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Additional

Additional Mathematics
Mathematics
Chapter 3.1 Indices, Surds

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Syllabus
3.1 Indices and Surds
Use algebraic rules to simplify surds
Rationalize surds
Use algebraic rules for indices to simplify
expressions

Review (Class Quiz)

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3.1 Indices and Surds
Index, exponential, power

aa a 2

Base

3
Indices Rule 1
a a
2 3

aaaaa
a 5

23
a
mn
a a a
m n

4
Indices Rule 2
5 3
a a
aaaaa

aaa
aa
mn
a 2
a a a
m n

5 3
a
5
Indices Rule 3
5 3
(a )
From Rule 1
a a a
5 5 5
a a a
m n mn

5 5 5
a
a 15
(a ) a
m n mn

53
a 6
Indices Rule 4
a b
3 3

aaabbb
(a b)(a b)(a b)
( a b) 3

a b (ab)
m m m

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Indices Rule 5
a b
3 3

aaa

bbb
a a a
( )( )( )
b b b
a 3
( )
b a b ( a b)
m m m

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Indices Rule 6, 7
Negative and zero exponents

3 27
3
3
3 92 a 10

3 m 1
3 3
1 a m
3 a
3 ?1
0

1 1 3
3 ? 3

3 2
?
1 1
2
3
9 3

3 ?3 1 1
3 3 9
27 3
Indices Rule 8
2 1
1
2 1
a 2 a 2
a n n
a

2 m
12 a n
n
a m
( a)
n m
a a


1
a a a
2 2

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Irrational Number
Number that cannot be expressed as a fraction
of two integers

2 6
1
2 11
RATIONAL NUMBER
Rational numbers are : numbers which
can be expressed in the form a/b
where aand b are integers and b 0

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Think!
Which of the following is NOT a irrational number?
2

x
1
3
25
x 27 1 2 1
( )
3 9
5
5
1 26 Irrational number

1 1

x
Irrational number

27 36
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Surd Rules
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

a a a
m n m n (a ) a
m n mn

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

a a a
m n m n a b (ab)
m m m

1 1 1
a b ( a b)
m m m

We can use the above rules to:


simplify two or more surds or
combining them into one single surd 14
IN FORM OF SURDS

m n
m
a. a
n mn
a

mn
m
a: an mn
a

m
a: bm m
a :b
THE SURDS
If a and b are real numbers and n is a
positive integer, then :
n n
a b b a
With :
n
b is reffered as root (radical)
b is called radicand (the basic number that its
root is to be extracted)
n is called index (root exponent)

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SIMPLIFYING THE SURD
If a and b are real numbers, and n is a
positive integer, so:
n
a
n
a
n
n
a
mn
a m
n
a
m
a. b
m m
a.b
a.b a. b
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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

27 243

9 3 81 3 1 1 1
(ab) a b
m m m


9 3 81 3
3 3 9 3
Common Factor : 3
3 (9 3)

12 3 18
ALGEBRAIC OPERATION IN THE
SURDS
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF THE SURDS
The surds which are able to be added or subtracted
directly-are only the surds which have same indexes
and radicands. In general its written :

1. a. x b. x (a b) x
n n n

2. a. x b. x (a b) x
n n n

When the numbers which exist in the radical symbol


(radicand) is not same, then before they added up
or subtracted, if it is possible the numbers should
be equalized first.
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :
175 112 28

25 7 16 7 4 7 1 1 1
(ab) a b
m m m


25 7 16 7 4 7
5 7 4 7 2 7
Common Factor : 7
7 (5 4 2)

7 7
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MULTIPLIYING THE
SURDS
The surds whose root exponents (indexes) are same
can be using of following formula.

a. xn
. b.n y ab.n xy
If the indexes are not same, so before they are
multiplied, the indexes should be equated first if
it is possible.

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Consider the following formulas:

a b 2
(a b) 2 a b
(a b) 2 a b a b

2
a b (a b) 2 a b
(a b) 2 a b a b , a b

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DIVISION OF THE
SURDS
The surds whose indixes are the same
can be divided directly by using the
following formula.

n
a x a x
n
b y b y
n

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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

4 3 12 27

4 3 4 3 3 9

4 32 3 3 3
3 ( 4 2) 3

x
8 3 2 3
2
3 3
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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :
2 21 27 343
21327
2
343 49
3 27
2
49
81
2( )
49
2 81 2 9 4
2
49 7 7 25
Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

8 3 2 48 243

8 3 2 16 3 81 3


8 3 2( 16 ) 3 81 3


8 3 8 3 9 3

9 3

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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

2 3 3 2 2

2 3
( 2 a3 3b2 ) a 2ab2
2 3
2
3 2
b3 2 2

2
2
3 2

2 2 3 3 2 (3) 2 ( 2 ) 2

4 3 2 2 3 6 (9)(2)

12 12 6 18

6(5 2 6 )

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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex ;

2 3 3 3
2 2

2 3a 2
3 3b 2
(2 a 3 3 b 3 )( 2 a 3 3 b 3 )


5 2 3 3 3
5 1 2 3

5(2 3 1)
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Simplify each of the following surds
Ex :

2
3
3 1 1 4 3 2


2 3 1 2 3 1 1 21 4 3 4 3


2 2



2 3 1 2 3 1 1 8 3 4 3
2 2


2 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 1 8 3 16 3


2




2 3 1 13 4 3 49 8 3
26 3 24 13 4 3 49 8 3
22 3 12 2(11 3 6) 29
Rationalization of the Denominator
Process of removing a surd from the denominator
1
Example:
2

1
1
2
2 2
1 2

Multiple together!
2 2

2 2

2 2 2 30
2 2
Example: 1 32
32
32 32
2 32 Note!

32 32 Multiple together!

Objective is


2 32
to remove
surds from
denominator
32 32 Conjugate Surds



2 32
3 2
2 2 (a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

2 3 2 2 34

3 4 1
2 3 4 31
Re-look into the question: 2
32
2 32
Multiply conjugate
surds 32 32



2 32
Multiply denominator
and numerator
32 32


2 32
(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2
3 2
2
2

2 34
42 3
1 32
Exercise 2
Rationalize the denominators: 7 2
2 7 2
Multiply conjugate
surds 7 2 7 2



2 7 2
Multiply denominator
and numerator

7 2 7 2


2 7 2
(a b)(a b) a b
2 2 7 2
2
2


2 7 2
2 7 2
74 3 33
Exercise 3 3
Rationalize the denominators: 3 1

3 3 3 1
Multiply conjugate
surds 3 1 3 1


3 3 3 1
Multiply denominator
and numerator
3 1 3 1

3
2
3 3 3 3
3 2
1
2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2


3 2 3 3 2 3


34 3

3 1 2
Exercise 2 2 1
Rationalize the denominators: 4 2 3

2 2 1 4 2 3

Multiply conjugate 4 2 3 4 2 3
surds
2 2 1 4 2 3

Multiply denominator 4 2 3 4 2 3
and numerator


2
2 1 4 2 3
4 2 2
3
2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

16 6 2 4 2 3
32 9

19 10 2 35

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Exercise 3 2 2 3
Rationalize the denominators: 3 2 2 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

Multiply conjugate 3 22 3 3 2 2 3
surds

3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
Multiply denominator
and numerator

3 2 2 3 2

3 2 2 3
2 2

(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2

3 2 2

23 2 2 3 2 3 2

3 2 2 3
2 2


9 2 12 6 4 3
9 2 4 3
30 12 6
52 6 36
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Exercise 7 32 5
Rationalize the denominators: 3 52 3

7 32 5 3 52 3
Multiply conjugate
3 5 2 3 3 5 2 3
surds


7
32 5 3 52 3
Multiply denominator
and numerator
3
5 2 3 3 5 2 3


21 15 42 30 4 15
45 12
(a b)(a b) a 2 b 2
25 15 72

33
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Exercise
Rationalize the denominators:
1 1

Determine the LCM 3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7
1 3 7 1 3 7

Multiply denominator 3 7
3 7
3 7
3 7

and numerator
3 7 3 7


3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7
3 7 3 7 2 3


3 7 3 7
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2 3 3

4 2 38
Exercise 3A
3 5 3 5
Rationalize the denominators:
( 5 3) ( 3 5 )2
2

Expand the denominators 3 5 3 5



( 5 )2 2 5 3 ( 3)2 ( 3)2 2 3 5 ( 5 )2
3 5 3 5

5 2 15 3 3 2 15 5
3 5 3 5

8 2 15 8 2 15
3 5 3 5

Find the LCM 2 4 15 4 15
2(4 15 ) 2(4 15 )

3 5 (4 15 ) 3 5 (4 15 )

2(4 15 ) (4 15 ) 2(4 15 ) (4 15 )
(12 3 15 4 5 75 ) (12 3 15 4 5 75 )

2(16 15)
2(12 75 )
12 5 3 39
2(1)
Exercise 53 2 3 2

Rationalize the denominators: 4 2 5 4 2 5

53 2 3 2

42 5
Same denominator 8 2 2 4 2 5

42 5 42 5

(8 2 2 )(4 2 5 )

(4 2 5 )(4 2 5 )
Rationalization
32 16 5 8 2 4 10

16 20

32 16 5 8 2 4 10
8 4 5 2 2 10
4 40
Exercise :
1
2 k 2
2
5 3 k
k
2


5 3 8 2 15 8 2 15

k2
5 3 2
8 2 15 8 2 15
5 3
2
8 2 15 8 2 15 8 2 15 8 2 15
8 2 15 8 2 15

8 2 15 8 2 15
5 2 15 3
k 2

5 2 15 3
8 2 15 8 2 15
2 2

8 2 15 8 2 15
k
8 2 15
2
64 32
15 60 64 32 15 60
8 2 15 64 60
1 1
124 124
1 8 2 15 4
, k 2
2
8 2 15
k 8 8 2 21515 248
62 41
4
1 1
Exercise :
k 2 31 8 15
OR 2
5 3 1 31 8 15
k
2

Rationalize
5 3 k First 31 8 15 31 8 15

k2
5
3
2

2
31 8 15

5 3 5 3 961 64 15 1
k 2
2

k2
5 2 15 3 2
31 8 15 k
5 3 961 960
31 8 15 31 8 15
8 2 15
k2 2 31 8 15 62
2

k 2 (4 15 ) 2 16 2 4 15 15
31 8 15

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Homework

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