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Types OF Screening

By
Praveen
Roll -96
Guided by -Sipra mam
DEFINITION

It is defined as the search for unrecognized


disease or defect by means of rapidly applied
tests, examinations or other procedures in
apparently healthy individuals.
Historically it means the detection of hidden
diseases.
TYPES OF SCREENING

1. Mass screening
2. High risk or selective or targeted screening.
3. Multiphasic screening.
4. Multipurpose screening.
5. Opportunistic and case finding screening.
MASS SCREENING

Mass screening simply means the


screening of a whole population or a sub
group.
E.g. Adults.
It is offered to all irrespective of a particular risk of
individual may run of contracting the disease in
question.
E.g. Tuberculosis
Mass screening for disease received enthusiastic
support in the past.
Diagram representing mass screening and treatment

Contd

Mass screening is not useful for


preventive measures but it is useful for a
suitable treatment that will reduce the
duration of illness or alter its final
outcome.
Examples for mass screening:

a. Visual defects in school children.


b. Mammography in women aged 40 years.
c. New born screening program in japan.
TESTING VISUAL DEFECTS IN CHILDREN
Mass screening of HEPATITIS B virus
Mass screening for T.B
HIGH-RISK OR SELECTIVE SCREENING

It is applied selectively to high risk groups, the

groups defined on the basis of epidemiological

research.
Examples:
a. Screening foetus for Downs syndrome in a
mother who already has a baby with Downs
syndrome.

b. Screening for familiar cancers, HTN and DM.

c. Screening for cancer cervix in low social


groups.

d. Screening for HIV in risk groups.


The nuchal fold, seen here in a view through lower portion of fetal head,
could indicate a high risk for Down syndrome if thickness is increased.
MULTIPHASIC SCREENING

It has been defined as the application of two


or more screening tests in combination to a
large number of people at one time than to
carry out screening tests for single diseases.
The procedure may also include health
questionnaire, clinical examination and a range
of measurements and investigations.
E.g.
1) Chemical and hematological tests on blood
and urine specimens.
2) Lung function assessment, audiometry and
measurement of visual acuity.
Multiphasic Screening for Diabetes
MULTI PURPOSE SCREENING

The screening of a population by more


than one test done simultaneously to
detect more than one disease.
Example:
Screening of a pregnant women for VDRL,
HIV, HBV by serological tests.
VDRL test antigen VDRL slide
Screening for Hypertension and DM
OPPORTUNISTIC AND CASE FINDING SCREENING

There is no accurate or precise diagnostic test


for the disease and where the frequency of
its occurrence in the population is small. The
main objective is to detect disease and bring
patients to treatment.
Example: RHD in children.
Thank You