planning. In other words, learning
and development of personality cannot be considered as
one-way processes of establishing educational aims and
deriving specific objectives from an ideal of education
proclaimed or imagined by some authority.

The reconstruction of curricula and programmes is not a

short-term effort but a long process, lasting for years.

Some of Tabas philosophical ideas on
curriculum development

Social institutions, among them school curricula and

programmes, are more likely to be effectively rearranged,
instead of the common way of administrative reorganization
from top to bottom, a well-founded and coordinated
system of development from bottom to top can be used.

The development of new curricula and programmes is more

effective if it is based on the principles of democratic
guidance and on the well-founded distribution of
work. The emphasis is on the partnership based on
competence, and not on administration.
Seven Steps of Tabas Model

Diagnosis Formulation Selection

of needs of objectives of content

Selection of
of content

Organization Evaluation
of learning and means of
activities evaluation
1. Diagnosis of Needs
The teacher (curriculum designer) identifies the needs of
the students for whom the curriculum is being planned.
Teacher cannot determine students' needs nor what
content teacher should teach without diagnostic
Without these checks, teacher would be overreaching on
the curriculum or underestimating and re-teaching what
students already know.

1. Diagnosis of Needs
Conducting a needs analysis
Designate people who will conduct the needs analysis.
Prepare the data gathering instruments. (surveys,
questionnaires, tests, interviews, meetings)
Schedule time to gather data.
List the aims and goals of curriculum.
Identify gaps between desired and actual results.
Decide which gaps require immediate curricular
Suggest ways to address the identified gaps.

1. Diagnosis of Needs
Diagnosis of achievement
Teacher holds the accountability for closing the gap of
what students know and what they should learn and be able
to do.
Diagnosis of students as learners
Teacher should understand students' backgrounds, cultures
and how they learn.
Diagnosis of curriculum problems
Teacher formulates hypotheses, assemble and interpret data
to determine what should be taught.
Teacher should be the researchers for their own classrooms
and of their own students.
2. Formulation of Objectives
The teacher specifies the objectives.

The function of objectives is twofold:

School-wide outcomes
More specific objectives that describe behaviours to be
obtained in a certain unit, subject area, course or
Guide the decisions on what to cover or to
emphasize in a curriculum.

2. Formulation of Objectives
Objectives also serve to provide a common, consistent
focus for the activities included in a curriculum.

Objectives should be

3. Selection of Content
The objectives suggest the content of the curriculum.
Content should be matched with the objectives.
The validity and significance of the content should be
In education today, new sets of standards being adopted
have fewer objectives, and a meaningful curriculum
incorporates more in-depth learning on fewer topics or
content areas.

3. Selection of Content
Learners need to be able to connect the content to the
curriculum. If they are unable to do so, the content is
meaningless in their world.
Students must employ their own experiences and
background knowledge to build upon when learning new
Teacher should also finds ways to connect the content to
students lives.

4. Organization of Content
The teacher organizes the content into a sequence.
Students maturity, academic achievement and interests
should be taken into consideration.
Teacher should understand that not all students learn the
same way, and it is his responsibility to provide a variety
of instructional methods to the students.
Students need time to absorb new material, and teacher
should account for time for students to reflect on new

5. Selection of Learning Experiences

Adequate curriculum planning involves selecting and

organizing both content and learning experiences.
Learning experiences - how students retain the new
The teacher selects instructional methods that engage
pupils with the content.
Students should be prepared for problem solving,
adapting to new situations, critical thinking and utilizing
inquiry skills.

6. Organization of Learning Activities
Same as content, learning activities must be sequenced and
The sequence of the learning activities is determined by the
Teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he
or she will be teaching.
A balanced variety of learning techniques makes flexibility
possible when working with heterogeneous groups.

We must design methods of learning according to

differences in needs, level of comprehension, or ability.
Guidelines in organizing learning activities
Have you used a variety of teaching methods?

When using lecture will you make that active with

questions and discussion?

Are there opportunities for students to learn from one


Are there opportunities for students to apply what they

are learning through solving real problems or developing
projects that could be used in a real work setting?
7. Evaluation and Means of Evaluation
Teachers will develop the means of evaluation.
Evaluation process includes
clarifying the objectives to describe student
developing a variety of ways to evaluate students,
summarizing the evaluations or evidence, and
using the information gained from these assessments
Teachers use evaluations to assess progress toward the
objectives while students should make judgements
about what they have learned.
Parents should evaluate their children and whether or not
they feel their students have learned the material. 24
Teacher Input
Tabas Curriculum
Planning Model


Diagnosis of
of Learning
Teacher Of Objectives
Input Selection of
Selection of Activities

Of Content

Teacher Input
Application of the Taba model
Taba model is currently used in most curriculum

Identifying the needs of the students.

Developing objectives

Selecting instructional method

Organizing learning activities

Strengths of Taba model:
Gives teachers a greater role by not just making them
implementers of the curriculum but also developers
Uses the inductive method
Teacher-approach is used
Notes that teachers are aware of the students needs therefore
they are the ones that should develop the curriculum
Sees curriculum as a plan for learning
Gives importance to objectives in order to establish a sense of
purpose for deciding what to include, exclude and emphasize
in a curriculum.
Tabas inductive model may not appeal to curriculum
developers who prefer to consider the more global
aspects of the curriculum before proceeding to specifics.
(Olivia, 2004).
Other planners may prefer to follow a deductive
approach, starting with the generalspecification of
philosophy, aims, and goalsand moving to the
specifics objectives, instructional techniques, and
evaluation (Olivia, 2004).

Curriculum Development Division. (2013). Dokumen Standard
Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran Bahasa Inggeris SK Tahun Empat.
Putrajaya: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
Kelly, A. V. (2009). The curriculum: Theory and practice. (6th ed.).
London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Smith, S. (2007). Hilda Taba Curriculum Pioneer and Architect.
Retrieved from
Vogt, M., & Shearer, B. (2007). Reading specialists and literacy
coaches in the real world. (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson-Allyan &