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DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

Vs.
SAMPAH

Oleh:
PM PSLP PPSUB
Soemarno, 2011
PERMASALAHAN
LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT
SAMPAH

KESEHATAN KUALITAS
LINGKUNGAN/ LINGKUNGAN
MASYARAKAT FISIKO-KIMIA

KUALITAS
LINGKUNGAN
BIOLOGI
SAMPAH = SAMPAH = SUMBERDAYA
BAHAN YANG TIDAK EKONOMI
BERGUNA

BUANGLAH SAMPAH KUMPULKAN SAMPAH


PADA TEMPATNYA PADA TEMPATNYA
PENCEMARAN UDARA AKIBAT SAMPAH

BAU BUSUK
ASAP ,
BIO-GAS -
BERBAHAYA

1. Tetra kloro etilen & kloroform : Feto-toksik


2. Benzene & Metil-etil-keton : Embrio-toksik
3. Metilen-klorida, Kloro-benzene: Perkembangan janin
4. CH4 ------ CO2 ------ H2CO3
NH3 ------ NH4NO3 Hujan Asam
H2S ------ H2SO4
5. Bau Busuk sampah : Dampak emosional masyarakat
KUALITAS UDARA: ODOR & VISUAL

Kurva fungsional O & V


Indeks Kualitas

1.0
Pleasant
0.8 odor

0.6 Lacking
odor sampah
0.4

0.2 disagreeable

0.0
Visual Quality
Heavy Moderate Clear
pollution
KUALITAS UDARA: PARTIKULAT

Kurva fungsional (Microscale)


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8
sampah
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 100 200 300 400


Rataan 24 jam ( g/m3)
KUALITAS UDARA : HIDROKARBON

Kurva fungsional (Microscale)


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8
sampah
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Rataan 3 jam (06.00 - 09.00), ppm


KUALITAS UDARA : CARBON MONOKSIDA

Kurva fungsional (Microscale)


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8
sampah
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 10 20 30 40 50

Konsentrasi 1 jam , ppm


KUALITAS UDARA : OKSIDA NITROGEN

Kurva fungsional (Microscale)


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8

0.6 sampah
0.4

0.2

0.0 0.05 0.10 0.15


Annual average , ppm
SAMPAH

DEKOMPOSISI MENYUMBAT
SALURAN AIR
LINDI
(LEACHATE)

BOD - COD
NITROGEN PENCEMARAN AIR
FOSFAT BANJIR
SIKLUS KARBON

CO2 SAMPAH
UDARA

C Anorganik C C
Fitoplankton Zooplankton

C-organik C-organik
soluble suspend.
(Detritus) (Detritus)

C
Sedimen
KISARAN DO DALAM AIR NORMAL: 7.1 - 14.6 ppm

Kurva fungsional DO

Indeks Kualitas
1.0

0.8 Sampah
0.6
9 ppm : jenuh
0.4

0.2

0.0 2 4 6 8
ppm DO
KUALITAS AIR: BOD

Kurva fungsional BOD

Indeks Kualitas
1.0

0.8 Sampah

0.6
wadu
0.4 k
Sungai
0.2
0.0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
ppm BOD
KUALITAS AIR: N- ANORGANIK

Kurva fungsional Kadar N-anorganik

Indeks Kualitas
1.0 Sampah

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 1 2 4 6 8 10
ppm N
SIKLUS P DALAM PERAIRAN SAMPAH

Jaringa
n Jaringa
tanama n
n binatan
g
DIP
P-
Batua anorganik POP & DOP
n larut particulate &
dissolved
fosfat

SEDIMEN Jaringa
n
Bakteri
KUALITAS AIR: FOSFAT- ANORGANIK

Kurva fungsional Kadar P-anorganik


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8 sampah
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10


ppm P
KUALITAS AIR: TURBIDITAS

Kurva fungsional TURBIDITAS


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8

0.6 sampah

0.4

0.2

0.0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


Satuan Turbiditas Jackson
KUALITAS AIR: COLIFORM

Kurva fungsional Coliform


Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8

0.6 sampah

0.4

0.2

0.0 101 102 103 104 105 106


MPN/100 ml
KUALITAS AIR:
ODOR & FLOATING MATERIAL

Kurva fungsional
Indeks Kualitas

1.0

0.8
Lacking
0.6 odor
Noticeable
0.4

0.2
Disagreeable
0.0
None Light Moderate Heavy
Floating material
KUALITAS ESTETIKA AIR:
Water appearance

Kurva fungsional
Indeks Kualitas

1.0
Clear
0.8

0.6 Moderate turbid

0.4

0.2
Turbid
0.0
Static Slow Moderate Whitewater
Flow characteristics
GANGGUAN KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN

LALAT, NYAMUK

KECOAK TIKUS
SAMPAH
SAMPAH

CACING
MIKROBA

VEKTOR / PATOGEN ----- GANGGUAN PENYAKIT


DAUR ULANG SAMPAH ANORGANIK

Kertas, kardus, karet, plastik,


gelas, logam, dll

BERNILAI EKONOMI

Bahan baku proses produksi Bahan baku Proses produksi


Produk X Produk Y

PRODUK X PRODUK Y
SAMPAH ORGANIK

PENGOLAHAN
PENGOMPOSAN

KOMPOS PAKAN TERNAK


RECYCLING

MENGURANGI SUMBER SAMPAH


USE & REUSE

PRODUCT
CHANGE REKLAMASI
SOURCE
CONTROL

INPUT MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY


CHANGE CHANGE

GOOD
OPERATING
PRACTICES
PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH
adalah pengumpulan , pengangkutan , pemrosesan ,
pendaur-ulangan , atau pembuangan dari material sampah.

Pengertian ini biasanya mengacu pada material sampah yg


dihasilkan dari kegiatan manusia, dan biasanya dikelola
untuk mengurangi dampaknya terhadap kesehatan,
lingkungan atau keindahan.

Pengelolaan sampah juga dilakukan untuk memulihkan


sumber daya alam .

Pengelolaan sampah bisa melibatkan zat padat , cair , gas ,


atau radioaktif dengan metoda dan keahlian khusus untuk
masing masing jenis zat.
Sumber: http://duniarumah.blogspot.com/2010/10/apa-itu-pengolahan-sampah.html
Hierarchy of Waste Management

The EU concept of a waste


management hierarchy,
whereby waste prevention
and re-use are viewed as the
most desirable options for
managing wastes with the
least desirable option
considered being landfill.

The overall intent of these


policy statements is to move
Irish waste management
away from landfill into those
options that feature in the
upper echelons of the
hierarchy.
http://www.envirocentre.ie/Content.aspx?ID=96448806-
bc07-4f5a-9e67-cb684d985609&PID=518accea-eec4-
4cdf-b034-78ce58eacb4d
DOMESTIC WASTES AND WATER POLLUTION

Domestic waste is classified as a


point source of pollution, because
the wastewater from homes and
commercial establishments is often
directly emitted into bodies of
water.
Domestic waste can vary from
cleaning products, to household
things used by regular people.
These pollutants can pose a high
risk on a large scale. When these
domestic liter is mixed in with the
clean environment, the pollution
and our water can be combined
into a very deadly mix.

http://t3-1contaminant.blogspot.com/2010/03/introduction-water-is-essential-to-our.html
DOMESTIC WASTES AND WATER POLLUTION

Effects of water pollution are the death of marine organisms


in rivers and oceans (this may be due to lack of oxygen,
destruction of habitat, not enough food, lack of sunlight,
etc.). When our waters are polluted, this can threaten our
living.

Many diseases will come with drinking unpure- water or


swimming in toxic water. Such health problems may be
blood disease, heart disease, nervous system disorders,
diarrhea, skin lesions, and vomiting in humans.

http://t3-1contaminant.blogspot.com/2010/03/introduction-water-is-essential-to-our.html
Eutrophication occurs when large
quantities of nutrients such as
nitrates and phosphates enter an
aquatic environment. Sources of
these nutrients include animal
wastes, agricultural runoff, and
sewage. The ecosystem quickly
experiences an increase in
photosynthetic and blue-green
algae, as these organisms thrive in
the presence of the added
nutrients. An algae bloom occurs
as the algae accumulates into
dense, visible patches near the
surface of the water, prohibiting
light from penetrating deeper
areas of lake or stream. Some fish
are unable to survive without this
light, but for them an even more
serious problem arises when the
algae begin to die.

http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/eutrophication.html
CONTROLLING EUTROPHICATION

The following is a list of methods that can be used to control


eutrophication:

1. planting vegetation along streambeds to slow erosion and absorb


nutrients
2. controlling application amount and timing of fertilizer
3. controlling runoff from feedlots
4. researching use of biological controls; for example, the process of
denitrification uses specialized bacteria that convert nitrates to
harmless molecular nitrogen
SEKIAN DULU,
TERIMA KASIH ATAS
PERHATIANNYA
SEMOGA BERMANFAAT

WASSALAM !