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Chapter 5 GARIS LURUS

5.1
5.1 Kecerunan
Kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
5.2 Kecerunan Garis Lurus pada
Koordinat Kartesan
5.3 Pintasan
5.3 Pintasan
5.4 Persamaan Garis Lurus
5.5 Garis Selari
5.1 Kecerunan Garis Lurus
A Jarak Mencancang dan Jarak Mengufuk

Diberi garis lurus yang melalui titik A dan titik B


seperti dibawah
B

A O

OB dikenali sebagai jarak mencancang dan OA dikenali sebaga


jarak mengufuk.
A Jarak Mencancang dan Jarak Mengufuk

Example 1
B

Jarak mencancang
4 units
= _____________

4 units
Jarak Mengufuk
5 units
= _____________
A

5 units
A Jarak mencancang dan jarak mengufuk

Example 2 Q(2,3)

3 (-2)

A(-4,-2) 2 (- 4)

Jarak mencancang

3 (-2) = 5
= _________________
Jarak mengufuk

2 (- 4) = 6
= _________________
B Mengenal
Mengenal pasti
pasti kecerunan
kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
Kecerunan Garis Lurus
ialah nisbah jarak
mencancang kepada jarak
Q
mengufuk di antara dua
titik pada garisan tersebut.

4 units
Kecerunan
= Jarak mencancang
Jarak Mengufuk
P
5 units
Bagi garis lurus PQ,

Kecerunan PQ = 4
5

DIAGRAM 1
B Mengenal pasti Kecerunan Garis Lurus

Kecerunan garis Lurus


bersamaan tan , y
Di mana ialah sudut yang B
Tan = BC
diukur bermula dari arah
AC
positif pada paksi-x
ke garis lurus.

A C
Kecerunan AB
= Jarak mencancang
x
Jarak Mengufuk 0
= BC
AC

Maka,
Kecerunan garis lurus = Tan
B Kenal pasti kecerunan garis lurus

Example
y y
(a) (b)
B M

420 1200
x
600
x
0 0
A N

Kecerunan garis lurus AB Kecerunan garis lurus MN


= Tan 420 = Tan 1200
= 0. 9004 = - Tan 600
= -1.732
Kecerunan Garis Lurus dalam
5.2 Koordinat Kartesan
Mengira kecerunan
Mengira kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
A Yang melalui
Yang melalui dua
dua titik
titik
y
B(x2,y2)
y2
Kecerunan AB, m
= y2 y1
x2 x1
y2 y1
= y1 y2
A(x1,y1) x1 x2
y1
x2 x1
x
0 x1 x2
Mengira Kecerunan Garis Lurus
A Yang melalui dua titik

EXAMPLE 1 y

Q(6,5)
Berdasarkan graf,
kecerunan PQ, m
= 5-1
6-1
____________
= 4
5
____________
P(1,1)

0 x
Mengira kecerunan garis Lurus
A Yang melalui dua titik

EXAMPLE 2 y

Q(1,5)
Berdasarkan graf,
kecerunan PQ, m
= 5-1
1-6
____________
= 4
-5
____________
P(6,1)
-4
= ____________
5
x
0
5.3 Pintasan
Pintasan-
Pintasan xxdan
danpintasan-y
Pintasan-ypada
padasatu
satugaris
GarisLurus
Luru
A
y
Pintasan-x pada satu garis lurus
ialah koordinat-x dimana garisan itu
M memotong paksi-x
(0,b)
Pintasan-y suatu garis lurus ialah
Pintasan-y = b koordinat y dimana garisan itu
Pintasan-x = a memotong paksi-y
(a,0)
x
0
N
The x-intercept and The y-intercept of
A A Straight Line

EXAMPLE 1 y

Q(0,5)

y-intercept = 5
x-intercept = 6

P(6,0)
0 x
The x-intercept and The y-intercept of
A A Straight Line

EXAMPLE 2 y

x
0 Q(5,0)

y-intercept = -4
x-intercept = 5

P(0,-4)
Calculating The Gradient of A Straight Line
B
Given The x-Intercept and y-Intercept
The gradient of a straight
line can also be calculated y
If we know the x-intercept
and y-intercept of the line.
Q
x
Gradient, m 5
= - y-intercept 0
x-intercept

y-intercept = -4
x-intercept = 5
-4
-4 P
Gradient = -
5
=4
5
Performing Calculations Involving Gradient,
C x-intercept and y-intercept

Gradient, m = - y-intercept
Based on the formula
x-intercept

We can find the value of the intercept if we know the gradient and of
the intercepts. That is;

x-intercept = - y-intercept
m

y-intercept = - (m x x-intercept)
EXAMPLE 1

(a) If a straight line has a ground of -1 and y-intercept of 3,


2
find the x-intercept of the line.

SOLUTION

y-intercept = 3, Gradient = -1
2

x-intercept = - y-intercept
m

3
= - -1 =3x2=6
2
EXAMPLE 2

(b) A straight line passes through the points(-8,0) and y-intercept (0,p).
If the line has a gradient of 5 , find the value of p.
4

SOLUTION

x-intercept = -8, Gradient = 5 , p = y-intercept


4
p = - (m x x-intercept)

5 x (-8)
p= -
4

= 10
5.4 Equation of A Straight Line
A Drawing The Graph of A Straight Line Given
An Equation of The Form y = mx + c
To draw the graph of an equation in the form y = mx + c, it is sufficient
to find two points that satisfy the equation.
Note that graph that is obtained is a straight line.
Steps in drawing the graph with equation y = mx + c:
find the x-intercept
find the y-intercept

plot the two points on the Cartesian plane


using a ruler, draw a straight line joining these two points
label the graph
A Drawing The Graph of A Straight Line Given
An Equation of The Form y = mx + c
EXAMPLE y = 2x + 4
find the x-intercept of
y
y = 2x + 4.
Let y = 0
5
2x + 4 = 0
2x = -4 4
x = -2
Thus, x-intercept = -2 3
y = 2x + 4
find the y-intercept of
y = 2x + 4. 2
Let y = 0 1
y = 2(0) + 4
y=4 x
-3 -2 -1 0 1
Thus, y-intercept = 4
plot two points on the
Cartesian Plane
draw a straight line that
passes these points
B Writing The Equation of The Straight Line Given
The Gradient and y-Intercept
If we are given the gradient and y-intercept of a straight line, we
can find the equation of the line by substituting in the given
values into the general equation y = mx + c.
EXAMPLE
Find the equation of the line with gradient 4 and y-intercept = -2.
7
SOLUTION
Gradient, m = 4 , y-intercept, c = -2
7
Substitute m = 4 and c = -2 into the equation y = mx + c.
7

y= 4 x + ( -2 ) Thus, the equation of the line is y= 4x - 2


7 7

= 4x - 2
7
Determining The Gradient and y-Intercept of A
C
Straight Line from Its Equation
Given an equation of the form y = mx + c, we can easily
determine its gradient and y-intercept by looking at the values
of m and c.
If an equation of the form ax + by = c is given, we can determine
its gradient and y-intercept by simply writing the equation in the
form y = mx + c.
ax + by = c
by = -ax + c
c
y= -a x+
b b
C Determining The Gradient and y-Intercept of A
Straight Line from Its Equation
SPM Clone
Given an equation of a straight line is 4x + 2y = 7. Find
(a) the gradient,
(b) the x-intercept of the straight line.

SOLUTION

a 4x + 2y = 7
b Let y = 0
2y = -4x + 7 4x + 2y = 7
y = -4x + 7 4x + 2(0) = 7
2 2
4x = 7
y = -2x + 7
x= 7
2
4
The gradient of the line is -2
The x-intercept of the line is 7
4
D (i) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Which
Is Parallel to The x-Axis or y-Axis
y

In general, a line that is parallel


to x-axis and has y-intercept a y=a
a has an equation of the form
y=a
x
0

In general, a line that is parallel


to y-axis and has x-intercept
b has an equation of the form x=b
y=b x
0 b
Example 1
The straight line MN is a parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (5,7).
Write the equation of line MN.

SOLUTION

y
(5,7)
7

x
0 5

y-intercept = 7
Thus, the equation of line MN is y = 7
D (ii) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Given
The Gradient and A Point On The Line

Example 2
Find the equation of the straight line which has a gradient of 1 and passes through
2
The point (-4,6)

SOLUTION

Substitute m = , x = -4 and y = 6 into the equation y = mx + c

y = mx + c

6 = ( -4 ) + c

c=8

Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = x + 8


D (iii) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Given
Two Points
Example 3
Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (-3,1) and
(2,6).
SOLUTION

Let the equation of a straight line be y = mx + c.


Let (x1,y1) = (-3,1) and (x2,y2) = (2,6).
Gradient, m = 6 -1 = 1
2-(-3)
Substitute m = 1 x = 2 and y = 6 into the equation y = mx + c
y = mx + c
6=1(2)+c
c=4
Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = x + 4
5.5 Parallel Lines
Determining Whether Two Straight Lines Are
A Parallel Given The Equations

Example 1 y = 3x + 2 Given two lines with


the equations l1 = m1x + c
y
y = 3x and l2 = m2x + c;
If two lines are parallel,
then m1 = m2
2
If m1 = m2, then
y = 3x - 4 two lines are parallel.
x
0

All the three lines above are parallel and they


-4 all have a gradient of 3.
Finding The Equation of A Straight Line Which Passes
B Through A Given Point and Is Parallel to Another
Straight Line.

Example 1
Find the equation of the straight line that is parallel to the straight line
2x + 3y = 27 and passes through the point (-1,6).

SOLUTION
Let the equation of a straight line be y = mx + c.
2x + 3y = 27
3y = -2x + 27
y = -2x + 9 Thus, m = -2
3 3
Substitute m = -2 and the point (-1,6) into y = mx + c.
3
y = mx + c
6 = -2 ( -1 ) + c c = 16
3 3
Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = -2x + 16
3 3
C Solving Problems Involving Equation of Straight Lines

SPM 2003
In Diagram 1, the graph shows that PQ, QR, and RS are straight lines. P is on the
y-axis. OP is parallel to QR and PQ is parallel to RS.
y

0 Q x
R
DIAGRAM 1

The equation of PQ is 2x + y = 5.

(a) State the equation of the straight line QR.


(b) Find the equation of the straight line RS and hence, state its y-intercept.
y
5.
R

2x + y =5
0 Q x
y=0
x = 5/2
S (8,-7)

5. (a) x = 5 P1
2
5.5.
y MRS = MPQ = -2
(b) P1
2x + y =5
R y = mx +c
-7 = -2 ( 8 ) + C K1
P C=9
y = -2x + 9 N1
y-intercept = 9 P1
x
0 Q 5

S (8,-7)