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• # 3. Thermal radiation: all surfaces of finite temperature emit energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Hence in the absence of an intervening medium, there is net heat transfer by radiation between two surfaces at different temperatures.

CONDUCTION
through a solid or stationary fluid

# T 1> T 2

CONVECTION
from a surface to a moving fluid

# T s> T 

Moving fluid, T 

# T s

Heat exchange between two surfaces

# conduction

How smart are you??

a.

CONDUCTION

T
T 1
x
q x
o
q x
x
T 2

insulating board
copper rod
wax
drawing pins

wood
iron
glass
copper
very hot
water

aluminium
copper
iron
drawing
pins

boiling
tube
water
wire gauze
ice

# Properties of some conductors and insulators  specific for certain material

thermal conductivity (k), W( mK) -1

# insulators.

What happen when these two balloons exposed to fire??
air
water
video

A
B

B

# _________

One-dimensional heat transfer by conduction
(diffusion of energy)
T
Fourier’s Law of heat conduction:
q x ” = - k (dT/dx)
q x ” = - k (T/x)
(1.1)
(1.2)
where:
T
1
q x ” = heat flux (Wm -2 or Js -1 m -2 )
T x
k
T
= thermal conductivity (WK -1 m -1 )
= temperature (K)
q x
x
= distance (m)
T 2
x

q x
T 2

# How much did you get??

q x ” = 2833 Wm -2
q
= 4250 W
x

# Fourier’s Law of heat conduction:

q x “ = q x /A = - k (dT/dx)
q x = - kA (dT/dx)

CONVECTION

# fluid. •Advection: transport due to bulk fluid motion. •Convection: diffusion + advection.

The Boundary Layer Development in Convection Heat Transfer
y
y
fluid
u 
T 
Thermal
boundary
Velocity
layer
distribution,
Temperature
u(y)
Hydrodynamic
(velocity)
boundary layer
distribution,
q”
T(y)
u 0
T s
Heated surface
u y
T y

# G

E
Gas T  ,
h
q” conv

## Surface of emissivity , absorptivity , and temperature T s

Surroundings
at T sur
Gas T  ,
h
q”
q”
conv
Surface of emissivity , absorptivity ,
and temperature T s

# transfer from the surface to the air is 15 Wm -2K -1,what is the rate of heat loss from the surface per unit length of pipe?

q’
air
T  = 25 o C
h = 15 Wm -2 K -1
L
D = 70 mm
G