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ELECTROMYOGRAM

Amit Sethi
Pre-doc Rehab Sciences,
MS OTR/L
INTRODUCTION
Electromyogram (EMG) is a technique for
evaluating and recording the activation
signal of muscles.
EMG is performed by an electromyograph,
which records an electromyogram.
Electromyograph detects the electrical
potential generated by muscle cells
when these cells contract and relax.
INTRODUCTION Contd.

EMG Apparatus Muscle Structure/EMG


ELECTRICAL
CHARACTERITICS
The electrical source is the muscle
membrane potential of about -70mV.
Measured EMG potentials range between
< 50 V up to 20 to 30 mV, depending on
the muscle under observation.
Typical repetition rate of muscle unit
firing is about 7-20 Hz.
Damage to motor units can be expected
at ranges between 450 and 780 mV
ELECTRODE TYPES

Intramuscular -
Needle Electrodes

Extramuscular - Surface
Electrodes
EMG PROCEDURE
Clean the site of
application of electrode;
Insert needle/place surface
electrodes at muscle belly;
Record muscle activity at
rest;
Record muscle activity
upon voluntary contraction
of the muscle.
EMG Contd.
Muscle Signals are
Analog in nature.

EMG signals are


Analog Signal
also collected over
a specific period of
time.
EMG Contd.
EMG processing:

Signal pick up Amplification


& Filtering

Computer Conversion of Analog


signals to Digital signals
APPLICATION OF EMG
EMG can be used for diagnosis of
Neurogenic or Myogenic Diseases.

You tube link of EMG


SAMPLE EMG DATA
BIOMECHANICS
Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the
mechanics of living organisms.

KINEMATICS The branch of Biomechanics


concerned with describing the motion of bodies.

KINETICS- The branch of biomechanics concerned


with explaining the causes of body motions.
KINEMATICS Contd.
Data is usually collected
with Motion Capture
Devices over a specific
time period.

VICON
Motion Analysis
Corporation
Qualysis
Typical Set up of Motion Analysis Lab
SAMPLE KINEMATIC DATA
SAMPLE KINEMATIC DATA
SAMPLE KINEMATIC DATA
KINEMATICS DATA ANALYSIS
Aim: to identify the variability in reaching movement in
normal and stroke individuals.
Outcome Variable: Elbow Joint Angle.
Magnitude of variability was analyzed with Std.
Deviation.
Structure of variability in elbow angles was computed
via IE using MATLAB.
H = Log2 (1/Pi)
Pi = probability that a given event will occur. Pi 1/H.
Higher values of IE suggest - more uncertainty.
Lower values of IE suggest- less uncertainty
(increased stability). of
RESULTS

Subject SD Pre SD Post IE Pre IE Post


1 4.54 1.80 0.58 0.80
2 3.69 2.67 0.79 0.50

Control SD = 2.68 IE = 2.33


CONCLUSION
Variability/Uncertainity in movement is higher in
normals as compared to individuals with
Stroke.
This variability could be correlated with
adaptability in movement which is decreased
upon nervous system damage in Stroke.
Large data is required to generalize these
results.