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Hydrogen Peroxide

and Inorganic
Peroxy Compounds
What are inorganic peroxy compounds?
A peroxide is a compound containing an
oxygenoxygen single bond or the
peroxide anion, O2
The OO group is called the peroxide
group or peroxo group.
Inorganic peroxides have an ionic, salt-
like character
Peroxides have a bleaching effect on organic
substances and therefore are added to some
detergents and hair colorants.

Other large-scale applications include


medicine and chemical industry, where
peroxides are used in various synthesis
reactions or occur as intermediate products.
Many peroxides are unstable and hazardous
substances; they cannot be stored and
therefore are synthesized in situ and used
immediately.
What is hydrogen peroxide?

It is a chemical compound with the formula


H2O2
In its pure form, it is a colorless liquid,
slightly more viscous than water.
Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide.
It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent and
disinfectant.
Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test
peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and
has been used as a propellant in rocketry.
(90%). HTP decomposes into oxygen and
superheated steam and produces a specific
impulse of about 150 s.

With an annual production of over 2 million


tons, hydrogen peroxide is the most
economically important peroxide.
Hydrogen peroxide comes in different strengths.
The strength can be described in two ways:

Percentage strength (%)


This tells you how much pure hydrogen peroxide is in the solution.
Examples:

In every 100ml of a 3% solution, 3% (3 ml) will be pure hydrogen


peroxide and 97 ml will be water.

In every 100 ml of a 6% solution, 6% (6 ml) will be pure hydrogen


peroxide and 94 ml will be water.
Volume strength (vol.)
This tells you how much oxygen is released from 1 ml of hydrogen
peroxide solution.
Examples:
1ml of 10 vol. gives 10 ml oxygen.
1ml of 20 vol. gives 20 ml oxygen
Brief History of Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen Peroxide was first identified and isolated


by the scientist Louis Jacques Thenard in 1818. He
achieved this when he was burning barium salts to
make barium peroxide. He noticed that when he
put the barium peroxide in water to dissolve,
hydrogen peroxide was produced. He improved on
this method over the years and his was the most
common way of producing hydrogen peroxide
until the mid twentieth century.
It was believed for many years that
hydrogen peroxide was an unstable
molecule as all attempts to separate it
from water failed. It wasn't until 1894 that
100% hydrogen peroxide was extracted
from water by the scientist Richard
Wolffenstein, using a process called
vacuum distillation.
By the end of the nineteenth
century many formulas had been
proposed for hydrogen peroxide.
However its correct formula of
HOOH (H2O2) was first proved by
Petre Melinkishvili.