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FLUID : A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously

when subjected to shear stress however smaller this
stress is.
Density: The density of a fluid is defined as its mass per
unit volume :
Specific volume (Vs)
Specific volume is the reciprocal of density. The volumes
occupied by unit mass of fluid.
Vs = 1/
Specific Weight:
The specific weight of a substance is its weight per unit
volume. It changes with location depending upon
acceleration due to gravity.

It is a convenient property when dealing with fluid statics

or liquids with a fine surface.
Relative Density:
The density of a substance is the ratio of its weight to the
weight of an equal volume of water at standard conditions.
Relative density has no unit since it is a ratio. Its value is
purely numerical. Relative density cannot be less than
zero and for the common substances does not exceed 25.
Pressure at a depth below the free surface of a liquid:


Imagine a tank with a horizontal base containing a liquid

of density . The height from the base of the tank to the
free surface of the liquid is h:
The area of the base of the tank is
Volume of liquid = A x h
Mass of liquid = A x h x
Gravity acts on this mass, producing a force on the area:
Force F = A x h x x g

This is the intensity of pressure at a depth h below the free

surface of a liquid of density

Since there is no motion below the free surfaces of a liquid, the

pressure acts equally in all directions. The pressure acts
normal to the inside surface of the container and is
independent of the shape of the container. When the vertical
side of a tank is considered the pressure is zero at the free
surfaces and increases uniformly as the depth below the free
surface increases.
Pascals Law:
Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to very portion of the fluid and the walls of the
containing vessel.

f F
a A

Pascals law is illustrated by the operation of a hydraulic

press. A piston of small cross sectional area a is used to
exert a force f directly on oil. The pressure developed is p
f/a. it is transmitted through the connecting pipe to a larger
cylinder with a larger piston of area A. Since the pressure
is the same on both the cylinders.
The hydrostatic paradox :


(a) (b)
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
Upto certain velocities the
fluid moves inlayers (laminar
flow) through the pipe. The
inner fluid has the highest
velocity and outer one is
theoretically stationery on the
wall of the pipe. If the fluid is
increased then at the so called
critical velocity the flow
increases, it becomes agitated
(turbulent flow). Therefore
turbulent flow is not generally
desired. It depends on the
viscosity of the confined fluid
and the diameter of the pipe.
Viscosity :
Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of which it offers
resistance to shear.
Liquids have more cohesive force between their molecules.
The cohesive force is reduced when liquids are heated.
Hence, they become less viscous on heating.
The resistance to flow of a gas is mainly due to its molecular
momentum. The molecular momentum increases on heating
and hence the viscosity also increases.
Fluidity is the reciprocal of viscosity.
Law of Volume of Flow
Flow rate law:
Through a pie with varying
cross section equal amounts
Q1 Q2
volumes flow in the same
amount of time. This means
that velocity of the fluid
must increase.
Volume of flow Q, which flow through the pipe is given by
Q = V/t litres/min
The volume is also area A times length s x V = A x s
Then Q is given by A x s/t
Therefore Q = A x v
Since the volume of flow in a pipe with two cross section of different
sixes A1 and A2 is same the velocity must correspondingly change.
Therefore , Q1 = Q2 A1 v1 = A2 v2
Boyles Law
At constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas is
Inversely proportional to the absolute pressure.
P1V1= P2V2
Charles Law
At constant pressure volume is proportional to temperature.
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
Gay Lussacs Law
At constant volume pressure is proportional to temperature.
P1 / T1 = P2 / T2

V is constant
P is increases

As Temperature increases