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M.ENG.

FINAL SEMINAR

ON

EFFECT OF CONCRETE GRADES ON


STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE SLENDER BEAM

BY

GBADAMOSI, Ismail Akindeji


(CVE/07/0324)

SUPERVISOR: DR L.M. OLANITORI


INTRODUCTION
Compressive strength
Concrete
INTRO. CONTD

Slender beam can be classified according to


a/d ratio 2.5,
Where
a- shear span
d-effective depth
PROBLEM STATEMENT
The compressive strengths required
might not be attained due to presence
of clay/silt content of sand in concrete,
Olanitori and Olotuah (2005).
The focus of this work is to investigate
the effect of reduction in the
recommended characteristic strength
of concrete, by the consulting
structural engineer on the resistance
capacities of slender beams.
PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
The general practice is to demolish any
structural element constructed with
concrete that does not meet the strength
requirement on site during construction.
This arise as a result of the effect of the
reduction of concrete strength as related
to strength characteristics has not being
experimentally established.
AIM OF RESEARCH
The aim of this research is to
investigate the effect of concrete
grades on strength characteristics of
reinforced slender beam.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The specific objectives are to:
determine the effect of the reduction of
compressive strength of concrete on the
bending strength of slender beams;
study the effect of the reduction of compressive
strength of concrete on the shear strength of
slender beams; and
establish the effect of the reduction of
compressive strength of concrete on the
deflection of slender beams.
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
It has contributed the following to
knowledge:
established the relationship between
compressive strength of concrete and
that of bending strength of reinforced
concrete slender beams;
determined the relationship between
compressive strength of concrete and
shear strength of reinforced concrete
slender beams; and
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE (CONTD)

developed the relationship between


compressive strength of concrete and
deflection of reinforced concrete
slender beams.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Table 1: Description of Construction Materials
Material Description

Cement Ordinary Portland Cement

Sand Natural & Quarry Sand (4.75 mm)

Granite Crushed granite (20 & 10 mm)

Tension Reinforcing bars Y12mm high yield steel bars

Shear Reinforcing bars Y8mm high yield steel bars

Water Portable well water


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
MATERIALS

Trial mixes of concrete for each grade.

Casting of the Beams.

Loading of the Experimental Beams


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
MATERIALS CONTD
Table 2: Details of Experimental Beams
Beam Length Width Depth a/d Main bar Shear bar
Type (mm) (mm) (mm) (Bottom)

B11 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B12 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B21 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B22 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B31 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B32 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B41 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c

B42 1000 100 150 3.8 2Y12 Y8@100 c/c


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
MATERIALS CONTD
Table 3: Proportion of Material for Beam Concrete Mixes

Material Quantity

5.7G 9.2G 12.5G 15G

Water/cement ratio 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Water (Litres) 3 4.8 4.8 4.8

Cement (kg/m3) 5 8 8 8

Fine Agg. % Sand 15 16 6.4 12.8


(kg/m3)
% Stone dust - - 9.6 3.2

Coarse aggregates (kg/m3) 30 32 32 32

Total volume of concrete (m3) 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
MATERIALS CONTD

Plate 1 : Typical Experimental beam at failure


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4: Results of Flexural test on Beams


Beam Weight Position Concrete Load at Bending Shear Displacement

No (kg) of load grade failure strength force v (mm)


(N/mm2) (kN)
(N/mm2) (kN)

B11 43.60 At center 5.7 40.03 10.21 20.02 19.93


B12 43.50 At center 5.7 40.03 10.21 20.02 21.41
B21 42.70 At center 9.2 46.55 13.52 23.28 18.09
B22 43.10 At center 9.2 46.55 13.52 23.28 21.06
B31 44.00 At center 12.5 53.01 13.52 26.51 21.48
B32 44.40 At center 12.5 53.52 13.82 26.76 18.46
B41 44.90 At center 15 59.52 15.18 29.76 32.85
B42 45.10 At center 15 59.52 15.18 29.76 30.55
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 5: Summary of the Estimated MEMR, PEUL and


VEUS for the Experimental Beams
Beam Type MEMR (kNm) PEUL (kN) VEUL (kN)
B1 9.41 50.19 113.19
B2 10.28 54.83 113.19
B3 11.10 59.20 113.19
B4 11.71 62.45 113.19

Table 6: The Comparison of Estimated Ultimate load


and Actual load of the Experimental beams
Beam Concrete Estimated Actual
Type grade Ultimate load Ultimate load 100%

(N/mm2) PEUL (kN) PAUL (kN)
B1 5.7 50.19 40.03 20.24
B2 9.2 54.83 46.55 15.10
B3 12.5 59.20 53.27 10.02
B4 15 62.45 59.52 4.69
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 7: The Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Shear and


Actual Shear Capacities of the Experimental beams
Beam Concrete grade Estimated Actual Ultimate
Type (N/mm2) Ultimate Shear Shear Strength 100%

Strength VEUS (kN) VAUS (kN)

B1 5.7 113.19 20.02 82.31


B2 9.2 113.19 23.28 79.43
B3 12.5 113.19 26.64 76.46
B4 15 113.19 29.76 73.71
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 8: The Comparison of Estimated Ultimate Moment and


Actual Moment of Resistance of the Experimental beams
Beam Concrete Estimated Actual Ultimate
Ultimate Moment of 100%
Type grade
(N/mm2) Moment of Resistance MAMR
Resistance MEMR (kNm)
(kNm)

B1 5.7 9.41 7.5 20.30


B2 9.2 10.28 8.73 15.08
B3 12.5 11.10 9.99 10.00
B4 15 11.71 11.16 4.70
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 9: The Effect of Concrete Grade on Strength
Characteristics of the Experimental Beams
Beam Concrete Grade PAUL (kN) VAUS (kN) MAMR (kNm)
Type
B1 5.7 40.03 20.02 7.5
B2 9.2 46.55 23.28 8.73
B3 12.5 53.27 26.64 9.99
B4 15 59.52 29.76 11.16
Table 10: The Effect of Percentage Drop in Concrete Grade on
Strength Characteristics of the Experimental Beam
% Drop in % Drop in PAUL (kN) % Drop in VAUS (kN) % Drop in MAMR
(kNm)
Concrete Grade

38 14 14 14
54.4 25 25 25
62 33 33 33
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A drop of 38%, 54.4% and 62% in concrete grade results


to corresponding decrease in the strength
characteristics (Actual ultimate; load, shear, moment of
resistance) of beam by 14%, 25% and 33% respectively.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
65 31
60 29
Ultimate Load (kN)

Ultimate Shear (kN)


55 27

50 25
23
45
Ultimate load 21 ultimate Shear
40
19
35
17
30
15
5 7 9 11 13 15 17
5 10 15 20
Concrete Grade (N/mm2)
Concrete Grade (N/mm2)

Fig. 1: The graph of Actual Ultimate load Fig. 2: The graph of Actual Ultimate Shear
against Concrete grade against Concrete grade

12
Actual Moment (kNm)

11
10
9
8 Actual
Moment
7
6
5 7 9 11 13 15 17
Concrete Grade (N/mm2)

Fig. 3: The graph of Actual Moment of


Resistance against Concrete grade
CONCLUSION

The difference between estimated and actual


strength characteristics are 4% to 20%, therefore
the existing formulae from the BS standard to
predict the ultimate moment of resistance and
ultimate load of rectangular section are adequate
The difference between estimated and actual of the
strength characteristics are 70% to 80%, therefore,
existing formulae from the BS standard to predict
the ultimate shear capacity of rectangular section
are not adequate.
RECOMMENDATION

The existing formulae to predict the


ultimate shear capacity of reinforced
concrete rectangular section should be
modified to give a realistic results.
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