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Midterm Review Questions

Go over, in detail, your midterms with the Midterm Solutions sent out previously.
Make sure it is graded correctly and identify where you went wrong and make
sure to study that material.
Remember: Midterm 2 and the Final WILL contain questions from relativity and the
photoelectric effect. HOWEVER, the rest of the course is quite different, so the
exams will have a bit of a different flavor too.
Which frame is called S and which S? Which is the correct reference frame?

Multiple people said directly or indirectly that Stanleys frame was special because
he was the one at rest.
Light Travel Time is NOT IMPORTANT. We mentioned it to motivate the loss of
simultaneity, but otherwise it is not the fundamental issue.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


Midterm Review Questions
The Physics and Test Tips that I said would be
extremely helpful on the exam. How much time did
you spend on them?
(Dont be shy)
A) 0
B) 2-3 minutes
C) 15 minutes
D) I realized how valuable they were so I wrote them
on my equation sheet.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


Physics Tip

On which midterm
question(s) would
this tip be helpful?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


X-ray production: absorption = photons too
An experimental arrangement for making x rays is shown in Figure
38.7 at lower left. The greater the kinetic energy of the electrons that
strike the anode, the shorter the minimum wavelength of the x rays
emitted by the anode (see Figure 38.8 at lower right).
The photon model explains this behavior: Higher-energy electrons can
convert their energy into higher-energy photons, which have a shorter
wavelength (see Example 38.4).

Bremsstrahlung

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The Compton experiment = photons in flight too
In the Compton experiment,
x rays are scattered from
electrons. The scattered x rays
have a longer wavelength than
the incident x rays, and the
scattered wavelength depends on
the scattering angle .
Explanation: When an incident
photon collides with an electron,
it transfers some of its energy to
the electron. Called Compton
Scattering

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Pair production

When gamma rays of


sufficiently short wavelength
are fired into a metal plate,
they can convert into an
electron and a positron
(positively-charged electron),
each of mass m and rest
energy mc2.
The photon model explains
this: The photon wavelength
must be so short that the
photon energy is at least
2mc2. Follow Example 38.6.
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Particle vs. Wave

Okay, okay, I get it. Light can act like a particle even
though we thought its a wave.
So, is light a particle or a wave?
Principle of Complementarity is nice, but it is not the
solution

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Figure 38.15

Wave or Particle?

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Figure 38.16

Wave or Particle?

When a single photon


passes through the slit,
what is it interfering with?

Write your thoughts on the


In-Class Assignment (ICA)
sheet.

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Particle vs. Wave

We cannot put light into the particle or wave category.


This is called Wave-Particle Duality, but thats just a
name for the gee shucks, seems like it has properties of
both.
What is a particle?
What is a wave?

REALITY: LIGHT IS A
QUANTUM WAVEFUNCTION
Quantum Wavefunctions have properties that in some cases appear to act like classical
waves and in other (usually distinct) cases appear to act like classical particles.
But there is no real particle-wave duality. The reality is that, upon detailed inspection,
light is a wavefunction. Nothing spooky about it, except we will need new mathematical
techniques and new conceptual models. We will spend several weeks on this.
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Wavefunctions are all about PROBABILITY

A classical particle is a story about a little ball that


moves upon a trajectory that can be predicted exactly
A wavefunctions trajectory can only be described
PROBABILISTICALLY
In part, this is because the wavefunction can interfere
with itself! Well get back to that.

This is related to but fundamentally DIFFERENT from


measurement uncertainties.

IT IS A DEEP DEEP LAW OF NATURE:


NOTHING IS DETERMINISTIC;
EVERYTHING IS PROBABILISTIC WAVEFUNCTIONS
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Diffraction and uncertainty

We can explain diffraction if we hypothesize: when a


photon passes through a narrow slit, its momentum
becomes uncertain and the photon can deflect to either
side. A diffraction pattern is the result of many photons
hitting the screen. The pattern appears even if only one
photon is present at a time in the experiment.

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The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
You cannot simultaneously know
the position and momentum of a
photon with arbitrarily great
precision. The better you know
the value of one quantity, the less
well you know the value of the
other (see Figure 38.18).
In addition, the better you know
the energy of a photon, the less
well you know when you will
observe it.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


Q38.7

A photon has a position uncertainty of 2.00 mm. If you decrease


the position uncertainty to 1.00 mm, how does this change the
momentum uncertainty of the photon?

A. the momentum uncertainty becomes 1/4 as large


B. the momentum uncertainty becomes 1/2 as large
C. the momentum uncertainty is unchanged
D. the momentum uncertainty becomes twice as large
E. the momentum uncertainty becomes 4 times larger

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A38.7

A photon has a position uncertainty of 2.00 mm. If you decrease


the position uncertainty to 1.00 mm, how does this change the
momentum uncertainty of the photon?

A. the momentum uncertainty becomes 1/4 as large


B. the momentum uncertainty becomes 1/2 as large
C. the momentum uncertainty is unchanged
D. the momentum uncertainty becomes twice as large
E. the momentum uncertainty becomes 4 times larger

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Q38.8

A ultrashort laser pulse produces photons with a time uncertainty of 6


units. Individual photon frequencies are measured and have a energy
uncertainty of x. Modifying the pulse duration to be twice as long,
how does this change the frequency uncertainty of the photon?
A. the frequency uncertainty becomes 1/4 as large
B. the frequency uncertainty becomes 1/2 as large
C. the frequency uncertainty is unchanged
D. the frequency uncertainty becomes twice as large
E. the frequency uncertainty becomes 4 times larger

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Q38.8

A ultrashort laser pulse produces photons with a time uncertainty of 6


units. Individual photon frequencies are measured and have a energy
uncertainty of x. Modifying the pulse duration to be twice as long,
how does this change the frequency uncertainty of the photon?
A. the frequency uncertainty becomes 1/4 as large
B. the frequency uncertainty becomes 1/2 as large
C. the frequency uncertainty is unchanged
D. the frequency uncertainty becomes twice as large
E. the frequency uncertainty becomes 4 times larger

2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Example: Why dont atoms collapse?
In the classical electron orbits the nucleus, the
electron is a moving electric charge which
should then generate oscillating electric and
magnetic fields (also known as _______) which
carry away energy, so it should spiral in.
In quantum mechanics, you CANNOT bring the
electron too close to the nucleus or else its
momentum becomes more uncertain, so it can
become larger, so the velocity goes up, so the
energy goes up, so there is a repulsive force
away from the nucleus. This repulsive force IS
THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE and you
can thereby derive the size of an atom. This is
also why materials resist squeezing under
pressure, as in planetary interiors.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


Photon patterns

The verticle single slit produces this diffraction pattern for individual
photons: How do I produce this pattern?

A. Make the slit smaller and rotate it


B. Make the slit larger and rotate it
C. Make a triangular slit in the right orientation
D. Make a circular slit

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Uncertainty, Error, Accuracy, Precision

What is the difference between accuracy and precision?

What is the difference between statistical errors and systematic


errors?

How do you get a gut feeling for what your uncertainty is?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


Physics Tip: Formula Connection

Many basic Physics Problems boil down to


Knowing formulas
Choosing the right formula
Substituting in the values
Solving the math
Formula Connection: Find the formula(s) that
connect what you are given in the problem
to what you are asked to find.
Also check that the formula is applicable.