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Applied surface

phenomena
Fundamentals of material sciences
Introduction
The therapeutic materials used in dentistry is vast such as
cement, bases , liner, sealants etc., which are either used as
temporary or permanent restorative materials.
The essentiality of properties of materials used is dentistry must
be thoroughly studied before their use.
By studying mechanical properties of these materials explains the
behavior how it will react when it comes in contact with the tooth
surface. Such kind of phenomenon is known as APPLIED
SURFACE PHENOMENA
Analysis of a surface
The surface of a substrate must be free of contamination so
that the property of the materials used as restoration exhibits
its full efficacy.
10 Torr or 1.33x 10 Pa for one hour is required to maintain
is clean surface of no contamination.
Devices used in Characterization of solid the surfaces
1. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy(XPS)
2. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis(ESCA)
3. Auger electron spectroscopy(AES)[Lise Meitner and
Pierre Auger in the 1920s]
4. Atomic force microscopy(AFM)
Colloid
Definition of COLLOIDS:
a homogeneous non-crystalline substance consisting of large
molecules or ultramicroscopic particles of one substance
dispersed through a second substance.
Colloids include gels, sols, and emulsions; the particles do not
settle, and cannot be separated out by ordinary filtering or
centrifuging like those in a suspension.
Hence colloids contains dispersed particles which are of
greater molecular size than that of dispersion medium it
refracts light from one way to the other.
A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed throughout
another substance. The word colloid comes from a Greek word
kolla, which means glue thus colloidal particles are glue like
substances. These particles pass through a filter paper but not
through a semipermeable membrane. Colloids can be made
settle by the process of centrifugation.
Homogenous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size
range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal
emulsions, colloidal foams, colloidal dispersions, or hydrosols.
Some examples of colloid we use in
dentistry

Silica in resin composite


Colloidal silica used in high strength dental stone
Droplets of oil used during sterilization
Fillers used in elastomeric impression materials to control some
physical properties.(Lithopone or titanium oxide)
Agglomerates that act as wetting agents for wax patterns.
Cellulose in Alginate impression material.
Diffusion & Osmotic pressure
Diffusion happens from a diluted area to a concentrated area
with a help of osmotic pressure induced in a membrane which
separates the two solution.
Hypersensitivity of the tooth in dentin.
The hydrodynamic theory of tooth sensitivity is the most
accepted theory for dentinal hypersensitivity. Where the
dentinal fluid flows from the diluted area of external tooth
surface to the internal surface through dentinal tubules which
acts as a semipermeable membrane.
Increased and decreased pressure in sensory system with
carious and non carious lesions
Diffusion of salts, dyes, acids stains the tooth by osmotic
pressure (1% acid red 52 in propylene glycol complexes)
Microleakage
Adsorption
Adhesion of molecules such as liquids or gas firmly to a solid
or liquid surface by which the surface free energy between
substrate and material is reduces.
Factors affecting adhesion
Wetting
Interpenetration
Micromechanical interlocking(GIC)
Chemical bonding(Composite)
Saliva wetting the enamel surface will explain about the
wettability of a liquid adhering to the enamel surface.
GIC.
The Smear layer after tooth preparation is skimmed off from
the layer using conditional liquid(usually GIC liquid is used) to
attain a maximum micromechanical interlocking between GIC
restorative material with the tooth structure.
COMPOSITES

For restoration to be in place adhesives are required other than than


that of mechanical interlocking.Adhesives play a vital role in reducing
the microleakage.
HYBRID LAYER
Etch /dentine conditioning, Priming , Bond or
adhesive application

Two approches to acheive this


Total Etch Adhesives (Either 3 or two steps)
Self Etch Adhesives (Either 2 or 1 step)

Formtion of a hybrid layer a resin infiltrated/ re-


inforced layer at the bulk dentine and resin interface
Hybrid Layer Formation in Dentine

ADHESIVE RESIN

PRIMER
ETCHANT
Hybrid
Zone

Collagen

Intertubular
Dentine

Peritubular
Dentine

Dentinal Tubules 19
Cohesion and adhesion
The attraction between two like molecules is cohesion and the
attraction between two unlike molecules is adhesion
Attraction between the mercury particles is cohesion and
attraction between glassware and mercury is adhesion.

Failure of the adhesive junction

Adhesive failure Cohesive failure

Adhesive Failure between the adhesive Cohesive Failure within the adhesive
and the adherend or within the adherend
Importance of adhesion in Dentistry
Decrease marginal leakage between restoration and
cavity walls.
Used in retention of restorations e.g Ceramometallic
restoration
The prevention of tooth decay by sealing pits and
fissures.
Aesthetic coating for treating enamel defects.
Complete denture retention through thin film of saliva.
Required for bonding agents.
Used in Soldering operation.
Acrylic teeth in acrylic non metallic denture
base
The Challenges of Adhesion in
Dentistry
1. Simultaneously bond to enamel & dentin [different
substrates.]
1. Moisture.
2. Work in the presence of 2. Surface irregularities
3. Surface contaminants

3. Stresses of the restorative materials on the tooth


structure

4. Technique sensitive

5. Biocompatible.
Absorption
The act of taking up or in by specific chemical or molecular
action; especially the passage of liquids or other substances
through a surface.
Imbibition of alginate impression material after mixed and
stored in a water.
Surface tension
The increase energy per unit area of surface is referred to as
surface energy or surface tension.
The surface tension on a substrate must be as low as possible
so that the surface energy is low thereby the maximum
adhesion is obtained.
Molecules with low surface energy will have low contact
angle so that it exhibits good wetting.
Surface energy is measured in J m
Contact angle
When a solid and a liquid make contact, the angle
between the liquid surface and the solid surface is
known as the contact angle, and is dependent on the
surface tension of the liquid and the surface energy of
the solid.
By achieving 0 contact angle we can obtain maximum
bond strength with adhesive.
When the value of surface tension at which the cosine
of the contact equals to 1 it is known as critical surface
energy.
Any liquid that has a surface tension less than the
critical surface energy of the solid will wet the surface
of the solid effectively.
References
Craigss Dental materials 13th edition
Phillips Science od dental materials 12th edition
Introduction to dental materials 4th edition
By Richard van noort
Clinical aspects of dental materials By Marcia Gladwin
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