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Teknik Las

Althouse, Andrew R, et. al., Modern Welding, The Goodheart-
Willcox Company, Inc., Illinois, 1988.

ASME, 2010 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX -

Welding and Brazing Qualification, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2010.

AWS, AWS D1.1: 2010, Structural Welding Code - Steel, American

Welding Society, Miami, 2002.

AWS, Certification Manual for Welding Inspectors, American

Welding Society, Miami, 4th Edition, 2010.
AWS, ANSI/AWS A3.0-94, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions,
American Welding Society, Miami, 1994.

AWS, Welding Inspection Handbook, American Welding Society,

Miami, 3rd Edition, 2000.

Jeffus, Larry, Welding - Principles and Applications, Delmar

Publishers Inc., Albany, 3,d Edition, 1993.

Jenney, Cynthia L., and Annette O'Brien, Welding Handbook,

Volume 1 - Welding Science and Technology, American Welding
Society, Miami, 9th Edition, 2001.
O'Brien, R.L., Welding Handbook, Volume 2 - Welding Processes,
American Welding Society, Miami, 8th Edition, 1991.

Oates, William R., Welding Handbook, Volume 3 - Materials &

Applications Part l, American Welding Society, Miami, 8th Edition,

Oates, William R., and Alexander M. Saitta, Welding Handbook,

Volume 3 Materials & Applications Part 2, American Welding
Society, Miami, 8th Edition, 1998.

Wiryosumarto, Harsono, dan Toshie

Okumura, Teknologi Pengelasan
Logam, Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta,
Cetakan Kedelapan, 2000.
Early metal-joining methods included such processes as forming a sand
mold on top of a piece of metal and casting the desired shape directly on
the base metal, Figure 1-1
Another metal-joining method used in early years was to place two pieces
of metal close together and pour molten metal between them. When the
edges of the base metal melted, the flow of metal was then dammed and
allowed to harden. Figure 1-2.
The Industrial Revolution, from 1750
to 1850, introduced a method of
joining pieces of iron together known
as forge welding or hammer

This process involved the use of a forge to

heat the metal to a soft, plastic
temperature. The ends of the iron were
then placed together and hammered
until fusion took place.
Forge welding remained as the primary welding method until Elihu
Thomson, in the year 1886, developed the resistance welding technique.
This technique provided a more reliable and faster way of joining metal than
did previous methods.

As techniques were further developed, riveting was replaced in the United

States and Europe by fusion welding to repair ships at the end of World War I.
At that time the welding process was considered to be vital to military
security. Repairs to the ships damaged during World War I were done in great
secrecy. Even today some aspects of welding are closely guarded secrets.

Since the end of World War I, many welding methods have been developed
for joining metals. These various welding methods are playing an important
role in the expansion and production of the welding industry. Welding has
become a dependable, efficient, and economical method for joining metal.

A weld is defined by the American Welding Society (AWS) as "a localized

coalescence (the fusion or growing together of the grain structure of the
materials being welded) of metals or nonmetals produced either by heating
the materials to the required welding temperatures, with or without the
application of pressure, or by the application of pressure alone, and with or
without the use of filler materials."

Welding is defined as "a joining process that produces coalescence of

materials by heating them to the welding temperature, with or without the
application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or
without the use of filler metal."
In less technical language, a weld is made when separate pieces of
material to be joined combine and form one piece when heated to a
temperature high enough to cause softening or melting and flow together.
Pressure may or may not be used to force the pieces together. In some
instances, pressure alone may be sufficient to force the separate pieces of
material to combine and form one piece. Filler material is added when
needed to form a completed weld in the joint.
Relatively inexpensive way to join metals
Weight-saving of the construction
Can readily be modified to meet changing product requirement
Can be applied for commercial metals
All positions and locations
Inexpensive design
Relatively same strength compared to other joining methods
Production time for a weldment is less than that of other
manufacturing method
Quality depends on welder, equipment, material, and procedure available
Necessary to conduct NDT & DT to the weldment
Metallurgical and dimension imperfections may appear
Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity Factor
Heat-affected zone and residual stress
Brittle materials

The number of different welding processes has grown in recent years.

These processes differ greatly in the manner in which heat, pressure, or
both heat and pressure are applied, and in the type of equipment used.

Figure 10.1 lists various welding methods. Certain methods listed in the
figure require hammering, pressing, or rolling to effect the coalescence in
the weld joint. Other methods bring the metal to a fluid state, and the
edges flow together.
Selection of the Welding Process
The selection of the joining process for a particular job depends upon many
factors. No one specific rule controls the welding process to be selected
for a certain job. A few of the factors that must be considered when choosing
a joining process include:

Availability of equipment - The types, capacity, and condition of

equipment that can be used to make the welds.

Repetitiveness of the operation - How many of the welds will be

required to complete the job, and are they all the same?

Quality requirements - Is this weld going to be used on a piece of

furniture, to repair a piece of equipment, or to join a pipeline?

Location of work - Will the weld be in a shop or on a remote job site?

Materials to be joined - Are the parts made out of a standard metal or
some exotic alloy?

Appearance of the finished product - Will this be a weldment that is

only needed to test an idea, or will it be a permanent structure?

Size of the parts to be joined - Are the parts small, large, or different
sizes, and can they be moved or must they be welded in place?

Time available for work - Is this a rush job needing a fast repair, or is
there time to allow for pre and postweld cleanup?

Skill or experience of workers - Do the welders have the ability to do

the job?

Cost of materials - Will the weldment be worth the expense of special

equipment materials or finishing time?

Code or specification requirements - Often the selection of the

process is dictated by the governing agency, codes, or standards.
The welding engineer and/or the welder must not only decide on the welding
process but must also select the method of applying it. The following
methods are used to perform welding, cutting, or brazing operations.

Manual - The welder is required to manipulate the entire process.

Semiautomatic - The filler metal is added automatically, and all

other manipulation is done manually by the welder.

Machine - Operations are done mechanically under the observation

and correction of a welding operator.

Automatic - Operations are performed repeatedly by a machine that

has been programmed to do an entire operation without interaction of
the operator.

Automated - Operations are performed repeatedly by a robot or

other machine that is programmed flexibly to do a variety of
Welding Occupation

Welding foreman
Welding supervisor
Welding inspector
Welding technician
Welding instructor
Welding engineer
Welding sales representative
Welding service representative

is the ability of an individual to perform a job according to a
required standard.

is a written statement attesting to the fact the welder has been
able to produce welds meeting a prescribed standard.