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Mathematics
Chapter 3.1 Indices, Surds

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Syllabus
3.1 Indices and Surds
Use algebraic rules to simplify surds
Rationalize surds
Use algebraic rules for indices to simplify
expressions

## Review (Class Quiz)

2
3.1 Indices and Surds
Index, exponential, power

aa a 2

Base

3
Indices Rule 1
a a
2 3

aaaaa
a 5

23
a
mn
a a a
m n

4
Indices Rule 2
5 3
a a
aaaaa

aaa
aa
mn
a 2
a a a
m n

5 3
a
5
Indices Rule 3
5 3
(a )
From Rule 1
a a a
5 5 5
a a a
m n mn

5 5 5
a
a 15
(a ) a
m n mn

53
a 6
Indices Rule 4
a b
3 3

aaabbb
(a b)(a b)(a b)
( a b) 3

a b (ab)
m m m

7
Indices Rule 5
a b
3 3

aaa

bbb
a a a
( )( )( )
b b b
a 3
( )
b a b ( a b)
m m m

8
Indices Rule 6, 7
Negative and zero exponents

3 27
3
3
3 92 a 10

3 m 1
3 3
1 a m
3 a
3 ?1
0

1 1 3
3 ? 3

3 2
?
1 1
2
3
9 3

3 ?3 1 1
3 3 9
27 3
Indices Rule 8
2 1
1
2 1
a 2 a 2
a n n
a

2 m
12 a n
n
a m
( a)
n m
a a

1
a a a
2 2

10
Irrational Number
Number that cannot be expressed as a fraction
of two integers

2 6
1
2 11
RATIONAL NUMBER
Rational numbers are : numbers which
can be expressed in the form a/b
where aand b are integers and b 0

12
Think!
Which of the following is NOT a irrational number?
2

x
1
3
25
x 27 1 2 1
( )
3 9
5
5
1 26 Irrational number

1 1

x
Irrational number

27 36
13
Surd Rules
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

a a a
m n m n (a ) a
m n mn

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

a a a
m n m n a b (ab)
m m m

1 1 1
a b ( a b)
m m m

## We can use the above rules to:

simplify two or more surds or
combining them into one single surd 14
IN FORM OF SURDS

m n
m
a. a
n mn
a

mn
m
a: an mn
a

m
a: bm m
a :b
THE SURDS
If a and b are real numbers and n is a
positive integer, then :
n n
a b b a
With :
n
b is reffered as root (radical)
b is called radicand (the basic number that its
root is to be extracted)
n is called index (root exponent)

16
SIMPLIFYING THE SURD
If a and b are real numbers, and n is a
positive integer, so:
n
a
n
a
n
n
a
mn
a m
n
a
m
a. b
m m
a.b
a.b a. b
17
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

27 243

9 3 81 3 1 1 1
(ab) a b
m m m

9 3 81 3
3 3 9 3
Common Factor : 3
3 (9 3)

12 3 18
ALGEBRAIC OPERATION IN THE
SURDS
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF THE SURDS
The surds which are able to be added or subtracted
directly-are only the surds which have same indexes
and radicands. In general its written :

1. a. x b. x (a b) x
n n n

2. a. x b. x (a b) x
n n n

## When the numbers which exist in the radical symbol

or subtracted, if it is possible the numbers should
be equalized first.
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :
175 112 28

25 7 16 7 4 7 1 1 1
(ab) a b
m m m

25 7 16 7 4 7
5 7 4 7 2 7
Common Factor : 7
7 (5 4 2)

7 7
20
MULTIPLIYING THE
SURDS
The surds whose root exponents (indexes) are same
can be using of following formula.

a. xn
. b.n y ab.n xy
If the indexes are not same, so before they are
multiplied, the indexes should be equated first if
it is possible.

21
Consider the following formulas:

a b 2
(a b) 2 a b
(a b) 2 a b a b

2
a b (a b) 2 a b
(a b) 2 a b a b , a b

22
DIVISION OF THE
SURDS
The surds whose indixes are the same
can be divided directly by using the
following formula.

n
a x a x
n
b y b y
n

23
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

4 3 12 27

4 3 4 3 3 9

4 32 3 3 3
3 ( 4 2) 3

x
8 3 2 3
2
3 3
24
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :
2 21 27 343
21327
2
343 49
3 27
2
49
81
2( )
49
2 81 2 9 4
2
49 7 7 25
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

8 3 2 48 243

8 3 2 16 3 81 3

8 3 2( 16 ) 3 81 3

8 3 8 3 9 3

9 3

26
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

2 3 3 2 2

2 3
( 2 a3 3b2 ) a 2ab2
2 3
2
3 2
b3 2 2

2
2
3 2

2 2 3 3 2 (3) 2 ( 2 ) 2

4 3 2 2 3 6 (9)(2)

12 12 6 18

6(5 2 6 )

27
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex ;

2 3 3 3
2 2

2 3a 2
3 3b 2
(2 a 3 3 b 3 )( 2 a 3 3 b 3 )

5 2 3 3 3
5 1 2 3

5(2 3 1)
28
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

2
3
3 1 1 4 3 2

2 3 1 2 3 1 1 21 4 3 4 3

2 2

2 3 1 2 3 1 1 8 3 4 3
2 2

2 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 1 8 3 16 3

2

2 3 1 13 4 3 49 8 3
26 3 24 13 4 3 49 8 3
22 3 12 2(11 3 6) 29
Rationalization of the Denominator
Process of removing a surd from the denominator
1
Example:
2

1
1
2
2 2
1 2

Multiple together!
2 2

2 2

2 2 2 30
2 2
Example: 1 32
32
32 32
2 32 Note!

32 32 Multiple together!

Objective is

2 32
to remove
surds from
denominator
32 32 Conjugate Surds

2 32
3 2
2 2 (a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

2 3 2 2 34

3 4 1
2 3 4 31
Re-look into the question: 2
32
2 32
Multiply conjugate
surds 32 32

2 32
Multiply denominator
and numerator
32 32

2 32
(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2
3 2
2
2

2 34
42 3
1 32
Exercise 2
Rationalize the denominators: 7 2
2 7 2
Multiply conjugate
surds 7 2 7 2

2 7 2
Multiply denominator
and numerator

7 2 7 2

2 7 2
(a b)(a b) a b
2 2 7 2
2
2

2 7 2
2 7 2
74 3 33
Exercise 3 3
Rationalize the denominators: 3 1

3 3 3 1
Multiply conjugate
surds 3 1 3 1

3 3 3 1
Multiply denominator
and numerator
3 1 3 1

3
2
3 3 3 3
3 2
1
2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

3 2 3 3 2 3

34 3

3 1 2
Exercise 2 2 1
Rationalize the denominators: 4 2 3

2 2 1 4 2 3

Multiply conjugate 4 2 3 4 2 3
surds
2 2 1 4 2 3

Multiply denominator 4 2 3 4 2 3
and numerator

2
2 1 4 2 3
4 2 2
3
2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

16 6 2 4 2 3
32 9

19 10 2 35

23
Exercise 3 2 2 3
Rationalize the denominators: 3 2 2 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

Multiply conjugate 3 22 3 3 2 2 3
surds

3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
Multiply denominator
and numerator

3 2 2 3 2

3 2 2 3
2 2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

3 2 2

23 2 2 3 2 3 2

3 2 2 3
2 2

9 2 12 6 4 3
9 2 4 3
30 12 6
52 6 36
6
Exercise 7 32 5
Rationalize the denominators: 3 52 3

7 32 5 3 52 3
Multiply conjugate
3 5 2 3 3 5 2 3
surds

7
32 5 3 52 3
Multiply denominator
and numerator
3
5 2 3 3 5 2 3

21 15 42 30 4 15
45 12
(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2
25 15 72

33
37
Exercise
Rationalize the denominators:
1 1

Determine the LCM 3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7
1 3 7 1 3 7

Multiply denominator 3 7
3 7
3 7
3 7

and numerator
3 7 3 7

3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7 2 3

3 7 3 7
37
2 3 3

4 2 38
Exercise 3A
3 5 3 5
Rationalize the denominators:
( 5 3) ( 3 5 )2
2

## Expand the denominators 3 5 3 5

( 5 )2 2 5 3 ( 3)2 ( 3)2 2 3 5 ( 5 )2
3 5 3 5

5 2 15 3 3 2 15 5
3 5 3 5

8 2 15 8 2 15
3 5 3 5

Find the LCM 2 4 15 4 15
2(4 15 ) 2(4 15 )

3 5 (4 15 ) 3 5 (4 15 )

2(4 15 ) (4 15 ) 2(4 15 ) (4 15 )
(12 3 15 4 5 75 ) (12 3 15 4 5 75 )

2(16 15)
2(12 75 )
12 5 3 39
2(1)
Exercise 53 2 3 2

Rationalize the denominators: 4 2 5 4 2 5

53 2 3 2

42 5
Same denominator 8 2 2 4 2 5

42 5 42 5

(8 2 2 )(4 2 5 )

(4 2 5 )(4 2 5 )
Rationalization
32 16 5 8 2 4 10

16 20

32 16 5 8 2 4 10
8 4 5 2 2 10
4 40
Exercise :
1
2 k 2
2
5 3 k
k
2

5 3 8 2 15 8 2 15

k2
5 3 2
8 2 15 8 2 15
5 3
2
8 2 15 8 2 15 8 2 15 8 2 15
8 2 15 8 2 15

8 2 15 8 2 15
5 2 15 3
k 2

5 2 15 3
8 2 15 8 2 15
2 2

8 2 15 8 2 15
k
8 2 15
2
64 32
15 60 64 32 15 60
8 2 15 64 60
1 1
124 124
1 8 2 15 4
, k 2
2
8 2 15
k 8 8 2 21515 248
62 41
4
1 1
Exercise :
k 2 31 8 15
OR 2
5 3 1 31 8 15
k
2

Rationalize
5 3 k First 31 8 15 31 8 15

k2
5
3
2

2
31 8 15

5 3 5 3 961 64 15 1
k 2
2

k2
5 2 15 3 2
31 8 15 k
5 3 961 960
31 8 15 31 8 15
8 2 15
k2 2 31 8 15 62
2

k 2 (4 15 ) 2 16 2 4 15 15
31 8 15

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Homework

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Exercise
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