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# Boiling Heat Transfer

Numerical Problems
ME 306 Heat Transfer
Dr. Y. Mukkamala
P1. Saturated water at 100C is
boiled with a copper heating element
having a heating surface of area 0.04
m2 which is maintained at 115C.
Calculate the surface heat flux and
the rate of evaporation. Saturated
water properties at 100C are l =
279 x 10-6 kg/m-s, hfg = 2257 kJ/kg
C, l = 957.9 kg/m3, v = 0.5955
kg/m3, = 58.9 x 10-3 N/m, cpl =
4217 J/kg C, Prl = 1.76, Csf =
0.013, n = 1.0.
Soln.
Since T = 15C, nucleate boiling occurs.
Using Rohsenows correlation
g ( v ) 1 c p,l Te 3
q" h [ l ]2 [ ]
l fg C h Pr n
sf fg l

1
4217 15
q '' (279 106 ) (2257 103 ) [
9.81 (957.9 0.5955)
]2 [ ]3
58.9 103 0.013 2259 103 1.76
q '' 462kW / m2
Evaporation Rate :
.
mh q ''. A
fg
.
m[2257 103 ] 462 1000 0.04
.
m 29.48kg / hr
P2. During the boiling of water at
100C with an electric heater, a heat
flux of 500 kW/m2 is achieved with a
temperature difference of 9.3C.
What is the value of the coefficient
Csf for the heater surface?
Soln. Since T = 9.3C, nucleate boiling
occurs. Using Rohsenows correlation

g ( ) 1 c Te
v p,l
q '' 500 103 h [ l ]2 [ ]3
l fg C h Pr n
sf fg l
1
4217 9.3
500 103 (279 106 ) (2257 103 ) [
9.81 957.9
]2 [ ]3
58.9 103 C 2257 103 1.76
sf

## Solving for Csf yields

Csf = 0.00824
P3. An electrically heated copper
kettle with a flat bottom of diameter
25 cm is to boil water at atmospheric
pressure at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr. What
is the temperature of the bottom
surface of the kettle?
Soln. Assuming that heat transfer is due to
nucleate boiling (sat. water properties at
100C)
Evaporation rate : mhfg = qA
(2.5 )
q '' 3600 2257 103 31,930W / m2

0.252
4
1
3 6 3 9.81(957.9) 2 4217 Te
q '' 31.93 10 279 10 2257 10 [ ] [ ]3
58.9 103 0.013 2257 103 1.76
Te 6.04C

## Since T = 6C, nucleate boiling

assumption is valid. Hence, Tw = 106C.
P4. Calculate the heat transfer
coefficient during stable film boiling
of water from 9 mm diameter
horizontal carbon tube. The water is
saturated at 100C and the tube
surface is at 1000C. Assume the
emmisivity of carbon tube surface to
be 0.8. Properties of steam are v =
0.266 kg/m3, v = 28.7 x 10-6 kg/m-
s and kv = 0.0616 W/m-K.
Soln. For stable film boiling on cylinders
Bromleys correlation may be used :
Conduction in the film :

g ( ) k 3 (h 0.68c T ) 1
___ l v v v fg pl e 4
h c 0.62[ ]
d v T

___ 4 4
(Tw Tsat )
h r
Tw Tsat
___ ___ ___
h total h c 0.75 h r
Total heat transfer coefficient :
1
___ 9.81(957.9 0.266) 0.266 0.06163 (2257 103 0.68 4217 900) 4
h c 0.62[ ]
6
0.009 279 10 900
__
h c 205.9W / m2 K
___
8 (12734 3734 )
h r 5.67 10 0.8
900
___
h total 205.9 0.75(131.38) 304.4W / m2 K