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Thermodynamics and Energy

Dimensions and Units

Systems and Control Volumes

Properties of a System

Density and Specific Gravity

State and Equilibrium

Processes and Cycles

Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


The Manometer

The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure

Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of
energy. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause

The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words

therme (heat) and dynamis (power), which is most descriptive
of the early efforts to convert heat into power.

One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the

conservation of energy principle. It simply states that during an
interaction, energy can change from one form to another but
the total amount of energy remains constant. That is, energy
cannot be created or destroyed.
PE = 10 units Potential
KE = 0 energy
A rock that is above gorge (not
move) will have a great potential
energy and kinetic energy.
However, if the stone was
dropped, its potential energy PE = 7 units Kinetic
KE = 3 units energy
will be reduced, while kinetic
energy increase.

Energy cannot be created or

destroyed; it can only change
forms (the first law).
Any physical quantity can be characterized by dimensions.
The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called units.
Some basic dimensions such as mass m, length L, time t, and
temperature T are selected as primary or fun-damental
dimensions, while others such as velocity V, energy E, and
vol-ume V are expressed in terms of the primary dimensions
and are called secondary dimensions, or derived dimensions.
Tabel 1 TABLE 2
The seven fundamental (or primary) dimensions and their units in SI and English Units Standard prefixes in SI units

Dimensi Unit Multiple Prefix

Length meter (m) 1012 tera
Mass kilogram (kg 109 giga
Time second (s) 106 mega
Temperature kelvin (K) 103 kilo
Electric current ampere (A) 102 hector
Amount of light candela (cd) 101 deka
Amount of matter mole (mol) 10-1 deci
10-2 centi
Dimension English Units SI Units
10-3 milli
Primary :
mass pound-mass, (lbm) kilogram, (kg) 10-6 micro
length foot, (ft) meter, (m) 10-9 nano
time second, (s) second, (s) 10-12 pico
temperature degree Rankine, (oR) kelvin, (K)
Secondary :
force pound-force, (lbf) British thermal unit, (Btu)
energy British thermal unit, (Btu) joule, (J)

The mass or region

outside the system is
called the surroundings

A system is defined as
SYSTEM a quantity of matter
or a region in space
chosen for study.

BOUNDARY The real or imaginary

surface that separates the
system from its surround-
ings is called the boundary.
The boundary of a system can
be fixed or movable.
Types of Thermodynamic System
3. Isolated System:
1. Open System: 2. Closed System:
An isolated system does not interact with its
An open system is a A closed system allows only surroundings. It does not allow both mass and
energy transfer across its boundary. It is
thermodynamic system which energy (heat and work) to pass more restrictive.
allows both mass and energy to in and out of it. It does not In reality, complete isolated systems do not
flow in and out of it, across its allow mass transfer across its exist. However, some systems behave like an
isolated system for a finite period of time.
boundary. boundary.
Any characteristic of a system is
called a property. Some familiar
properties are pressure P,
temperature T, volume V, and Extensive
Intensive Extensive
mass m. The list can be extended
Intensive properties are
to include less familiar ones such properties are those whose values
as viscosity, thermal conductivity, those that are depend on the size
modulus of elasticity, thermal independent of the or extentof the
expansion coefficient, electric mass of a system, system. Total mass,
resistivity, and even velocity and such as total volume, and
elevation. temperature, total momentum are
pressure, and some examples of
density extensive

Density is defined as mass Specific Gravity
per unit volume. Mass is a
Specific gravity is defined as
the ratio of the density of a
Density can be expressed as
substance to the density of
= some standard substance at a

The reciprocal of density is specified temperature.
the specific volume v, which is That is :
defined as vol-ume per unit SG =
mass. That is H2O
1 Where :
v= = SG = Specific Gravity of the
substance = density of the fluid or
= density (kg/m3)
substance (kg/m3)
m = mass (kg)
H2O = density of water - normally
V = volume (m3)
at temperature 4 oC (kg/m3)
= specific volume (m3/kg)
The Type Of Equilibrium
All the properties can be measured or 1. Thermal equilibrium if the temperature
calculated throughout the entire system, is the same throughout the entire
which gives us a set of properties that system, the system involves no
completely describes the condition, or the temperature differential, which is the
state, of the system. Thermodynamics deals driving force for heat flow
with equilibrium states. The word equilibrium 2. Mechanical equilibrium is related to
implies A state of balance. In an equilibrium pressure, and a system is in mechanical
equilibrium if there is no change in
state there are no unbalanced potentials (or
pressure at any point of the system with
driving forces) within the system. A system in time.
equilibrium experiences no changes when it is 3. If a system involves two phases, it is in
isolated from its surroundings. phase equilibrium when the mass of each
phase reaches an equilibrium level and
stays there.
4. A system is in chemical equilibrium if its
chemical composition does not change
with time, that is, no chemical reactions
occur. A system will not be in equilibrium
unless all the relevant equilibrium criteria
are satisfied.
Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process
A system is said to have undergone a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the
process. That is, for a cycle the initial and final states are identical.

Isothermal process
When the system undergoes change from one state to the other, but its
temperature remains constant, the system is said to have undergone
isothermal process.

Adiabatic process
The process, during which the heat content of the system or
certain quantity of the matter remains constant, is called as
adiabatic process.

Isochoric process
The process, during which the volume of the system remains constant,
is called as isochoric process.

Isobaric process
The process during which the pressure of the system
remains constant is called as isobaric process.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that two bodies
are in thermal equilibrium if both have the same temperature
reading even if they are not in contact.

The temperature scales used in the SI and the English system today are
the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale, respectively. They are related
to absolute temperature scales by :

T(K) = T() + 273.15

T ( R ) = T ( ) + 459.67

The magnitudes of each division of 1 K and 1C are identical, and so are the
magnitudes of each division of 1 R and 1F. Therefore,

T(K) = T() T(R) = T ()


Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per

unit area. We speak of pressure only when we deal with a gas
or a liquid. The counterpart of pressure in solids is normal
stress. Since pressure is defined as force per unit area, it has
the unit of newtons per square meter (N/2 ), which is called a
pascal (Pa). That is,
1 Pa = 1 N/2
A device based on this principle is called a
manometer, and it is commonly used to measure small Gas h
and moderate pres-sure differences. A manometer
mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-tube containing
one or more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol,
1 2
or oil. To keep the size of the manometer to a
manageable level, heavy fluids such as mercury are
used if large pressure differences are anticipated.

The basic manometer.
Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device
called a barometer, thus, theatmospheric
pressure is often referred to as the barometric


The basic barometer