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IS 800 : 2007

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION IN
STEEL CODE OF PRACTICE
(Third Revision)
DESIGN OF TENSION
MEMBERS

2
INTRODUCTION
rafter

tie (a) Roof Truss

purlin
Sag rod (b) Suspended Building

Top chord

(b) Roof Purlin System (c) Braced frame

Tension Members in Buildings


3
Characteristics
Members Experience

Axial force

Stretching

Uniform stress over the cross section

Very Efficient Member

Strength governed by the material strength

Bolt holes affect the strength

4
Cross Sections Used for Tension
Members

Channel

Angle Double Angle

Rod Cable

Built up sections

5
IS 800 1984 IS 800 - 2007

6
SECTION 6 DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS

6.1 Tension Members


6.2 Design Strength due to Yielding of Gross Section
6.3 Design Strength due to Rupture of Critical Section
6.3.1 Plates
6.3.2 Threaded Rods
6.3.3 Single Angles
6.3.4 Other Sections
6.4 Design Strength due to Block Shear

7
CODAL PROVISIONS
6.1 Tension Members

The factored design tension T, in the members T < Td

6.2 Design Strength due to Yielding of Gross Section

The design strength of members under axial tension Tdg, Tdg = fy Ag /m0

6.3 Design Strength due to Rupture of Critical Section


6.3.1 Plates The design strength in tension of a plate, Tdn,

Tdn =0.9 fu An / m1

Cont
8
BEHAVIOUR IN TENSION
Plates with Holes

An = [ b n d + (p2 / 4 g)] t

12
THREADED RODS

6.3.2 Threaded Rods

The design strength of threaded rods in tension, Tdn,

Tdn =0.9 fu An / m1

f < fy fy fu

droot

dgross elastic elastic - Ultimate


Plastic

13
CODAL PROVISIONS
6.3.3 Single Angles The design strength, Tdn, as governed
by tearing

Tdn = 0.9 fu Anc / m1 + Ago fy /m0

= 1.4 0.035 (w/t) (fu/fy) (bs/L ) 1.4-0.52(bs/L)

Alternatively, the tearing strength of net section may be


taken as

Tdn = An fu /m

17
CODAL PROVISIONS
6.4 Design Strength due to Block Shear
6.4.1 Plates The block shear strength, Tdb, of connection shall be taken as the
smaller of

Tdb = ( Avg fy /(3 m0) + fu Atn /m1 )


or
Tdb = ( fu Avn /(3 m1) + fy Atg /m0 )

1 1 2
2
4 4
3 3

Fig 6.2 Block Shear Failure of Plates Fig 6.3 Block Shear Failure of Angles
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DESIGN OF TENSION
MEMBERS
Efficiency
= Pt /(Ag * fy / M0)

Design Steps
An = Pt / (fu / M1)

Ag = Pt / (fy / M0)

Choose a trial section with the design strength greater


than or equal to the maximum factored design tension
load.

20
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION
MEMBERS

21
INTRODUCTION
Dominant factors affecting ultimate strength of columns
subjected to axial compressive loading:
Slenderness ratio (/r)

Material yield stress (fy)

Dominant factors affecting ultimate strength of practical columns:


Initial imperfection
Eccentricity of loading
Residual stresses
Strain hardening

22
DESIGN STRENGTH OF COMPRESSION
MEMBERS

Old Code
The axial stress in compression is given by

fcc fy
cr
[ ( )]
(fcc ) + f y
n n 1n

Where
fy = yield stress of steel;
2E
fcc = Elastic critical stress in compression 2

E = Modulus of elasticity.
(= L/r) = slenderness ratio of the member
n = a factor assumed as 1.4 23
INTRODUCTION
c Test data (x) from collapse tests
xxx
on practical columns
fy
x
x

200
xx
x Euler curve
x
xx x

100
x
x
Design curve
xx
x
x x

50 100 150
Slenderness (/r)
Typical column design curve
24
Cross Section Shapes for
Rolled Steel Compression Members

(a) Single Angle (b) Double Angle (c) Tee

(d) Channel (e) Hollow Circular (f) Rectangular Hollow


Section (CHS) Section (RHS)
Cross Section Shapes for Built - up or
fabricated Compression Members

(a) Box Section (b) Box Section (c) Box Section

(d) Plated I Section (e) Built - up I Section (f) Built-up Box Section
SECTION 7 DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

7.1 Design Strength


7.2 Effective Length of Compression Members
7.3 Design Details
7.4 Column Bases
7.5 Angle Struts
7.6 Laced Columns
7.7 Battened Columns
7.8 Compression Members Composed of Two
Components Back-to-Back

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7.1 DESIGN STRENGTH

7.1.2 The design compressive strength of a member is given by

Pd Ae f cd
f y / m0
f cd f y / m0 f y / m0
0.5

+ 2 2

= 0.5[1+ ( - 0.2)+ 2]
fcd = the design compressive stress,
= non-dimensional effective slenderness ratio, f y f cc ( )
f y KL
r
2 2
E
fcc = Euler buckling stress = 2E/(KL/r)2
= imperfection factor as in Table 7.1
= stress reduction factor as in Table 7.3

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7.1.2.1 The classification of different sections under different buckling class

a, b, c or d, is given below.
Cross Section Limits Buckling about Buckling Curve
axis

Rolled I- h/b > 1.2 : z-z a


Sections tf 40 mm y-y b
40 < tf <100 z-z b
y-y c
Welded I- tf <40 mm z-z b
Section y-y c
tf >40 mm z-z c
y-y d
Hollow Section Hot rolled Any a
Cold formed Any b
Welded Box Generally Any b
Section, built-up Any c
Channel, Angle, T Any c
and Solid Sections

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7.1 DESIGN STRENGTH
Buckling Curves

0.9
a
0.8
b
0.7
c
0.6
d
fcd/fy

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Lamda

TABLE 7.1 IMPERFECTION FACTOR,

Buckling Class a b c d
0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76

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7.2 Effective Length of Compression Members
Boundary Conditions
Effective
Length
At one end At the other end
Schematic
representation
Translation Rotation Translation Rotation

Restrained Restrained Free Free


2.0L
Free Restrained Restrained Free

Free Restrained Free 1.0L

Restrained Restrained Free Restrained 1.2L

Restrained Restrained Free 0.8L

Restrained Restrained Restrained 0.65 L

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7.4 COLUMN BASES

t s 2.5 w (a 2 0.3b 2 ) m0 / f y tf

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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR
LACED AND BATTENED COLUMNS

(a) Single Lacing (b) Double Lacing (c) Battens


Built-up column members
LACED AND BATTENED COLUMNS

7.6.1.5 The effective slenderness ratio, (KL/r)e = 1.05 (KL/r)0,

to account for shear deformation effects.

7.7.1.4 The effective slenderness ratio of battened column, shall be


taken as 1.1 times the (KL/r)0, where (KL/r)0 is the maximum actual
slenderness ratio of the column, to account for shear deformation
effects.

34
STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF
AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
Design steps:
Assume a suitable trial section.

Arrive at the effective length of the


column.
Calculate the slenderness ratios.

0 0.2 E
fy
STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF
AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
Calculate e values along both major and minor
axes.

Calculate = [( - 0)],

Calculate and c
.
Compute the load that the compression
member can resist (c A).
Resistance of Cross-section
For members connected by welding,
design tension resistance Nt.Rd is Af y
N pl.Rd
M0
A is the gross
area of the
cross-section

For members connected by bolting,


design tension resistance Nt.Rd is reduced
0,9 isdue
a to
presence of holes and is the lesser of reduction factor
for eccentricity,
Af y Anet f u A
funet is the
is the
stress net
ultimate
N pl.Rd N u . Rd 0,9 area
tensileofstrength
the
concentration
M2
or
M0 cross-section
etc
37
Characteristics
Members Experience

Axial force

Stretching

Uniform stress over the cross section

Very Efficient Member

Strength governed by the material strength

Bolt holes affect the strength

38
40
42
43
Introduction
This lecture is concerned with compression
members (eg pin-ended struts) subject to
axial compression only
no bending
In practice real columns are subject to
eccentricities of axial loads
transverse forces
The treatment distinguishes between
stocky columns, and
slender columns
44
p2
b nd h + i t
i 4 gi

45
Stocky columns

Thecharacteristics of stocky columns are


very low slenderness
unaffected by overall buckling

The compressive strength of stocky columns


is
dictated by the cross-section
a function of the section classification
46
Cross-sections not prone to
local buckling

Class 1, 2, 3 cross-sections are unaffected


by local buckling
design compression resistance Nc.Rd equals
the plastic resistance Npl.Rd

Nc.Rd = Afy /M0 5.4.4(1) a)

47
Cross-sections prone to
local buckling - Class 4

local buckling prevents the attainment of


the squash load
design compression resistance limited to
local buckling resistance,

Nc.Rd = No.Rd = Aefffy /M1 5.4.4.(1) b)


Aeff is the area of the effective cross-section
5.3.5
48
Behaviour of real steel
columns
inelasticbuckling occurs before the Euler
buckling load due to various imperfections
initial out-of-straightness
residual stresses
eccentricity of axial applied loads
strain-hardening
columns of medium slenderness are very
sensitive to the effects of imperfections

49
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
Gross Area Design Strength (Ptg)
Ptg = fy * Ag /MO MO = 1.10

Net Area Design Strength (Ptn)


Ptn = 0.9 * fu * An / M1 M1 = 1.25

50
INFLUENCE OF RESIDUAL STRESSES

T T
T T T T
C C C C
C C C
C
C
C C
C C
T T T T
T T
Rolled beam Welded box Rolled column

Distribution of residual stresses

Heavily welded section:


Residual stresses due to welding are very high and can be of
greater consequence in reducing the ultimate capacity of
compression members.
FAILURE
Flexural torsional buckling
PARAMETERS TO BE CONSIDERED

Primary parameters Weld or 2B or


L/r ratio multiple bolted
b/t ratio
Type of connection Single bolted
Secondary parameters
Effect of connection length
Effect of gusset thickness

54
CURRENT DESIGN PRACTICE

Two approaches
Treat the angle as an equivalent concentrically
loaded column
Modifying effective length
Reducing axial capacity
Treat angle as a pin ended beam-column

55
COMPARISON OF TENSION
MEMBERS

56
DESIGN STRENGTH OF TENSION MEMBERS
Old Code

It takes a certain percentage of the outstanding leg area to be


effective in determining the tensile strength as given below:

Td = [Anc + K Ao] Fy
Where K is given by :
3 Anc
K for single angle members
3Anc + A0
5 Anc
K for double angles on same side.
5Anc + A0
K 1.0 for double angles on opposite side

57
IS 800 1984 IS 800 - 2007

58
DESIGN STRENGTH DUE TO YIELDING OF
GROSS SECTION
New Code
The design strength of members under axial tension Tdg, as
governed by yielding of gross section, is given by
Tdg = fy Ag /m0
where
fy = yield strength of the material in MPa
Ag = gross area of cross section in mm2
m0 = partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding

59
DESIGN STRENGTH DUE TO RUPTURE OF
CRITICAL SECTION
New Code

Plates The design strength in tension of a plate, Tdn, as


governed by rupture of net cross sectional area, An, at the holes
is given by
Tdn =0.9 fu An / m1
where
m1 = partial safety factor pi2
b nd h
fu = ultimate stress of the material in MPa + t
An = net effective area of the member,
=
i 4 gi

Threaded Rods The design strength of threaded rods in tension,


Tdn,
Tdn =0.9 fu An / m1

60
DESIGN STRENGTH DUE TO RUPTURE OF
CRITICAL SECTION (Contd..)

Single Angles The design strength, Tdn, as governed by tearing

Tdn = 0.9 fu Anc / m1 + Ago fy /m0

= 1.4 0.035 (w/t) (fu/fy) (bs/L ) 1.4-0.52(bs/L)

Alternatively, the tearing strength of net section may be taken as

Tdn = An fu /m1

61
w w

bs=w
bs=w+w1
w1
Angles with end connections
Design Strength due to Block Shear
Plates The block shear strength, Tdb, of connection shall be taken as the
smaller of
Tdb = ( Avg fy /(m0) + fu Atn /m1 )
or
Tdb = ( fu Avn /(m1) + fy Atg /m0 )

62
COMPARISON OF COMPRESSION
MEMBERS

63
DESIGN STRENGTH OF COMPRESSION
MEMBERS

Old Code
The axial stress in compression, Fcr, is given by

Fe Fy
Fcr
[(Fe )
n
( ) ]
+ Fy
n 1n
Where 2E
2
Fy = yield stress of steel;
Fe = Elastic critical stress in compression
E = Modulus of elasticity.
(= L/r) = slenderness ratio of the member
n = a factor assumed as 1.4 64
DESIGN STRENGTH OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

New Code
The design compressive strength of a member is given by Pd = Ae fcd

The design compressive stress, fcd, of axially loaded compression


members
f y / m0
f cd f y / m0 f y / m0
+ [
2
]
2 0.5
f y f cc
= 0.5[1+ ( - 0.2)+ 2]

= non-dimensional effective slenderness ratio,


( r)
f y KL
2
2E
,

fcc = euler buckling stress = 2E/(KL/r)2


65
IMPERFECTION FACTOR,

Buckling Class a b c d
0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76

The classification of different sections under different buckling


class a, b, c or d, is given below.
Buckling Curves

0.9
a
0.8
b
0.7 c
0.6
d
fcd/fy

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Lamda

66
COMPARISON
1.1
OF OLD CODE TO NEW CODE
1.0
Curve 1
0.9
Curve 2
0.8 Curve 3
0.7 Curve 4
IS-Curve
Fcr / Fy

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Lambda
Fig. 3.4 Comparison of IS Curve with Euro Curves
67
ECCENTRICALLY LOADED
SINGLE ANGLE COMPRESSION MEMBERS
U V

Angles under compression


Concentric loading - Axial force
1. Local buckling V U
2. Flexural buckling about v-v axis
3. Torsional - Flexural buckling about u-u axis

Eccentric loading - Axial force & bi-axial


U V
moments
Most practical case
May fail by bi-axial bending or FTB
V U

(Equal 1, 2, 3 & Unequal 1, 3) 68


Old Code
Two approaches
Treat the angle as an equivalent concentrically
loaded column
Modifying effective length
Reducing axial capacity
Treat angle as a pin ended beam-column

69
Euler buckling curve and
modes of failure

Failure by

yielding

fy Failure by
buckling
Euler
buckling
curve
1
71
Experimental studies
two regions: slender (beyond point of inflexion) & medium

Medium Large
slenderness slenderness

fy

Point of
inflexion

1 72
Effect of imperfections in
relation to slenderness
Columns of large slenderness
largely unaffected by imperfections
ultimate failure load Euler load
independent of the yield stress
Columns of medium slenderness
imperfections important
failure load less than Euler load
out-of-straightness and residual stresses
are the most significant imperfections
73
Residual stresses patterns

Typical residual stress pattern

~ 0 , 3 fy
compression

~ 0 , 2 fy
tension

~ 0 , 2 fy
compression

due to hot rolling

74
Residual stresses

combined with axial stresses cause


yielding
effective area reduced

+ = o r=

R n < f y fy
N/A

n reaching fy
Combination with axial stresses

75
Initial out-of-straightness
eo
induces bending moments
N

eo

N
76
Initial out-of-straightness
eo
If max > fy the P
section becomes
partly plastic
Yielded
zones

P
77
Combined effect of
imperfections and axial load
maximum stress - combination of
bending stress B
residual stress, R
applied axial stress, N/A
R B max
N/A

+ + =

78
buckling curves

column strength is defined by a


reduction factor applied to the yield
strength fy
is related to the reference slenderness
buckling curves plotted as versus
reference slenderness ratio

79
Assumptions

Based on a half sine-wave geometric


imperfection = L/1000
residual stresses related to section type
4 curves apply to different cross-section
types corresponding to different values
of the imperfection factor

80
buckling curves

Thecurves can be expressed


mathematically as:
1
2 0,5
1
+ [ ]
2

2
0,5[1 + ( 0,2) + ]

5.5.1.2.(1) (5.46)
81
Design Steps (2)

selectappropriate buckling curve taking


into account
the forming process
the shape thickness

determine for the value of
.

82
SECTION 7 DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

7.1 Design Strength


7.2 Effective Length of Compression Members
7.3 Design Details
7.4 Column Bases
7.5 Angle Struts
7.6 Laced Columns
7.7 Battened Columns
7.8 Compression Members Composed of Two
Components Back-to-Back

83
INTRODUCTION
c Test data (x) from collapse tests
xxx
on practical columns
fy
x
x

200
xx
x Euler curve
x
xx x

100
x
x
Design curve
xx
x
x x

50 100 150
Slenderness (/r)
Typical column design curve
84
Effective cross-sections
Centroidal axis of Centroidal axis of
gross cross-section effective cross-section

Centroidal axis of
gross cross-section
eN
The centroidal axis of the
effective cross-section may
shift relative
Non-effective zones to that for the
gross cross-section.
For a member subject to an
axial force, the shift of the
centroidal axis will give rise to
a moment which should be
Gross cross-section accounted for in member
(a) Class 4 cross-sections - axial forcedesign.

85
Gross cross-section

Effective cross-sections
(a) Class 4 cross-sections - axial force

eM
Non-effective zone
Centroidal axis Centroidal axis of
effective section
For a member in
bending, shift of the
Non-effective zone
centroidal axis of the
eM effective cross-section
relative to that for the
Centroidal axis gross cross-section.
Centroidal axis of
will besection
effective taken into
account when
Gross cross-section calculating the section
properties of the
effective section. 86
(b) Class 4 cross-sections - bending moment
7.4 COLUMN BASES

t s 2.5 w (a 2 0.3b 2 ) m0 / f y tf

87
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR
LACED AND BATTENED COLUMNS

(a) Single Lacing (b) Double Lacing (c) Battens


Built-up column members
LACED AND BATTENED COLUMNS

7.6.1.5 The effective slenderness ratio, (KL/r)e = 1.05 (KL/r)0,

to account for shear deformation effects.

7.7.1.4 The effective slenderness ratio of battened column, shall be


taken as 1.1 times the (KL/r)0, where (KL/r)0 is the maximum actual
slenderness ratio of the column, to account for shear deformation
effects.

89
STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF
AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
Design steps:
Assume a suitable trial section.

Arrive at the effective length of the


column.
Calculate the slenderness ratios.

0 0.2 E
fy
STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF
AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

Topics
1. Introduction
2. Static Analysis
3. Dynamic Analysis
4. Stochastic Dynamic Analysis of RC
Chimneys

93
Topics

94