Anda di halaman 1dari 51

The Social Sciences:

Sociology, Anthropology, and


Political Science
Study of Society:

1. Mapping the social forces impinging on social actors


as their lives intersect in society.
2. Rehearsing the structures and components of cultural
practices and traditions
3. Exposing the asymmetrical power distributions among
members of social communities and organizations.
SOCIOLOGY
What is
Sociology?
Whats with the AlDub Craze?
SOCIOLOGY

Focuses on the ubiquity of social forces in unlikely forms:


sex, gender, religion, class, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation,
and the like.
the study of human social life, groups and
society
Social forces

Represent a constellation of unseen yet powerful forces


influencing the behavior of individuals and institutions.

normally in the guise of rules, norms, and expectations


Social map

Persons specific economic and political location.


the vivid awareness of the relationship between private
experience and wider society C. Wright Mills

it allows the social actors


to discern opportunities where
there is none by converting
their personal troubles into
public issues.
HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY

French Revolution Industrial Revolution


(1789) in England (18th Century)
Auguste Comte
(1798-1857)
Father of Sociology

He believed that society operates


according to certain laws, just as
the physical world operates
according to gravity and other
laws of nature.
Herbert Spencer
(1820- 1903)

Survival of the fittest

He likened society to an organism


with a life and vitality of its own.
Emile Durkheim
(1858-1917)

Niche Problematique
Social Fact
-it has distinctive characteristics and
determinants which are capable of
holding an external constraints on the
individual
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)
The Communist
Manifesto

He reiterated that political


revolution was vital in the
evolutionary process of society,
the only means to achieve
improvement of social condition.
Max Weber
(1864-1920)
The most important
proponent of interpretive
sociology
He believed that a sympathetic
understanding, vertsehen, of the
mind of others was essential to
understanding the behavior of
others
SOCIAL INTERACTIONISM
governed by the meanings shared and co-
created by social actors in every interaction or
encounter

- Charles Horton Cooley


- Herbert Blumer
- George Herbert Mead
-Is derived from two Greek words:
Anthropos and logos.
-Studies humans and the respective cultures
where they were born and actively belong.
-Considered the father or even the grandfather
of all social sciences and behavioral sciences.
Franz Boas
father of American
Anthropology
He believed that the same method
and strategy could be applied in
measuring culture and human
behavior while conducting
research among humans including
the uniqueness of their cultures.
Alfred Kroeber and
William Henry
-indigenous rights like
traditional cultural
preservation and
ancestral domain of the
American tribes
As a Social Science

-it focuses on human diversity around the


world.

-anthropologist look at cross-cultural


differences in social institutions, cultural
beliefs, and communication styles.
CULTURAL
DIVERSITY
Multiculturalism
SOCIAL
DIVERSITY
-refers to the gaps between people as measured
by the presence or absence of certain socially
desirable traits
CASTE
SYSTEM

the system of dividing society into hereditary classes.


CLASS

A persons position is based upon achievement


ESTATE

Gives emphasis
to birth as well
as wealth and
possessions
SLAVERY

Had economic basis


wherein the master
shows power over slave
POLITICAL
SCIENCE
-The systematic study of government and politics.

- is the discipline that problematizes the nature of


power and studies how possession and exercise of
power can shape individual actions and collective
decisions for that matter.
The activity through which people make,
preserve, and amend the general rules
under which they live.
POWER
Ability to influence
others. It gives
authority to lead
ORDER
Is attained
through
obedience on
the rules set by
leaders
JUSTICE
Is felt in a
society with
order.
The alteration of mechanisms within the social
structure, characterized by changes in cultural
symbols, rules of behavior, social organizations,
or value system.
-is an intentional action with the goal of bringing
about social change.

-The efforts to promote, inhibit, or (re)direct


social, political, economic, environmental issues
with the desire to make improvements in society
and correct social injustice.
BARON DE
MONTESQUIEU
carries out the laws but cannot make
laws to make themselves powerful.
-the part that makes laws
the judiciary is responsible for making
sure that criminals are punished so that
members of the government cannot
ignore the law as the judiciary can check
on them.
THOMAS HOBBES
the founders of modern political
philosophy
JOHN LOCKE
JOHN LOCKE

Father of Liberalism"