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KONSEP Sistem

Informasi
DASAR Geografis
DEFINISI
Geographical Information System (GIS) atau dalam istilah
Bahasa Indonesia dikenal dengan Sistem Informasi Geografis
(SIG) merupakan seni, ilmu, teknik dan teknologi yang
diperlukan untuk menyelesaikan masalah spasial (keruangan)
(Reddy, 2008)

KENAPA GIS?
Karena GIS dapat mengkombinasikan data geospasial dan non-
geospasial dari sumber data yang berbeda dalam operasi analisis
geospasial sehingga mampu menjawab semua pertanyaan terkait
keruangan.
Tipe pertanyaan yang dapat diselesaikan dengan GIS
(Kraak and Ormeling, 2010)
GIS SEBAGAI SISTEM INFORMASI

GIS berperan dalam pengambilan keputusan (Reddy, 2008)


TINGKATAN PEMANFAATAN GIS

Penggunaan
Lahan/Penutup
Lahan, Kadastral,
Pertanian, Hidrologi

The Four Ms
(Reddy, 2008)
Penaksiran
lingkungan,
jaringan drainase,
model terrain,
model DTM, dll.
GIS AS TOOL OR SCIENCE...?

GIS bukan hanya sebagai tool atau science, tetapi GIS


mencangkup tool to science

GIS as tool, involving the use of a particular class of


software, associated hardware tools, and digital
geographic data in order to advance some specific
purpose;
GIS as toolmaking, involving the advancement of the
tool's capability and ease of use;
the science of GIS, concerning the analysis of the
fundamental issues raised by the use of GIS.

By Wright et al. (1997)


HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

By DiBiase (2006)
HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN
1. Influence geographic information technologies directly:
Cartography - the science and art of making maps
Remote sensing - the science of Earth observation from afar
Geodesy - the science of accurate measurement of the Earth
Surveying - the science of accurate measurement of features on the
Earth
Photogrammetry - the science of measurement from photographs
and images
Image processing - the science of handling and analysis of image
data

2. Influence digital technology and information:


Computer science - this includes databases, computational
geometry, image processing, and pattern recognition
Information science - Information science studies the application
and usage of knowledge in organizations, and the interaction
between people, organizations and information systems.
HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

3. Concern the Earth's physical or human aspect:


Geology
Geophysics
Oceanography
Agriculture
Biology, particularly ecology, biogeography
Environmental science
Geography
Sociology
Political science
Anthropology
Archaeology
HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

4. Integrate knowledge within the context of the Earth's surface:


Geography
Environmental science

5. Concern human understanding and its interactions with


machines:
Psychology, particularly cognitive psychology, environmental
psychology
Cognitive science
Artificial intelligence