Anda di halaman 1dari 29

Interview

Prentice Hall, 2003 1


Interview

Salah satu teknik Cara paling berkesan


pengumpulan data untuk memahami
dlm. penyelidikan orang.
kuanlitative Interview bukan saja
Cara terbaik menilai bertanya dan
persepsi org,maksud, menerima jawapan
definisi situasi dan tetapi lebih dari itu.
realiti.

Prentice Hall, 2003 2


interview
Jones;
Cara terbaik untuk memahami sesuatu
realiti adalah dengan bertanya dan
mendapat jawapan yang lebih mendalam
tentang sesuatu maksud.

Prentice Hall, 2003 3


Peranan interviewer
Mesti dpt kerjasama Sentiasa mengawal
menjalin hubungan yg arah/tujuan interaksi
baik (good rapport) sosial & jawapan yg.
bersifat Neutral diberi respondent.
bersifat objective Tidak beri pendapat/
menjadi hakim
kurangkan rasa (verbally/ non -
malu,takut dan verbally)
berprasangka ke atas
respondent ~ selesa Bantu respondent beri
untk beri maklumat jawapan yg jujur

Prentice Hall, 2003 4


Jenis- Jenis Interview

Patton; Fielding;

informal standardized
conversational semi - standardized
interview
non - standardized
general interview
- guide approach
standardized
open- ended
interview
Prentice Hall, 2003 5
Jenis - Jenis Interview

Fontana & Frey

1. Structured
2. Semi - structured
3. Unstructured
(apply to group &
individual
interview)

Prentice Hall, 2003 6


Interview Berstruktur

respondent akan ditanya soalan-soalan yg. telah


disediakan lebih awal & juga kategori respon yg
dijangkakan.
soalan open-endedkadang- kadang digunakan
setiap respondent akan menerima soalan sama
dgn cara yang sama.
Fleksibiliti & variasi - minimum
Researcher - neutral

Prentice Hall, 2003 7


Interview Berstuktur

Respon respondent
selalunya
menekankan rational
bukannya emotional.
(Fontana & Frey)

Prentice Hall, 2003 8


Interview kumpulan fokus
Researcher berkerja
dgn satu kumpulan
fokus . Kaedah ini
kini popular dlm social
research
Cara yg digunakan
bergantung kepada
tujuan & konteks
penyelidikan
(unstructured, semi-
structured or highly
structured Prentice Hall, 2003 9
Kepentingan interview kumpulan

Morgan :- Data yang diperolehi daripada


interaksi kumpulan selalunya sukar
didapati dp. Individu
boleh membantu jelaskan aspek-aspek
tertentu yang sebelumnya tidak dpt dilihat
cara yang terbaik melihat pandangan,
persepsi, motif dan tujuan.

Prentice Hall, 2003 10


Kelebihan focus group interview
Murah
banyak data boleh
diperolehi
fleksibel
stimulating
recall-aiding
cumulative
elaborative

Prentice Hall, 2003 11


Peranan Researcher
Moderator atau
Facilitator

TUGAS:- monitor dan


record interaksi
kumpulan
berdasarkan soalan
dan topik yang
disediakan

Prentice Hall, 2003 12


Unstructured Interviews

Cara traditional;
non-standardized,
open - ended,
in-depth interview,
sometimes called the
ethnographic interview

Prentice Hall, 2003 13


Unstructured Interviews

Selalunya untuk memahami


tingkahlaku yang kompleks
tanpa mengkategorikan atau
menghadkan bidang soalan

Prentice Hall, 2003 14


Unstructured Interviews

Fontana & Frey:-


accessing the setting
understanding the language and culture of
respondents
deciding on how to present oneself
locating an informant
gaining trust
establishing rapport
collecting the empirical materials
Prentice Hall, 2003 15
Practical aspect of
interviewing

1. Interview respondents

2. Managing the interview

3. Recording

Prentice Hall, 2003 16


Interview respondent

Who will be interviewed and why?


How many will be interviewed and how
many times will each person be
interviewed?
When and for how long will each respondent
be interviewed?
Where will each respondent be interviewed?
How will access to the interview situation be
organized?
Prentice Hall, 2003 17
Managing the interview

Preparation for the interview-the


interview schedule;
beginning the interview-establishing
rapport;
communication and listening skills;
asking questions-the sequence and
types of questions;
closing the interview.
Prentice Hall, 2003 18
RECORDING
Highly structured interviews; which use
pre-coded response categories,
recording of responses is probably a
simple matter of making checkmarks
on a response sheet.
Open-ended interviews; include tape
recording, video recording and note
taking.
*After the interview is completed, the
data will need to be transcribed.

Prentice Hall, 2003 19


Role of language

The interview is a conversation, the art of


asking questions and listening.
Word are used to transmit information
Silverman;language is central in qualitative
research. Qualitative field data are
linguistic in character, observations, texts
and interviews all focus and rely on
language.

Prentice Hall, 2003 20


TYPES OF INTERVIEWS

Mail and self-administered


questionnaires(researchers can give
questionnaires directly to respondents or
mail them to respondents who read
instructions and questions, then record
their answers.)
Telephone Interviews
Face-to-face Interviews

Prentice Hall, 2003 21


Interviewer Bias
1. Errors by the respondent - forgetting,
embarrassment, misunderstanding or lying
because of the presence of others

2. Unintentional errors - contacting the wrong


respondent, misreading a question, omitting
questions, reading question in the wrong
order, recording the wrong answer to a
question or misunderstanding the respondent

Prentice Hall, 2003 22


Interviewer Bias
3.Intentional subversion by the interviewer
purposeful alteration of answers,
omission or rewording or questions or
choice of an alternative respondent.

4. Influence due to the interviewers


expectations about a respondents
appearance, living situation or other
answers

Prentice Hall, 2003 23


Interviewer Bias

5.Failure of an interviewer to probe or to


probe properly

6. Influence on the answers due to the


interviewer's appearance, tone, attitude,
reactions to answers or comments made
outside of the interview schedule.

Prentice Hall, 2003 24


Interviewing:Feminist Approaches

A preference for an unstructured and open


- ended format
A preference for interviewing a person
more than once
Creation of social connections and building
a trusting social relationship
Disclosure of personal experiences by the
interviewer

Prentice Hall, 2003 25


Interviewing:Feminist Approaches
Drawing on female skills of being open,
receptive and understanding
Avoiding control and fostering equality by
down-playing professional status
Careful listening, interviewers become
emotionally engaged with respondent
Respondent-oriented direction not researcher
oriented

Prentice Hall, 2003 26


Interviewing:Feminist Approaches

Encouragement of respondents to express


themselves in ways they are most
comfortable - for example by telling
stories.
Creation of a sense of empowerment

Prentice Hall, 2003 27


conclusion

Interviews have been used extensively for


data collection across all the disciplines of
the social sciences and in educational
research. It is a key method of data
collection.

Prentice Hall, 2003 28


THE END

Prentice Hall, 2003 29