Anda di halaman 1dari 69

2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

Groups: Process & Practice


7th ed.

by Marianne Schneider Corey & Gerald Corey

Wadsworth
A division of
Thomson Learning, Inc.
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Introduction to Group Work
The Coreys Perspective on Groups
Groups are not a second-rate approach to helping
people change
Groups are the treatment of choice
Groups offer a natural laboratory where people can
experiment with new ways of being
There is power in a group participants can

Transparency 2
experience their interpersonal difficulties being
played out in the group
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 1 (1)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group Process Versus
Group Techniques
Group process all the elements that are basic to the
unfolding of a group from beginning to end
Examples: group norms, generating trust, how conflict
emerges in a group, patterns of resistance,
intermember feedback
Group techniques leader interventions aimed at
facilitating movement within a group
Examples: conducting initial interviews, asking a

Transparency 3
member to role-play a conflict, challenging a members
belief system, suggesting homework
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 1 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Theory Behind the Practice
An integrative conceptual framework involves the
thinking, feeling, and behaving dimensions
Creating an integrative approach is a challenge
Technical eclecticism based on utilizing techniques
from a variety of theoretical models
Theoretical integration a conceptual creation
beyond mere blending of techniques

Transparency 4
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 1 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Various Types of Groups
Task groups aims to foster accomplishing identified work
goals
Psychoeducational group aims to educate well-
functioning group members who want to acquire
information and skills in an area of living
Group counseling aims at preventive and educational
purposes utilizes methods of interactive feedback within
a here-and-now time framework
Group psychotherapy aims at remediation of in-depth

Transparency 5
psychological problems often focuses on past influences
of present difficulties
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 1 (4)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
A Multicultural Perspective
on Group Work
Effective group work involves considering culture
of participants
Practitioners cannot afford to ignore diversity in
group work
Group workers must have awareness, knowledge,
and skills to effectively deal with diverse membership
Cultural similarities and differences need to be

Transparency 6
addressed in a group

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 1 (5)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Group Counselor:
Person and Professional
Some personal characteristics of effective group
leaders
Courage Presence
Goodwill and caring Openness
Becoming aware of Personal power
your own culture Willingness to seek
Stamina new experiences

Transparency 7
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 2 (1)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group-Leadership Skills
Essential to acquire and refine skills applied to
group work
Group leadership skills cannot be separated
from the leaders personality
It is an art to learn how to use group skills
Ways to learn leadership skills supervised
experience, practice, feedback, and experience in a

Transparency 8
group as a member

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 2 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
A Few Group Leadership Skills
Clarifying Modeling
Linking Blocking
Suggesting Summarizing
Interpreting Terminating
Facilitating

Transparency 9
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 2 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Becoming a Diversity-Sensitive
Group Counselor
Diversity competence involves a deep
understanding of ones own culture
Culturally competent group workers need to:
Be aware of their biases, stereotypes, and prejudices
Know something about the members of the group
Be able to apply skills and interventions that are
congruent with the worldviews of the members

Transparency 10
Ethical practice entails diversity competence

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 2 (4)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Guidelines for Competence:
Diversity Issues in Groups
Group workers need to:
Consider the impact of adverse environmental factors
in assessing problems of group members
Be aware of how their values and beliefs influence their
facilitation of a group
Respect the roles of family and community hierarchies
within a members culture
Respect members religious and spiritual beliefs
and values

Transparency 11
Acknowledge that ethnicity and culture
influence behavior
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 2 (5)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Best Practice Guidelines
of ASGW (1998)
Professional competence in group work is not a final product,
but a continuous process for the duration of ones career
Some suggestions for increasing your level of competence as a
group leader:
Keep current through continuing education and participation
in personal and professional development activities
Be open to seeking personal counseling if you recognize
problems that could impair your ability to facilitate a group
Be willing to seek consultation and supervision

Transparency 12
as needed

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Professional Training Standards
for Group Workers
ASGW (2000) has recommendations for what
constitutes competence as a group facilitator
Knowledge competencies: course work is essential
Skills competencies: specific group facilitation skills
are required for effectively intervening
Core specialization in group work: task facilitation
groups; psychoeducational groups; counseling

Transparency 13
groups; psychotherapy groups

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Ethical and Legal Issues
in Group Counseling
Informed consent
Provide members with adequate information that will
allow them to decide if they want to join a group
Some information to give prospective members:
The nature of the group
The goals of the group
The general structure of the sessions

Transparency 14
What is expected of them if they join
What they can expect from you as a leader

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (3)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Involuntary Group Membership
Many groups are composed of involuntary members
The challenge is to demonstrate the value of a group
for members
Basic information about the group is essential
Avoid assuming that involuntary members will not
want to change

Transparency 15
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (4)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Psychological Risks
of Group Participation
Although there are benefits to participating in a
group, there are also potential risks that group
leaders need to monitor
Members may be pressured to disclose and
violate privacy
Confidentiality may be broken
Scapegoating may occur
Confrontation may be done in an uncaring manner

Transparency 16
Group leaders may not have the competencies to deal
with some difficulties that arise in a group
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (5)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Confidentiality
Confidentiality is the foundation of a working group
Leaders need to define the parameters of confidentiality
including its limitations in a group setting
Members need to be taught what confidentiality involves
Leaders talk to members about the consequences of
breaching confidentiality
Leaders remind members at various points in a group

Transparency 17
of the importance of maintaining confidentiality

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (6)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Guidelines for Using
Techniques Ethically
Your techniques should have a rationale
Introduce techniques in a sensitive and
timely manner
Dont stick to a technique if it is not working
effectively
Give members a choice invite them to experiment
with some behavior
Use techniques that are appropriate to the members
cultural values

Transparency 18
Techniques are best developed in response to what
is happening in the here-and-now
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (7)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Role of Group Leader Values
Essential that you are aware of your values and how
they influence what you think, say, and do in groups
Groups are not a forum for you to impose your values
on members
Purpose of a group: to assist members in examining
options that are most congruent with their values
Group members have the task of clarifying their own

Transparency 19
values and goals, making informed choices, and
assuming responsibility for what they do
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (8)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Some Legal Safeguards
for Group Practitioners
Take time and care in screening candidates for a
group; and for preparing them on how to actively
participate
Demystify the group process
Strive to develop collaborative relationships with
the members
Consult with colleagues or supervisors whenever
there is a potential ethical or legal concern

Transparency 20
Incorporate ethical standards in the practice of
group work
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 3 (9)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Forming a Group
Five areas for a practical proposal for a group
Rationale What is the rationale for your group?
Objectives Are your objectives specific and
attainable?
Practical considerations Have you considered all the
relevant practical issues in forming your group?
Procedures What kinds of techniques and
interventions will you employ to attain the
stated objectives?

Transparency 21
Evaluation How will you evaluate the process and
outcomes of the group?
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 4 (1)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Questions for Screening
of Potential Members
The type of group determines the kind of members that
are suitable or unsuitable
The key questions are
Should this person be included in this group at this time
with this leader?
Other questions -What methods of screening will you use?
How can you decide who may benefit from a group?
And who might not fit in a group?

Transparency 22
How might you deal with a candidate who is not
accepted to your group?
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 4 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Practical Considerations
in Forming a Group
Group composition
Group size
Open versus closed group
Length of the group
Frequency and duration of meetings
Place for group sessions

Transparency 23
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 4 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Some Advantages of a Group
Group setting offers support for new behavior and
encourages experimentation
The group is a microcosm of the real world allows
us to see how we relate to others
Group setting provides an optimal arena for
members to discover how they are perceived and
experienced by others
Groups help members see that they are not alone in

Transparency 24
their concerns

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 4 (4)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
A Few Misconceptions
About Groups
Groups are suited for everyone
The main goal of a group is for everyone to
achieve closeness
Groups tell people how they should be
Group pressure forces members to lose their sense
of identity
Groups are artificial and unreal

Transparency 25
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 4 (5)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Initial Stage of a Group
Characteristics of initial stage
Participants test the atmosphere and get acquainted
Risk taking is relatively low exploration is tentative
Members are concerned with whether they are
included or excluded
A central issue is trust versus mistrust
There are periods of silence and awkwardness

Transparency 26
Members are deciding how much they will disclose
and how safe the group is

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Common Fears Experienced
by Group Members
Anxiety over being accepted or rejected
Concern about the judgment of others
Afraid of appearing stupid
Concerns about not fitting into the group
Not knowing what is expected
Concern over communicating feelings and thoughts

Transparency 27
effectively

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Advantages of Developing
a Here-And-Now Focus
Dealing with the here-and-now energizes the group
Members are best known by disclosing here-and-now
experiencing
Being in the here-and-now serves as a springboard
for exploring everyday life concerns

Transparency 28
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Leader Attitudes and Behaviors
That Generate Trust
Careful attending and genuine listening
Empathy
Genuineness and self-disclosure
Respect
Caring confrontation

Transparency 29
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (4)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Establishing Goals
Main task helping members formulate clear and
specific goals
Absence of goals considerable floundering and
aimless sessions
Collaborative process in identifying goals
Goals lead to contracts and homework
assignments

Transparency 30
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (5)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group Norms
Norms and procedures enable a group to attain its goals
Examples of group norms
Expectation of promptness and regular attendance
Norm of sharing oneself in personal ways
Expectation of giving meaningful feedback
Members encouraged to offer both support and challenge
to others

Transparency 31
Members functioning within the here-and-now context
of the group

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (6)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Member Guidelines to Benefit
from a Group
Express persistent reactions
Come prepared to group sessions
Decide for yourself what and how much to disclose
Be an active participant
Be open to feedback and consider what you hear
Experiment with new behavior in group

Transparency 32
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (7)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group Leader Issues
at the Initial Stage
Division of responsibility How to achieve a balance
of sharing responsibility with members?
Degree of structuring Creating a structure that
will enable members to make maximum use of
group process
Opening group sessions How to best open a group
and help members gain a focus?
Closing group sessions How to best bring a

Transparency 33
session to closure without closing down further
work later on?
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 5 (8)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Transition Stage of a Group
Characteristics of the transition stage
Transitional phase is marked by feelings of
anxiety and defenses
Members are:
testing the leader and other members to determine how
safe the environment is
struggling between wanting to play it safe and wanting to
risk getting involved
observing the leader to determine if he or she
is trustworthy

Transparency 34
learning how to express themselves so that others
will listen

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Barometer of Trust in a Group
Some signs of a low level of trust
Members are:
Hesitant in expressing what they are thinking
and feeling
Unwilling to initiate personally meaningful work
Denying that they have any problems or concerns
Hiding behind global statements and

Transparency 35
intellectualizations
Not willing to deal with conflict in the group

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Thoughts on Dealing with
Resistance Therapeutically
Dont label all hesitations as a sign of resistance
Respect resistance Realize that member resistance
may be serving a function
Invite members to explore the meaning of what
appears to be resistance
Describe behavior of members avoid making too
many interpretations

Transparency 36
Approach resistance with interest, understanding,
and compassion
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Common Fears Emerging
at the Transition Stage
Fear of making a fool of oneself
Fear of emptiness
Fear of losing control
Fear of being too emotional
Fear of self-disclosure
Fear of taking too much of the groups time

Transparency 37
Fear of being judged

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (4)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Some Guidelines
for Effective Confrontation
If you confront, know why you are confronting
Confront if you care about the other
In confronting another talk more about yourself
than the other person
Avoid dogmatic statements and judgments about
the other
Give others the space to reflect on what you

Transparency 38
say to them

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (5)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group Leader Interventions in Dealing with
Difficult Behaviors of Group Members
Avoid responding with sarcasm
State your observations and hunches in a
tentative way
Demonstrate sensitivity to a members culture
Avoid taking members behavior in an overly
personal way
Encourage members to explore a resistance dont

Transparency 39
demand they give up a particular resistive behavior

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (6)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Examples of Problematic Styles
of Behaving in a Group
Silence
Monopolistic behavior
Storytelling
Giving advice
Questioning
Dependency

Transparency 40
Intellectualizing

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (7)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Leader Functions During
the Transition Stage
Show members the value of recognizing and dealing
fully with conflict situations
Help members to recognize their own patterns
of defensiveness
Teach members to respect resistance and to work
constructively with the many forms it takes
Provide a model for members by dealing directly
and tactfully with any challenge

Transparency 41
Encourage members to express reactions that
pertain to here-and-now happenings in the sessions
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 6 (8)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Working Stage of a Group
Key points of the working stage
There are no arbitrary dividing lines between each stage
of group
Group development ebbs and flows does not stay static
Work can occur at every stage not just the working stage
Not all groups reach a working stage
Not all members are functioning at the same level in a

Transparency 42
working stage

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Group Norms and Behavior
at the Working Stage
At the working stage of a group there is further
development and solidification of group norms
established earlier
Some group behaviors at the working stage
Both support and challenge to take risks in group
Leader uses a variety of therapeutic interventions
Members interact with each other in more direct ways
Healing capacity develops within the group

Transparency 43
Increased group cohesion fosters action-oriented
behaviors
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Characteristics of a
Productive Group
There is a focus on the here and now
Goals of members are clear and specific
Cohesion is high a sense of emotional bonding
in the group
Conflict in the group is recognized and explored
Members are willing to make themselves known

Transparency 44
Trust is increased and there is a sense of safety

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (3)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Characteristics of a
Nonworking Group
Mistrust is manifested by an undercurrent of
unexpressed feelings
Participants focus more on others than themselves
Participants hold back disclosure is minimal
Members may feel distant from one another
Conflicts are ignored or avoided

Transparency 45
Communication is unclear and indirect

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (4)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Choices to be Made During
the Working Stage
Disclosure versus anonymity
Honesty versus superficiality
Spontaneity versus control
Acceptance versus rejection
Cohesion versus fragmentation

Transparency 46
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (5)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Value of Homework in Groups
Group: not an end in itself
Group is:
A place to learn new behaviors
A place to acquire a range of skills in living
Training ground for everyday life
Homework a means for maximizing what is learned
in group
Members can devise their own homework assignments

Transparency 47
Ideally, homework is designed collaboratively between
members and leader
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (6)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Therapeutic Factors Operating
in Groups
Self-Disclosure Caring and Acceptance
Confrontation Power
Feedback Catharsis
Cohesion and Universality The Cognitive Component
Hope Commitment to Change
Willingness to Risk and Freedom to Experiment
Trust Humor

Transparency 48
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (7)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Guidelines for Member
Self-Disclosure
Disclosure related to the purposes of the group
Persistent reactions useful to express persistent
thoughts and feelings
Members decide what and how much to disclose
Safe climate disclosure increases in a safe group
Level of disclosure stage of group may determine
what is appropriate

Transparency 49
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (8)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Guidelines for Giving Feedback
Give feedback with honesty and with sensitivity
Concise feedback given in a clear and
straightforward way is useful
In giving feedback, let others know how their
behavior affects you
Avoid giving global feedback
Avoid being judgmental in giving feedback

Transparency 50
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (9)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Catharsis in Groups
Catharsis the expression of pent-up emotions
Catharsis can be healing and can lead to increased
cohesion
Catharsis is not appropriate for all types of groups
After a catharsis
It is useful to integrate cognitive and behavioral work
Insights are common

Transparency 51
It is crucial to put insights into action
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 7 (10)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Ending a Group
Tasks of the final stage of a group:
Dealing with feelings of separation
Dealing with unfinished business
Reviewing the group experience
Practice for behavioral change
Giving and receiving feedback
Ways of carrying learning further

Transparency 52
The use of a contract and homework

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 8 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Leader Functions During
Ending Phase of Group
Assist members in dealing with any feelings they
might have about termination
Reinforce changes that members have made during
the group
Work with members to develop specific contracts
and homework assignments
Provide opportunities for members to give one
another constructive feedback

Transparency 53
Reemphasize the importance of maintaining
confidentiality after the group is over
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 8 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Leader Functions After
Termination of a Group
Offer private consultations if any member should
need this service
Provide for a follow-up group session or follow-up
individual interviews
Identify referral sources for members who may need
further assistance
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the group

Transparency 54
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 8 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Giving and Receiving Feedback
at the Ending Stage
The sentence completion method can enhance the
quality of feedback and can result in focused feedback
Examples:
My greatest fear for you is ...
My hope for you is...
I hope that you will seriously consider...
I see you blocking your strengths by...
Some things I hope you will think about doing for
yourself are...

Transparency 55
Some ways I hope youd be different with others are...

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 8 (4)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Applying What is Learned
in Group to Everyday Life
Members can be reminded of ways to translate what
was learned in group and assisted in developing
action plans geared to change
Some points:
A group is a means to an end
Change is bound to be slow and subtle
Focus more on changing yourself than on
changing others

Transparency 56
Decide what you will do with what you learned
about yourself

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 8 (5)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Groups for Children
Developing a proposal: Groups for children
In planning groups for children:
Describe your goals and purposes clearly
Develop a clearly stated rationale for your
proposed group
State your aims, the procedures to be used, the
evaluation procedures you will use, and the reasons a

Transparency 57
group approach has particular merit

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 9 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Guidelines for Group Work with
Children and Adolescents
Be aware of your states laws regarding children
Consider securing parental or guardian
written permission
Communicate your expectations to those in your group
Emphasize confidentiality
Maintain neutrality
Use appropriate exercises and techniques

Transparency 58
Listen and remain open
Prepare for termination
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 9 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Key Points Groups for Children
In designing a group in both schools and agencies, get
the support of administrators
Communicate with children about the importance of
keeping confidences in language they can grasp
Ethical practice demands that you have the training
required to facilitate a group with children
Not all children are ready for group participation
Having some structure is particularly important in groups
with children

Transparency 59
Give thought to helpful methods of evaluating the
outcomes of your groups
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 9 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Groups for Adolescents
Organizing an adolescent group
Conduct a needs assessment
Develop a written proposal
Market your group
Get informed consent from parents or guardians
Conduct pregroup interviews
Select members for the group

Transparency 60
Design a plan for each of the group sessions
Arrange for a follow-up group session after termination
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 10 (1)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Hints Working with Reluctant
Adolescent Group Members
Explain the rationale of the group in
jargon-free language
Allow members to express reactions to being
sent to group
Go with resistance Dont go against resistance
Avoid getting defensive
Be clear and firm with your boundaries

Transparency 61
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 10 (2)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Sample Group Proposal
Multiple Family Group Therapy
Philosophy of group and overall goals
Overview of group
Group format weekly sessions
Practical considerations
Contraindications to participation in group
Outcomes of group

Transparency 62
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 10 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Key Points Groups for Adolescents
Understand and respect resistance
Role-playing techniques can often be creatively used in
adolescent groups
Find ways to involve parents in group work with adolescents
A few kinds of adolescent groups include: groups for
students on drug rehabilitation, groups for unwed teenage
fathers, teen delinquency prevention groups, and sex
offender treatment groups

Transparency 63
Co-leadership models are especially useful in facilitating
an adolescent group
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 10 (4)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Key Points Groups for Adults
Theme-oriented groups with a psychoeducational
focus are popular
Short-term and structured groups fit the needs of
many adult populations
Account for diversity in your groups
Group work with women is increasing
Most mens groups have a psychoeducational and
interpersonal focus

Transparency 64
Groups dealing with domestic violence are
gaining prominence
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 11 (1)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Examples of Groups for Adults
Groups for college students
Groups for weight control
HIV/AIDS support group
Womens group
Mens group
Domestic violence group

Transparency 65
Support group for survivors of incest

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 11 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Sample Proposal for a
Group with Adults
In designing a specific group, consider these
components
Description of the type of your group
Rationale of your group
Goals of your group
Marketing methods
Screening and selection members

Transparency 66
Structure of group description of sessions
Methods for assessing outcomes
Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 11 (3)
2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Key Points Groups for the Elderly
You may encounter obstacles in your attempts to organize
and conduct groups for the elderly
Groups offer unique advantages for the elderly who have
a great need to be listened to and understood
Groups can help elderly people integrate current life
changes into an overall developmental perspective
Elderly people need a clear explanation of the groups
purposes and why they can benefit from it

Transparency 67
Revealing personal matters may be extremely difficult for
some elderly people because of their cultural conditioning

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 12 (1)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Themes in Working with
Elderly Populations
Themes that are prevalent with the elderly include:
Loss and the struggle to find meaning in life
Loneliness and social isolation
Poverty
Feelings of rejection
Dependency
Feelings of uselessness, hopelessness, and despair
Fears of death and dying
Grief over others deaths

Transparency 68
Sadness over physical and mental deterioration
Regrets over past events

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 12 (2)


2002 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Examples of Groups for the Elderly
Some groups that are commonly offered include those with
an emphasis on
Reminiscing Combined dance and
Physical fitness movement

Body awareness Preretirement and


postretirement issues
Grief work
Remotivation
Occupational therapy
Organic brain syndrome
Reality orientation

Transparency 69
Health-related issues
Music and art therapy

Groups: Process & Practice - Chapter 12 (3)