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HEAT TRANSFER

Diah Susanti, PhD

Heat transfer (or heat) is energy in transit due to

a temperature difference

Whenever there exists a temperature

difference in a medium or between media,

heat transfer must occur

There are 3 modes of heat transfers:

  • 1. Conduction: heat transfer that will occur across the medium when a temperature gradient exists in a stationary medium , which may be a solid or a fluid molecular heat transfer

  • 2. Convection: heat transfer that will occur between a surface and a moving fluid when they are at different temperatures.

  • 3. Thermal radiation: all surfaces of finite temperature emit energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Hence in the absence of an intervening medium, there is net heat transfer by radiation between two surfaces at different temperatures.

CONDUCTION through a solid or stationary fluid
CONDUCTION
through a solid or stationary fluid

T 1

CONDUCTION through a solid or stationary fluid T 1 T 2 q” T > T

T 2

CONDUCTION through a solid or stationary fluid T 1 T 2 q” T > T
CONDUCTION through a solid or stationary fluid T 1 T 2 q” T > T
CONDUCTION through a solid or stationary fluid T 1 T 2 q” T > T

q”

T 1 > T 2

CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid
CONVECTION
from a surface to a moving fluid

T s > T

Moving fluid, T 
Moving fluid, T 

q”

CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid T > T Moving fluid, T  q”
CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid T > T Moving fluid, T  q”
CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid T > T Moving fluid, T  q”
CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid T > T Moving fluid, T  q”

T s

CONVECTION from a surface to a moving fluid T > T Moving fluid, T  q”
NET RADIATION Heat exchange between two surfaces
NET RADIATION
Heat exchange between two surfaces
”

q 1

surface, T 1

NET RADIATION Heat exchange between two surfaces ” q 1 surface, T ” q 2 surface,
”

q 2

surface, T 2

The three modes of heat transfer

The three modes of heat transfer video

video

Which one is conduction, convection or radiation??

Which one is conduction, convection or radiation?? convection conduction

convection

Which one is conduction, convection or radiation?? convection conduction
Which one is conduction, convection or radiation?? convection conduction

conduction

radiation

radiation

How smart are you??
How smart are you??

1. Conduction is…

a.
a.

Heat transfer due to a different temperature

across a motionless medium either a solid

or a fluid from molecule to molecule.

  • b. Heat transfer due to a different temperature between a medium and a moving fluid.

  • c. Heat transfer through electromagnetic waves.

2. Heat transfer in a vacuum chamber occurs

according to …. mode:

  • a. Conduction

  • b. Convection

  • Radiation

3. Whenever you want to eat or drink something

hot, you will breathe air from your mouth to cool down the food. This mechanism of heat transfer is classified into ..

  • a. Conduction

  • Convection

    • c. Radiation

CONDUCTION
CONDUCTION

Conduction deals with heat transfer in atomic or molecular level.

Conduction may be viewed as the transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less energetic particles of a substance due to interactions between the particles.

The energy of a gas related to random translational motion, internal rotation, and vibrational motion of the molecules. Energy transfer by conduction occur in the direction of decreasing temperature (positive x direction) The net transfer of energy by random molecular motion is defined as a diffusion of energy.

x

T T 1 ” x q x o q x x T 2
T
T 1
x
q x
o
q x
x
T 2

T 1 > T 2

Conduction and particle motion

particles at

cold end

vibrate less

In kinetic theory,

particles in a solid are closely packed,

Conduction and particle motion particles at cold end vibrate less In kinetic theory, particles in a

they vibrate to & from but

can't change positions.

particles at hot end vibrate a lot

Conduction and particle motion

The fast vibrating particles bump into the slower neighbouring particles &

particles at cold end

vibrate less

make them vibrate more

rapidly energy is transferred

(from one particle to the

next & from hot to cold end of rod)

Conduction and particle motion The fast vibrating particles bump into the slower neighbouring particles & particles
Conduction and particle motion The fast vibrating particles bump into the slower neighbouring particles & particles

particles at hot

end vibrate a lot

Warm-up

Why are frying-pans and woks usually

made of metals but their handles are

made of plastic?

Warm-up Why are frying-pans and woks usually made of metals but their handles are made of

Introduction

How is energy transferred from the cooker to the pan and then to the food?

Introduction How is energy transferred from the cooker to the pan and then to the food?

Energy transfer by conduction

Energy transfer by conduction Energy is transferred by conduction from the cooker, through the pan ,

Energy is transferred by conduction from the cooker, through the pan, to the food.

Conduction (video)

Studying the heat transferred along a metal rod

insulating board copper rod wax drawing pins
insulating board
copper rod
wax
drawing pins
Conduction (video) Studying the heat transferred along a metal rod insulating board copper rod wax drawing

What happens to

these drawing pins?

Conduction (video)

What kind of rod conducts heat?

wood iron glass copper very hot water
wood
iron
glass
copper
very hot
water

Feel the ends of the

rods to find out which rod feels hot first.

Conduction (video) What kind of rod conducts heat? wood iron glass copper very hot water Feel

Conduction (video)

What kind of rod conducts heat fastest?

aluminium copper iron drawing pins
aluminium
copper
iron
drawing
pins

Heat the ends of the metal rods and note which drawing pin at the

other end falls first.

Conduction (video) What kind of rod conducts heat fastest? aluminium copper iron drawing pins Heat the

Conduction (video)

Does water conduct heat?

boiling tube water wire gauze ice
boiling
tube
water
wire gauze
ice

Gently heat the top part of the water & find out if the ice melts.

Conduction (video) Does water conduct heat? boiling tube water wire gauze ice Gently heat the top

Conduction (video)

Does air conduct heat?

Leave the cardboard for a

while & then take the temperature

readings.

heater

thermometer

Conduction (video) Does air conduct heat? Leave the cardboard for a while & then take the

cardboard tube

Conduction (video)

Does air conduct heat?

Conduction (video) Does air conduct heat? Leave the cardboard for a while & then take the

Leave the cardboard for

a while & then take the temperature readings.

Conduction (video) Does air conduct heat? Leave the cardboard for a while & then take the

Energy transfer by conduction

In conduction, heat (energy) is transferred from the hot part to the cold part.

Materials conduct heat at different rates. Metals (e.g. copper and iron) are good conductors of heat. Non-metals (e.g. wood, water and air) are poor conductors (or good insulators).

Properties of some conductors and insulators specific for certain material

thermal conductivity (k), W( mK) -1
thermal conductivity (k), W( mK) -1

specific heat capacity (c p ), J(gK) -1

Energy transfer by conduction

In conduction, heat is transferred from the hot part to the cold part along an object. Conduction is efficient in conductors but not in

insulators.

What happen when these two balloons exposed to fire??
What happen when these two balloons exposed to fire??
air
air
water video
water
video

Energy transfer by conduction

Does the orientation of the rod matter?

Does the orientation of the rod matter?

Phoebe heats two metal rods as shown.

Which will be heated up first? Why?

Does the orientation of the rod matter? Phoebe heats two metal rods as shown. Which will

Both of them are heated up at the same rate.

Energy transferred from the hot end to the cold end by conduction is not affected by the orientation of the rod.

Conduction and particle motion

(simulation)

Conduction and particle motion (simulation) video

video

Examples of conduction

How to keep warm?

Examples of conduction How to keep warm? A cotton jacket keeps warm by trapping air next
Examples of conduction How to keep warm? A cotton jacket keeps warm by trapping air next

A cotton jacket

keeps warm by

trapping air next to the body.

Examples of conduction

How to keep warm?

Examples of conduction How to keep warm? Polar bears keep warm by trapping air in the
Examples of conduction How to keep warm? Polar bears keep warm by trapping air in the

Polar bears keep warm by trapping air in the fur.

Examples of conduction (video)

How to keep warm?

Examples of conduction (video) How to keep warm? Birds keep warm by trapping air in their
Examples of conduction (video) How to keep warm? Birds keep warm by trapping air in their

Birds keep warm by trapping air in their feathers.

Examples of conduction (video) How to keep warm? Birds keep warm by trapping air in their

Examples of conduction

Hot or cold?

Under the same condition, a metal block

feels colder than a wooden block even the 2 objects are at the same temperature.

metal easily conducts energy away from your hand you feel cold

In conduction, heat is transferred ...

In conduction, heat is transferred in which of

the following direction?

A B
A
B

From high-temperature area to low- temperature area.

From low-temperature area to high- temperature area.

  • C The direction of heat transferred is different in metals and non-metals.

Which of the following can explain why a tile floor feels colder than a wooden floor?

A

The temperature of the tile floor is lower.

B
B

Tile is a better conductor of heat than wood.

C

Wood is a better conductor of heat than tile.

D

Tile is smoother than wood.

Frying-pans are made of ...

Frying-pans are made of metals because

they are good

conductors

_________

of heat, while

handles of frying-pans are made of plastic

because they are good

insulators

of heat.

_________

Frying-pans are made of ... Frying-pans are made of metals because they are good conductors _________
One-dimensional heat transfer by conduction (diffusion of energy) T Fourier’s Law of heat conduction: q x
One-dimensional heat transfer by conduction
(diffusion of energy)
T
Fourier’s Law of heat conduction:
q x ” = - k (dT/dx)
q x ” = - k (T/x)
(1.1)
(1.2)
where:
T
1
q x ” = heat flux (Wm -2 or Js -1 m -2 )
T x
k
T
= thermal conductivity (WK -1 m -1 )
= temperature (K)
q x
x
= distance (m)
T 2
x
  • L Heat rate = heat flux•area q x = q x ”• A

Example 1.1 The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from 0.15 m thick fireclay brick having a thermal conductivity of 1.7 Wm -1 K -1 . Measurements made during steady state operation reveal temperatures of 1400 and 1150 K at the

inner and outer surfaces respectively. What are the rate of heat loss and heat flux through the wall that is 0.5 m

by 3 m on a side?

” q x T 2
q x
T 2
Example 1.1 The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed from 0.15 m thick fireclay brick

H = 0.5 m

T 1

W = 3 m

L = 0.15 m

Assumptions:

  • 1. Steady state conditions

  • 2. One-dimensional conduction through the wall

  • 3. Constant thermal conductivity

How much did you get??

The right answer is… q x ” = 2833 Wm -2 q = 4250 W x
The right answer is…
q x ” = 2833 Wm -2
q
= 4250 W
x

Another form of Fourier’s Law equation:

Fourier’s Law of heat conduction:

q x “ = q x /A = - k (dT/dx) q x = - kA
q x “ = q x /A = - k (dT/dx)
q x = - kA (dT/dx)

where:

q x ” = heat flux (Wm -2 or Js -1 m -2 ) q x = heat rate (W or Js -1 )

k

= thermal conductivity (WK -1 m -1 )

T

= temperature (K)

x

= distance (m)

A

= area (m 2 )

1.

A heat rate of 3 kW is conducted through a section of an insulating material of cross-sectional area 10 m 2 and thickness 2.5 cm. If the inner (hot) surface temperature is 415 o C and the thermal conductivity of the material is 0.2 W/mK, what is the outer surface temperature?

  • 2. The heat flux through a wood slab 50 mm thick, whose inner and outer surface temperatures are 40 and 20 o C respectively, has been determined to be 40 W/m 2 . what is the thermal conductivity of the wood?

  • 3. What is the thickness required a masonry wall having thermal conductivity 0.75 W/mK if the heat rate is to be

80% of the heat rate through a composite structural wall

having thermal conductivity of 0.25 W/mK and a thickness of 100 mm? Both walls are subjected to the

same surface temperature difference.

CONVECTION
CONVECTION

Convection heat transfer mode is comprised of two mechanism: the random molecular motion

(diffusion) and bulk or macroscopic motion of the

fluid. Advection: transport due to bulk fluid motion. Convection: diffusion + advection.

The Boundary Layer Development in Convection Heat Transfer
The Boundary Layer Development in Convection Heat Transfer
y y fluid u  T  Thermal boundary Velocity layer distribution, Temperature u(y) Hydrodynamic (velocity)
y
y
fluid
u 
T 
Thermal
boundary
Velocity
layer
distribution,
Temperature
u(y)
Hydrodynamic
(velocity)
boundary layer
distribution,
q”
T(y)
u 0
T s
Heated surface
u y
T y

if T s >T convection happens

The convection heat transfer mode is sustained both by random molecular motion and by the bulk motion of the fluid within the boundary layer. The contribution due to random molecular motion (diffusion) dominates near the surface where the fluid

velocity is low. In fact, at the interface between the surface and the fluid (y=0), the fluid velocity is zero and

heat is transferred by this mechanism only. The contribution due to bulk fluid motion originates

from the fact that the boundary layer grows as the flow

progress in the x direction.

In effect, the heat that is conducted into this layer is swept downstream and is eventually transferred to the fluid outside the boundary layer.

According to the nature of the flow, convection is classified into two modes:

  • 1. Forced convection: when the flow is caused by the external means, such as a fan, a pump, or atmospheric wind.

2. Free or natural convection: when the flow is induced by

buoyancy forces, which arise from the density differences caused by temperature variations in the fluid.

The mixed or combined forced and natural convection may exist

in reality. Typical energy being transferred in convection is sensible heat or

internal thermal, energy of the fluid. In addition, there may

latent heat exchange due to phase transformation.

Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate equation is (Newton’s law of cooling):

q” = h(T s T )

(1.3)

q” is the convective heat flux (Wm -2 ) h is the convection heat transfer coefficient (Wm -2 K -1 )

Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate equation is ( Newton’s law of cooling

Heat flux is positive when heat is transferred from the surface, while negative when heat is transferred to the surface.

Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate equation is ( Newton’s law of cooling
Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate equation is ( Newton’s law of cooling
Regardless the nature of the convection process, the rate equation is ( Newton’s law of cooling

Typical values of the convection heat transfer coefficient

Process

h (Wm -2 K -1 )

Free convection:

 

Gases Liquids Forced convection:

2 25 50 1000

Gases

25 250

Liquids

50 20,000

Convection with phase change:

Boiling or condensation

2500 100,000

1.11. An electric heater is embedded in a long cylinder of diameter 30 mm. When water with a temperature of 25 o C and velocity of 1 m/s flows crosswise over the cylinder, the power per unit length required to maintain the surface at a uniform temperature of 90 o C is 28 kW/m. When air, also at 25 o C, but with velocity of 10 m/s is flowing, the power per unit length required to maintain the same temperature is 400 W/m. Calculate and compare the convection coefficients for the flows of water and air. 1.13. A square isothermal chip is of width w = 5 mm on a side and is mounted in a substrate such that its side and back surfaces are well insulated, while the front surface is exposed to the flow of a coolant at T = 15 o C. From a reliability considerations, the chip temperature must not exceed T = 85 o C. If the coolant is air and the corresponding convection coefficient is h = 200 W/m 2 K, what is the maximum allowable chip power? If the coolant is a dielectric liquid for which h = 3000 W/m 2 K, what is the maximum allowable chip power?

RADIATION
RADIATION

Radiation may occur from solid, liquid, or gas surfaces. Regardless of the form of the matter, the emission may be attributed to changes in the electron configurations of the constituent atoms or molecules. The energy of the radiation field is transported by electromagnetic waves (or alternatively photons)

G

• Radiation may occur from solid, liquid, or gas surfaces. • Regardless of the form of
E Gas T  , h q” conv
E
Gas T  ,
h
q” conv

Surface of emissivity , absorptivity , and temperature T s

Surroundings at T sur Gas T  , h q” q” conv rad Surface of emissivity
Surroundings
at T sur
Gas T  ,
h
q”
q”
conv
rad
Surface of emissivity , absorptivity ,
and temperature T s

(a)

(b)

Radiation exchange (a) at a surface (b) between a surface and large surroundings

Radiation that is emitted by the surface (Fig. a) originates from the thermal energy of matter bounded by the surface, and the rate at which energy is released per unit area (Wm -2 ) is termed the surface emissive power E. There is an upper limit to the emissive power, which is prescribed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law

E b = T s 4 (1.4) is Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67x10 -8 Wm -2 K -4 Such a surface is called an ideal radiator or blackbody.

The heat flux emitted by a real surface is less than that of a blackbody at the same temperature and is given by

E = T s 4 (1.5) Where is a radiative property of the surface termed the emissivity. With values in the range 01, this property provides a measure of how efficiently a surface emits energy relative to a blackbody.

Radiation may also be incident on a surface from its surroundings. It may originate from a special source such as the sun. Irrespective of the source(s), the rate at which all such radiation is incident on a unit area of the surface as the irradiation G. A portion or all of the irradiation may be absorbed by the surface, thereby increasing the thermal energy of the material. The rate of irradiation absorptivity:

G abs = G

(1.6)

Where 01. If <1 and the surface is opaque, portions of the irradiation are reflected. If the surface is semitransparent, portions

of the irradiation may also be transmitted. The value depends on the nature of irradiation and the surface itself. Absorbed and emitted radiation increase and reduce the thermal energy of matter, respectively, while reflected and transmitted

radiation have no effect on this energy.

A special case that occurs frequently involves radiation exchange between a small surface T s and a much larger, isothermal surface that completely surrounds the smaller one (Fig. b). The surroundings could, for example, be the walls of a room or a furnace whose temperature T sur differs from that of an enclosed surface (T sur T s ). For such condition, the irradiation may be approximated by emission from a blackbody at T sur in which case G = T sur If the surface is assumed to be one for which =(a gray surface), the net rate of radiation heat transfer from the surface, expressed per unit area of the surface is (thermal energy difference between radiation emission and adsorption):

4

q” rad = q/A = E b (T s ) - G = (T s 4 T sur 4 )

(1.7)

Another expression for net radiation heat exchange:

q rad = h r A(T s T sur ),

(1.8)

Where the radiation heat transfer coefficient, h r is from (1.7)

h r = (T s + T sur )(T s 2 +T sur 2 )

(1.9)

The total rate of heat transfer from the surface is then q = q conv + q rad = hA(T s -T ) + A(T s 4 T sur 4 )

(1.10)

Example 1.2. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in

which air and walls are at 25 o C. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm and its surface temperature and emissivity are 200 o C and 0.8, respectively. What are the surface emissive power and

irradiation? If the coefficient associated with free convection heat

transfer from the surface to the air is 15 Wm -2 K -1 ,what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

q’ air T  = 25 o C h = 15 Wm -2 K -1 L
q’
air
T  = 25 o C
h = 15 Wm -2 K -1
L
D = 70 mm
G

E

 

T sur = 25 o C

 

T s = 200 o C = 0.8

The Surface Energy Balance Ex. 1.5. The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its surroundings, which are 25 o C, by a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has thermal conductivity of 1.2 W/m K and a surface emissivity of 0.8. Under steady state conditions an outer surface temperature of 100 o C is measured. Free convection heat transfer to the air adjoining the surface is characterized by convection coefficient of h = 20 W/m 2 K. What is the brick inner surface temperature?

The Surface Energy Balance Ex. 1.5. The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from