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# Chapter 5 GARIS LURUS

5.1
5.1 Kecerunan
Kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
Koordinat Kartesan
5.3 Pintasan
5.3 Pintasan
5.4 Persamaan Garis Lurus
5.5 Garis Selari
5.1 Kecerunan Garis Lurus
A Jarak Mencancang dan Jarak Mengufuk

seperti dibawah
B

A O

## OB dikenali sebagai jarak mencancang dan OA dikenali sebaga

jarak mengufuk.
A Jarak Mencancang dan Jarak Mengufuk

Example 1
B

Jarak mencancang
4 units
= _____________

4 units
Jarak Mengufuk
5 units
= _____________
A

5 units
A Jarak mencancang dan jarak mengufuk

Example 2 Q(2,3)

3 (-2)

A(-4,-2) 2 (- 4)

Jarak mencancang

3 (-2) = 5
= _________________
Jarak mengufuk

2 (- 4) = 6
= _________________
B Mengenal
Mengenal pasti
pasti kecerunan
kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
Kecerunan Garis Lurus
ialah nisbah jarak
Q
mengufuk di antara dua

4 units
Kecerunan
= Jarak mencancang
Jarak Mengufuk
P
5 units
Bagi garis lurus PQ,

Kecerunan PQ = 4
5

DIAGRAM 1
B Mengenal pasti Kecerunan Garis Lurus

## Kecerunan garis Lurus

bersamaan tan , y
Di mana ialah sudut yang B
Tan = BC
diukur bermula dari arah
AC
ke garis lurus.

A C
Kecerunan AB
= Jarak mencancang
x
Jarak Mengufuk 0
= BC
AC

Maka,
Kecerunan garis lurus = Tan
B Kenal pasti kecerunan garis lurus

Example
y y
(a) (b)
B M

420 1200
x
600
x
0 0
A N

## Kecerunan garis lurus AB Kecerunan garis lurus MN

= Tan 420 = Tan 1200
= 0. 9004 = - Tan 600
= -1.732
Kecerunan Garis Lurus dalam
5.2 Koordinat Kartesan
Mengira kecerunan
Mengira kecerunan garis
Garis Lurus
Lurus
A Yang melalui
Yang melalui dua
dua titik
titik
y
B(x2,y2)
y2
Kecerunan AB, m
= y2 y1
x2 x1
y2 y1
= y1 y2
A(x1,y1) x1 x2
y1
x2 x1
x
0 x1 x2
Mengira Kecerunan Garis Lurus
A Yang melalui dua titik

EXAMPLE 1 y

Q(6,5)
Berdasarkan graf,
kecerunan PQ, m
= 5-1
6-1
____________
= 4
5
____________
P(1,1)

0 x
Mengira kecerunan garis Lurus
A Yang melalui dua titik

EXAMPLE 2 y

Q(1,5)
Berdasarkan graf,
kecerunan PQ, m
= 5-1
1-6
____________
= 4
-5
____________
P(6,1)
-4
= ____________
5
x
0
5.3 Pintasan
Pintasan-
Pintasan xxdan
danpintasan-y
satugaris
GarisLurus
Luru
A
y
ialah koordinat-x dimana garisan itu
M memotong paksi-x
(0,b)
Pintasan-y suatu garis lurus ialah
Pintasan-y = b koordinat y dimana garisan itu
Pintasan-x = a memotong paksi-y
(a,0)
x
0
N
The x-intercept and The y-intercept of
A A Straight Line

EXAMPLE 1 y

Q(0,5)

y-intercept = 5
x-intercept = 6

P(6,0)
0 x
The x-intercept and The y-intercept of
A A Straight Line

EXAMPLE 2 y

x
0 Q(5,0)

y-intercept = -4
x-intercept = 5

P(0,-4)
Calculating The Gradient of A Straight Line
B
Given The x-Intercept and y-Intercept
line can also be calculated y
If we know the x-intercept
and y-intercept of the line.
Q
x
= - y-intercept 0
x-intercept

y-intercept = -4
x-intercept = 5
-4
-4 P
5
=4
5
C x-intercept and y-intercept

Based on the formula
x-intercept

We can find the value of the intercept if we know the gradient and of
the intercepts. That is;

x-intercept = - y-intercept
m

y-intercept = - (m x x-intercept)
EXAMPLE 1

## (a) If a straight line has a ground of -1 and y-intercept of 3,

2
find the x-intercept of the line.

SOLUTION

y-intercept = 3, Gradient = -1
2

x-intercept = - y-intercept
m

3
= - -1 =3x2=6
2
EXAMPLE 2

(b) A straight line passes through the points(-8,0) and y-intercept (0,p).
If the line has a gradient of 5 , find the value of p.
4

SOLUTION

## x-intercept = -8, Gradient = 5 , p = y-intercept

4
p = - (m x x-intercept)

5 x (-8)
p= -
4

= 10
5.4 Equation of A Straight Line
A Drawing The Graph of A Straight Line Given
An Equation of The Form y = mx + c
To draw the graph of an equation in the form y = mx + c, it is sufficient
to find two points that satisfy the equation.
Note that graph that is obtained is a straight line.
Steps in drawing the graph with equation y = mx + c:
find the x-intercept
find the y-intercept

## plot the two points on the Cartesian plane

using a ruler, draw a straight line joining these two points
label the graph
A Drawing The Graph of A Straight Line Given
An Equation of The Form y = mx + c
EXAMPLE y = 2x + 4
find the x-intercept of
y
y = 2x + 4.
Let y = 0
5
2x + 4 = 0
2x = -4 4
x = -2
Thus, x-intercept = -2 3
y = 2x + 4
find the y-intercept of
y = 2x + 4. 2
Let y = 0 1
y = 2(0) + 4
y=4 x
-3 -2 -1 0 1
Thus, y-intercept = 4
plot two points on the
Cartesian Plane
draw a straight line that
passes these points
B Writing The Equation of The Straight Line Given
If we are given the gradient and y-intercept of a straight line, we
can find the equation of the line by substituting in the given
values into the general equation y = mx + c.
EXAMPLE
Find the equation of the line with gradient 4 and y-intercept = -2.
7
SOLUTION
Gradient, m = 4 , y-intercept, c = -2
7
Substitute m = 4 and c = -2 into the equation y = mx + c.
7

## y= 4 x + ( -2 ) Thus, the equation of the line is y= 4x - 2

7 7

= 4x - 2
7
Determining The Gradient and y-Intercept of A
C
Straight Line from Its Equation
Given an equation of the form y = mx + c, we can easily
determine its gradient and y-intercept by looking at the values
of m and c.
If an equation of the form ax + by = c is given, we can determine
its gradient and y-intercept by simply writing the equation in the
form y = mx + c.
ax + by = c
by = -ax + c
c
y= -a x+
b b
C Determining The Gradient and y-Intercept of A
Straight Line from Its Equation
SPM Clone
Given an equation of a straight line is 4x + 2y = 7. Find
(b) the x-intercept of the straight line.

SOLUTION

a 4x + 2y = 7
b Let y = 0
2y = -4x + 7 4x + 2y = 7
y = -4x + 7 4x + 2(0) = 7
2 2
4x = 7
y = -2x + 7
x= 7
2
4
The gradient of the line is -2
The x-intercept of the line is 7
4
D (i) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Which
Is Parallel to The x-Axis or y-Axis
y

## In general, a line that is parallel

to x-axis and has y-intercept a y=a
a has an equation of the form
y=a
x
0

## In general, a line that is parallel

to y-axis and has x-intercept
b has an equation of the form x=b
y=b x
0 b
Example 1
The straight line MN is a parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (5,7).
Write the equation of line MN.

SOLUTION

y
(5,7)
7

x
0 5

y-intercept = 7
Thus, the equation of line MN is y = 7
D (ii) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Given
The Gradient and A Point On The Line

Example 2
Find the equation of the straight line which has a gradient of 1 and passes through
2
The point (-4,6)

SOLUTION

y = mx + c

6 = ( -4 ) + c

c=8

## Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = x + 8

D (iii) Finding The Equations of A Straight Line Given
Two Points
Example 3
Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (-3,1) and
(2,6).
SOLUTION

## Let the equation of a straight line be y = mx + c.

Let (x1,y1) = (-3,1) and (x2,y2) = (2,6).
Gradient, m = 6 -1 = 1
2-(-3)
Substitute m = 1 x = 2 and y = 6 into the equation y = mx + c
y = mx + c
6=1(2)+c
c=4
Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = x + 4
5.5 Parallel Lines
Determining Whether Two Straight Lines Are
A Parallel Given The Equations

## Example 1 y = 3x + 2 Given two lines with

the equations l1 = m1x + c
y
y = 3x and l2 = m2x + c;
If two lines are parallel,
then m1 = m2
2
If m1 = m2, then
y = 3x - 4 two lines are parallel.
x
0

## All the three lines above are parallel and they

-4 all have a gradient of 3.
Finding The Equation of A Straight Line Which Passes
B Through A Given Point and Is Parallel to Another
Straight Line.

Example 1
Find the equation of the straight line that is parallel to the straight line
2x + 3y = 27 and passes through the point (-1,6).

SOLUTION
Let the equation of a straight line be y = mx + c.
2x + 3y = 27
3y = -2x + 27
y = -2x + 9 Thus, m = -2
3 3
Substitute m = -2 and the point (-1,6) into y = mx + c.
3
y = mx + c
6 = -2 ( -1 ) + c c = 16
3 3
Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = -2x + 16
3 3
C Solving Problems Involving Equation of Straight Lines

SPM 2003
In Diagram 1, the graph shows that PQ, QR, and RS are straight lines. P is on the
y-axis. OP is parallel to QR and PQ is parallel to RS.
y

0 Q x
R
DIAGRAM 1

The equation of PQ is 2x + y = 5.

## (a) State the equation of the straight line QR.

(b) Find the equation of the straight line RS and hence, state its y-intercept.
y
5.
R

2x + y =5
0 Q x
y=0
x = 5/2
S (8,-7)

5. (a) x = 5 P1
2
5.5.
y MRS = MPQ = -2
(b) P1
2x + y =5
R y = mx +c
-7 = -2 ( 8 ) + C K1
P C=9
y = -2x + 9 N1
y-intercept = 9 P1
x
0 Q 5

S (8,-7)

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