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SOLUTIONS:

COLLIGATIVE
PROPERTIES
Ebullioscopy
Cryoscopy
Outline

Ebullioscop Cryoscopy Applications


y
Boiling Point
The temperature
at which
the vapour pressure of a liquid becomes
equal to its atmospheric pressure
Variation of Vapour Pressures with
Temperature
M N Atmospheric
O
Vapour pressure P pressure
increases with T
Vapour pressure Ps1 P
of solution is
lower than that Ps2 Q
of pure solvent
Boiling point of re
Pu vent
l
solution is So tio
l u
HIGHER than So
l u tio
n
So1
that of solvent n2
T T1 T2
Ebullioscopy: Elevation of Boiling Point
Solution
M N Atmospheric
having more P O
pressure
solute low
vapour Ps 1 P
pressure
high BP Ps 2 Q
Solution2 boils
re
at higher Pu vent
l
So tio
temperature So
l u
tio
l u
than Solution1 n
So1

n2
T T1 T2
Ebullioscopy: Elevation of
Boiling Point
For similar

triangles, N
M O

P MNO
P

Ps1 P
Ps2 Q
Q

TT1T2
Ebullioscopy: Elevation of
Boiling Point
From Raoults Law,

For pure solvent, & M do not change at its


BP
=
[K, proportionality constant]
[Kb, molal elevation constant]
Ebullioscopy: Elevation of
Boiling Point
Molal elevation constant depends on the

nature of solvent i.e. its BP and the enthalpy


of vaporization,

R, universal gas constant; Tb, BP of the


solvent (in kelvin); , enthalpy of
vaporization of solvent in calories per gram
Molal Elevation Constatnts
Solvent BP (C) Kb (K kg mol1)

Water 100 0.52

Ethanol 78.4 1.15

Benzene 80 2.70

Carbon tetrachloride 76.8 5.02


Phase Diagram
Phase Diagram
Freezing Point
The temperature
at which
vapour pressure of its liquid is equal to the
vapour pressure of its solid
Variation of Vapour Pressures with
Temperature
Vapour pressure Pure
Solvent
increases with T
M Solutio
Vapour pressure P n1

I
of solution is

D L
Solutio
P

SO
lower than that Ps1 N n2
of pure solvent Q
Ps2
Freezing point O
of solution is LIQUID
LOWER than
that of solvent
T2 T1 T
Solution
having more
solute
low vapour
pressure
LOW FP
Solution2
boils at
LOWER
temperatur
For similar
triangles,
Cryoscopy: Depression of
Freezing Point
Molal depression constant depends on the

nature of solvent i.e. its FP/MP and the


enthalpy of fusion,

R, universal gas constant; Tf, FP/MP of the


solvent (in kelvin); , enthalpy of fusion of
solvent in calories per gram
Molal Depression Constatnts
Solvent FP/MP (C) Kb (K kg mol1)

Water 0 1.86

Ethanol 114 1.99

Benzene 5.5 5.12

Carbon tetrachloride 22.8 29.80


Critical Point