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Mesopotamia

Derived from the Latin word civis which means


citizen or townsman
Considered as advanced level of culture
Stability of governance
A structured system of religious beliefs and practices
Set of skills that allows a group of people to help one
another
Structured social class system
System of writing
The ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt,
India, and China are also called RIVER VALLEY
CIVILIZATION.
The civilization that began in Mesopotamia (now
Iraq) was one of the worlds ancient civilization.
Mesopotamia- land between two
rivers located between the Tigris and
Euphrates River. It was part of Fertile
Crescent, a rich territory stretching
from the Persian Gulf to the eastern
coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. At
present, the Fertile Crescent covers
the countries of Iraq, Lebanon, Syria,
and Israel.
The plains of Mesopotamia were Hot and Humid.
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers supplied the
water needs of its fertile land.
The people experience a climate from cool to hot
seasons with moderate rainfall.
Nomadic people built:
dams and dikes and canals
The place they took residence was called
SUMER
Sumer was the first urban civilization in
southern Mesopotamia.
CITY-STATE- is an independent
settlement that included cities and
fields.
Each City-State was ruled by a
priest-king called PATESI.
Sumerians used clay to build
edifices.
Each city-state was composed of
10000 to 40000 people.
Uruk- oldest city-state and first known province
in the world. It was circled by five miles of walls.
In this vicinity were the ancient cities of Kish, Ur,
Lagash, and Eridu.
Sumerians choose a ruler whom they called
lugal(king)
Sumerians were ruled by the city-state of Akkad where
Mesopotamia Empire began.
King Sargon- City-state of Kish, the one who united region
into a kingdom Called SUMER.
Much later, Akkad was conquered by Babylonia under the rule
of Hammurabi.
He became renowned because of the 282
code of laws he developed
670 BCE- Assyria conquered Mesopotamia
604 BCE- Chaldea conquered Mesopotamia
Whose known ruler King Nebuchadnezzar
Ziggurat Temple- was not only the center of
Sumerian religious life, but only the center of
learning.
Priest and Kings were on top of the hierarchy.
Both the rich and the poor enjoyed the fruits of
their labor.
The exchange of goods was done through barter
trade. City-state of Ur is the center of trade and
commerce.
SYSTEM OF WRITING
Cuneiform- first writing system ever
developed.
Stylus- sharp-pointed stick used as a pen.
Symbols were impressed into tablets of wet
clay to represent various concepts
Mathematics and Astronomy
Mesopotamians- introduced the
multiplication and division tables, and
calculation through geometry. Their counting
by 60s , called sexagesimal calculation, made
them the first to teach the concept that a
circle had 360 degrees and that there were
60 min in one hour.
Transportation
Potters wheel
Use of sail
Religion
polytheism- practice that believes in many gods.
Sumerians practiced rituals that offered sacrifices and
thanks giving.
An or Anu- God of heavens
Ki- protector of the earth
Enlil- god who sent strong winds and rain
Inna and Dumuzi- god of fertility
Sumerian Literature oldest literature in
history. Sumerian inscriptions in cuneiform
have been found on tens of thousands of pieces
of pottery, on clay cylinder seals, and on clay
tablets.
Epic of Gilgamesh- most famous form of
Sumerian Literature. It was written in cuneiform
on 12 clay tablets about 2000BCE.
Hammurabi Code -is the famous in the field of law. It
dealt with many aspects of communal living, religion,
family, livelihood and crime
Sumerian cities were dominated by
structures called ZIGGURATS. Were shaped
like pyramid but flat on its top and
comprised of many steps.
Ziggurats is a part of the temple complex
with rooms for storage, living quarters, and
courtyards.
The base or lowest part of the Ziggurat housed
the priest and artisans places of work.
Sculptors,weavers ,blacksmiths and other
artisan worked inside this temples.