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PROGRAM KEWIRAUSAHAAN

MAHASISWA INDONESIA

PRINSIP DASAR KEWIRAUSAHAAN

KEMENTERIAN RISET, TEKNOLOGI DAN PENDIDIKAN


TINGGI
DIREKTORAT JENDRAL PEMBELAJARAN DAN
KEMAHASISWAAN
2017
TUJUAN
PROGRAM KEWIRAUSAHAAN
MAHASISWA INDONESIA

Membentuk Mendorong Pembentukan &


Penguatan
Karakter Tumbuhnya
Kelembagaan
Wirausaha Wirausaha Muda Pengembangan
Mahasiswa Kewirausahaan di
Berbasis Keilmuan
Perguruan Tinggi

Proses integrasi Hardskill Memiliki bekal ketrampilan Menggagas, membangun dan


dan Softskill : memiliki berwira usaha membina Kewirausahaan yang
kompetensi kewirausahaan: Mampu merubah tantangan berkesinambungan
- Knowledge menjadi peluang Memiliki sistem manajemen
- Skill Bekal menjalankan usaha yang sinergi dengan program
- Personal Quality (motivasi, yang sehat dan berkelanjutan pembinaan kewirausahaan
sikap, perilaku, watak dan Berdaya saing tinggi nasional.
nilai)
PROGRAM KEWIRAUSAHAAN
MAHASISWA INDONESIA

SGK PBBT KBMI EXPO KMI

Studium Program Kompetisi Bisnis MahasiswaExpo


General Belajar Bekerja Indonesia Kewirausahaan Mahasiswa
Kewirausahaan Terpadu Indonesia

1. PT berperan aktif 1. Kegiatan Belajar 1. Pemberian bantuan 1. Even tahunan berupa


dalam Bekerja Terpadu di modal kepada yang pameran usaha yang
pengembangan UMKM. sudah berwirausaha telah dijalankan pada
kewirausahaan 2. Mahasiswa menyesuai- 2. Pemberdayaan Maha- ajang temu bisnis bagi
2. Sosialisasi dan bina diri dengan kegiatan siswa Wirausaha mahasiwa wirausaha
Klinik operasional bisnis (partisipasi dan solusi)
Kewirausahaan UMKM 3. Pembinaan dan 2. Kegiatan ini diikuti
3. Membangun 3. Membangun kompeten- pendampingan pada oleh PT diseluruh
penyadaran, motivasi si beberapa kategori Indonesia yang
dan percaya diri 4. Belajar memahami usaha tertentu.(jasa, membina mahasiswa
untuk maju dan pelayanan pada perdagangan, industri, berwirausaha di PT-
mandiri kastamer (internal / budi daya dll) Nya masing-masing.
eksternal
PRINSIP DASAR
KEWIRAUSAHAAN

PROSES &
KOMPETENSI
KEWIRAUSAHAA
N
1. Pendahuluan
Wirausaha unggul selalu :
Menghadapi perubahan yang
cepat
Berhubungan dengan imajinasi
Berpikir kreatif secara sistemik
Berproses secara logis dan
inovatif
Menghasilkan efisiensi dan
efektivitas
(Koratko & Hodgetts,2007)
2. Proses Kreativitas
Munculnya kewirausahaan dari proses pembangkitan
ide/gagasan individu/kelompok menghasilkan sesuatu yang
baru dengan lebih efektif dan efisien.

6
Proses Kreativitas
1. Menjadi pembelajar melalui pengamatan dan
Akumulas pencarian informasi (via multimedia yang
i sesuai)
Pengeta Bergabung dengan kelompok
profesional/asosiasi kelompok usaha,
huan pertemuan profesional dan seminar
Akumulasi pengelaman, pendidikan dan
pelatihan
2. Rutin beraktivitas hal yang menjadi minatnya serta
Proses mencari solusi aktivitas biz tsb.
Inkubasi Memahami proses biz mencapai solusi
( profitability, viability dan sustainability
3. Selalu menemukan sesuatu yang baru dan terus
Ide- menerus
Gagasan Bekerja diluar/didalam situasi apapun cari masalah
dan solusi
Mempraktekkanya secara hobi
Kemampuan membaca berbagai media terkait dan
cepat mengambil keputusan.
4. Belajar terus proses perencanaan biz yang terkait 7
3. Proses Inovasi
Proses inovasi : hasil dari keyakinan, pemahaman tujuan
yang jelas guna menghasilkan kesempatan, didahului
dengan pergi, melihat keluar, bertanya dan mendengar apa
yang terjadi dan akan terjadi di lingkungan Anda.
Empat macam tipe inovasi pembangkit
Kewirausahaan.
1. Penciptakan produk baru , jasa atau proses
Invention baru.

2. Perluasan produk, jasa atau proses dengan


Extention membuat aplikasi yang berbeda

3. Replikasi produk, jasa, atau proses yang sudah


Duplication ada

Proses lakukan kombinasi produk, jasa atau


4. Syntesis proses yang sudah ada dengan memasukkan
formulasi baru, sehingga berdaya saing tinggi8
4. Ide & Peluang Kewirausahaan
1. Penggalian Pengamatan pada kemajuan teknologi,
Ide-gagasan persaingan, kondisi ekonomi, sosial
demografi, budaya dan politik, peraturan
pemerintah
2. Mengamati Spesial target market , temuikan need and
Pasar want: konsumen
sasaran Penelitian kecil-kecilan pasar sasaran, sebar
kuosioner, wawancaran observasi adakan
dengan segmentasi, tentukan targetnya dan
bangun posisioning untuk produk-jasa baru tsb
3. Sesudah mengamati peluang dimunculkan
Pemunculuan produk, jasa baru berbeda, punya nilai tambah
produk Yang penting sesudah ketemu bukan nato (no
action talk only)
berbeda dan
Menjamin jumlah dan kualitas produk, jasa
bernilai atau proses layanan
tambah

4. Menaksir Belajar terus menaksir harga pokok dan calon


biaya awal keuntungan yang didapat (minimisasi biaya 9
operasional dll)
5. MEMILIH BENTUK
KEPEMILIKAN
Wirausaha unggul selalu peduli
pertanggungjawaban secara legal:
Usaha Mandiri ( Perusahaan
perseorangan)
Partnership (Usaha Modal
Bersama)
Koperasi
Sebagai lembaga ekonomi dengan upaya
memenuhi kebutuhan anggota
Sebagai sarana pendidikan merubah sistem
nilai dalam masyarakat pada suatu
kebersamaan.
Sebagai sarana pendemokrasian masyarakat
Sebagai pengimbang terhadap badan usaha
6. PENGETAHUAN DAN KAPABILITAS
WIRAUSAHA
Pengetahuan dan kapabilitas wirausaha unggul :
1. Knowing your Biz
2. Knowing the basic biz management
3. Having the proper attitude
4. Having the adequate capital
5. Managing finances effectively
6. Manageing time efficiency
7. Managing people
8. Satisfying customer by providing high quality
product
9. Knowing how to compete
10. Copying with regulation and paper work
7. KOMPETENSI WIRAUSAHA
Kompetensi yang dibutuhkan wirausaha unggul :
Human Relation Competence
Technical Competence
Marketing Competence
Financial Competence
Conceptual Competence
Decision Making Competence
Time Management Competence
Change Management Competence
Risk Management Competence
Jenis Karakteristik Kompetensi
Kompetensi : karakter dasar seseorang yang memiliki hubungan
kausal dengan kriteria referensi efektivitas keunggulan (berpikir,
berperilaku pada cakupan yang luas dan lama) pada pekerjaan
tertentu. Karakteristik kompetensi (Model Iceberg) sbb.:
1.Pengetahuan Pengetahuan merujuk pada informasi dan hasi
(Knowledge) pembelajaran
2. Ketrampilan Keahlian merujuk pada kemampuan seseorang
(Skill) untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan .
3. Personal Personal Quality adalah kualitas pribadi dan
Quality: merupakan sesuatu yang tersembunyi :
1)Motif merupakan emosi, hasrat, kebutuhan
1)Motif psikologis atau dorongan lain yang memicu
keinginan (untuk bertindak) mencapai
keberhasilan.
2)Konsep diri 2)Konsep diri (Self Concept) merujuk pada sikap
3)Perilaku (Attitude)
3)Perilaku (Behavior) merujuk pada tindakan atas
4)Karakteristik dasar kepercayaan diri (Self Confident )
Pribadi (watak) 4)Karakteristik pribadi (Traits) : merujuk pada 13
fisik dan konsistensi tanggapan (watak) terhadap
8. Key Business Dimension
1 3
2
Produc Distribution Custo
ts Channels!!!
Service mer
s Target

Offere 4
d
OPERATION SYSTEM

1. Products and/or services offered by an organisation


2. Customers that an organisation targets as being in need of
their product and services
3. Distribution channels that provide the means by which an
organisations product and services are delivered to
customers
4. The operating system, which constitutes the mechanics by
which an organisation functions
14
9. Organisational Analysis Model
1 2 3
Business Quality Performance
Drivers Guides Measures

The Organisational Model has three key elements :

1.Business drivers 2. Quality 3. Performance Measures


that describe the guides that for each business
major facets of an set the driver, against which
operating system objective for continuous
each business improvement can bi
driver identified

15
10. Business Drivers

PLANNING Directi
on
Strategy
LE
Structure A
E
D
IMPLEMENTATI E
R
ON Employees S
H
IP
TOOLS
The Organisational Analysis Model includes six busines
drivers.
When combined, these business drivers form the
operating system for enterprise
The six biz drivers are: (1) Leadership, (2) direction, (3)
Strategy, (4) Structure, (5) Employees, (6) Tools
Planning is a vital and often overlooked element of
business management.
Effenctive planning is necessary for an organisation to 16
11. Quality Guides

Directi Customer Satisfaction


on
Strategy Continuous
Improvement
Structure Teams
Employees Motivation
TOOLS Productivity

Quality will eliminate defects, thereby


reducing overall cost, while increasing
product reliability and consistency

17
12. Performance Measures
Market Share & Customer
Directio
Feedback
n
Net Profit & ROE Strategy
Manager-to-worker Structure
Ratio
Absenteeism,Turnover&Bo Employees
fedom
ROA & ROP TOOLS

ROE : Return on Equity


ROA : Return on Assets
ROP : Return on People

18
13. LEADERSHIP

Directi
on
Strategy
LE
Structure A
D
E
R
Employee SH
IP
Tool

The first business driver in the organisational Analysis Model


is Leadership
Leadership requires three basic competencies:
1. Diagnosing : the ability to interpret and understand the
situation
2. Adopting : the ability to change behaviour and
resources in light of situation
3. Communicating: the ability to communcate with others so
19
that there is
14. Basic Skill of Manager
A manager, on the other hand, requires the
following basic skill
1.Technical Skills : the ability to use
knowledge, methods ,techniquies and
equipment to achieve performance.

2.Human Skills : the ability to exercise


judgment in working with and through
people

3.Conceptual Skills : the ability to


understand the complexities of the total
organisation and where one fits within that.

20
15. Three type of Leadership
1.Strategic Leadership: (the role of CEOs), this achieved
by:
providing a set of organisational values
providing a requisite culture
setting the long-term outlook and vision
2. General Leadership: linking corporate values to
individual behaviour. This is achieved by :
The creation of a social climate; the sense pople have
about how they should and shoud not behave
Regularly reviewing policies and other controls to
ensure they convey the right climate

3. Direct Leadership : Leading subordinates to valuue the


achievement of tasks assigned. This is achieved by
developing :
Feelings of trust and justice
Cohesion
Good morale
21
Organisational effectiveness
16. Leaders have the following
characteristics
1.They are continually learning
2.They are service oriented
3.They radiate positive energy
4.They believe in other people
5.They lead balanced lives
6.They see life as an adventure
7.They are synergetic

(Covey -1992)

22
17. Quality Guide of Leadership
A suggested by Hersey and Blancard (1988), effective
leadership requires the ability: to diagnose, adapt and
communicate.
Communication
Communication must be the quality guide for effective
leadership
Communication is the primary vehicle by which one
transmits information between people.
Effective ladership will ensure that communication is
frequent, open and honest.
An organisation that encourages reguler
communication will be an organisation that is able to
respond to thedynamics of external pressures.
Communication can take many forms, for example,
newsletters, meetings, and personal dialogue.
Organisational Communication occurs:
1) across boundaries in to and out of an organisation
2) within boundaries- around an organisation, and
23
3) across levels from top to bottom and from bottom
18 . Performance Measures of Leadership
There is no direct quatitative measure
for leadership.

Leadership in business is the fusion of


work and human relations, Good ideas
and exciting directions for an enterprise
generale enthusiasm, support, and
cohesion.
Self esteem follows not from submering
oneself in the team and following
process, but from facing problems,
assuming responsibility , and doing
good work.

Dynamic leadership is vital if an


24
organisation wishes to meet the
19. Business Direction
Performance Quality Guide
Measures
Market Share & Customer
Feedback Directio Customer
n Satisfaction
Strategy
Structure
Employees
TOOLS
The second business driver in the organisational
Analysis Model is direction.
Establishing a direction for an organisation ensures that
all decisions made within an organisation are in sjupport
of such direction.
Business drivers: there are three subcomponents that
make up this business driver. They are: Vision,
mission and values 25
Quality guide: to ensure the direction of an organisation
Performance Measures
1) Market share
Market share serves to keep an
organisation aware of
competitor reactions and customer
acceptance
2) Customer feedback
the soliciting of feedback from customers,
on regular basis, ensures that an organisation
is reacting to customer requirements. By
reacting to customer requirements an
organisation is driving towards in goal of
satisfying customers.
Both market share and customer feeddback mus be
reviewed together.
Growth in market share could solely be related to a
new product that is successful.
A company in this position will most certainly enjoy
26
20. Business Strategy
Performance Quality Guide
Measures
Directio
n
Net Profit & ROE Strategy Continuous
Improvement
Structure
Employees
TOOLS
The third business driver in the organisational analysis
Model is strategy
.the most committed work force in the world will still
fail if its organization has the wrong stucture and
strategy.
Business driver: successful organisations articulate
three substrategies:
1) The Market strategy
27
2) The Financial Strategy
21. The Market Strategy
1 3
Produc Custo
ts 2
Service Distribution mer
s Channels Target

Offere
d

A market strategy defines the target market,


the product and/or services to be offered by
an organisation.

The price they are going to be sold for and


their characteristics, and the means of
distributing these products and or services 28
22. The Financial Strategy
Expens Income
es
Financial
Strategy
Assets Liabilitie
s

A financial strategy deals with financial aspects of an


enterprise, that is, how the business is going to be
financially supported.
the strategy contains elements such as projected
income and expenses, asset requirements and liability
management.
Other common items included are funding needs
( through debt or equity), operating terms (for 29
customers and suppliers), currently implications and
23. The Operation Strategy

Directi
on
Strategy
Structure
IMPLEMENTATI
ON Employees
TOOLS
The Operation strategy that is, the process by which a market
plan is translated into biz activity, is the focus of this book.
The key components in an operations strategy , that is,
structure, employees, and tools.
Combined, these three substrategies ( market, finance and
operations) together with an organisationss direction, form a
business plan for an enterprise.
It must also be noted that these three substrategis are
dynamically interlinked. 30
24. Quality Guide & Performance
Quality Measure
Performance
Guide
Continuous NetMeasure
Profit
Improvement Return On
Equity
Continous improvement : there are only three possible
outcomes for an organisation: it can grow, it can remain
static or it can decline.
The masure of an organisations success in achieving its
strategy is the continued growth of the profitability of
the enterprise. This needs to be expressed in term of a
percentage, that is, net profit agaoinst sales revenue.
Return on Equity: shareholders invest in an
organisation with the objective of increasing their
wealth. The measuring of organisational profitability
(return) against sharegolder investment (equity)
provides the means to understand of that objective is
being met. A declining return on equity usually deters31
investors.
25. CORE VALUES AND CONCEPTS
VISIONARY
VISIONARY ETHICS
ETHICSAND
AND ORGANIZATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONAL
LEADERSHIP TRANSPARANCY LEARNING
LEADERSHIP TRANSPARANCY LEARNINGAND
AND
AGILITY
AGILITY

MANAGINGFOR
MANAGING FOR
INNOVATION VALUINGPEOPLE
VALUING PEOPLE
INNOVATION

FOCUSON
ON CUSTOMERFOCUSED
CUSTOMER FOCUSED
FOCUS
SUCCESS
CORE VALUES EXCELLENCE
EXCELLENCE
SUCCESS

SOCIAL
SOCIAL DELIVERINGVALUE
VALUEAND
AND MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT
RESPONSIBILITY DELIVERING BYFACT
FACT
RESPONSIBILITY RESULTS
RESULTS BY
26. BUSINESS CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE EXCELLECE FRAMEWORK :
A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE

ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE :

ENVIRONMENT, RELATIONSHIPS AND SITUATION

5
2
WORKFORCE
STRATEGY

1
LEADERSHIP 7
RESULTS

3 6
CUSTOMER OPERATION

4
MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND KNOWLEDGE
MANAGEMENT
27. Thinking Perspective

The Organizational Profile

The Leadership Triad


The Results Triead

7.1.
7.1. Product
Product and
and Process
Process
2. Results
Results
2. Strategy 5. Workforce 7.2.
7.2. Customer
Customer Focussed
Focussed
Results
Results
1. Leadership 7.3.
7.3. Workforce
Workforce Focused
Focused
Results
Results
7.4
7.4 Leadership
Leadership and
and
6. Operation Governance
Governance Results
Results
3. Customers 7.5.
7.5. Financial
Financial &
& Market
Market Result
Result

4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management

The System
Foundation