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Corrosion basics

Natural tendency of metal to return to lower


energy state
Requirement Metal oxidation and
environment
M=> M++ , O2 =>OH- , H+=>H2
Forms of corrosions
Uniform
Pitting
Crevice
Galvanic
Stress corrosion cracking
Hydrogen Embrillement
Corrosion prevention
Coating of pipe line
Sacrificial anodes
Impressed current system
Passivation
Type of coatings
1. Coal tar enameled coatings
2. Extruded polyethylene and polypropylene
coating
3. Fusion Bonded epoxy coating

Note:- Each has different cathodic


requirenments
Criteria for Cathodic protection
with standard Copper sulphate
cell
Piping potential between -.85 and 1.2 volts
measured within 1 second after
simultaneous switching off all TR1:4 ON
/OFF time
100 mV polarization in case drop in case of
uncoated pipe lines
Effects of various factors
Low P.S.P. corrosion
High P.S.P. Hydrogen disbonding
For high temperature and aerobic nature the
minimum P.S.P. should be -.95 Volt
Soil resistivity
Area Severity of corrosion Resistivity ( ohms-cm
)
Average Moderate 1000 to 2000

Tidal Corrosive 500 to 1000

Clay Very Less than 500

Sandy loam Mildly 2000 to 10000

Desert Non corrosive 10000


Galvanic series If two
dissimilar
Mg -2.34 metals are
Al -1.67 connected
Zn -0.76 electrically
and dipped
Fe -0.44
in solution
In -0.34
More Active
Ni -0.25
material will
H2 0.00 dissociates
Cu 0.34 into ions
Ag 0.80 leading to is
corrosion
Au 1.68
Electrical Circuit of corrosion
cell
ea ec
Ic
ra rc rm

IC= Corrosion current


e = Potentials
R= resistances
Copper Sulphate half cell
requirenment
Standardisation
High resistance > 1000 m-ohms meter
Crystals of copper sulphate
Copper electrode
Porous plug
Anodes for Galvanic CP system
Zinc 11.8 kg /Ay
Magnesium ( Galvomag ) 7.9 kg/Ay
Aluminum ( Galvalum I , II , III 3.4 kg/Ay
Backfill for Galvanic anodes
Gypsum 75%
Bentonite clay 20%
Sodium sulphates 5%
Impressed Current CP System
Scrap iron 10kg/Ay
High Silicon Anodes - .3kg/Ay
Mixed Metal oxide titanium 1mg/Ay
Palatalized titanium anode 10 mg/Ay
Magnetite anodes
Impressed Current Anodes
Chemical resistance to low pH
Low passive current
Low oxygen over voltage
Wide temperature range
Good cast ability & mechanical strength
Good resistance to abrasion
Good current discharge capability
Resistance to localized corrosion
Backfill for impressed current
system
Metallurgical Coke Breeze
Calcined petroleum coke breeze
Various terminolgies
Insulated joints
Grounding cells
Surge diverter
Corrosion Coupons
Stray Current Interference
CP units
D.C. traction system
HVDC Transmission system
Telluric Current
A.C. Current effects
Capacitive coupling
Inductive coupling
Resistive coupling
High induced voltage
Basic requirement of pipe line
coating
Ease of application
Good Adhesion to pipe line
Good impact resistance
Flexibility
Resistance to soil stress
Resistance to flow
Resistance to moisture
Electrical resistance
Chemical & physical stability
Resistance to soil bacteria , marine organism
Current densities required for
cathodic protection mA/m2- life
Year/Mat 0-5 5-15 15-30
Coal tar 0.040 0.100 0.200
Butyl .010 0.020 0.050
rubber tape,
coal tar
Polyethylen 0.002 0.005 0.010
e,
Polypropyle
ne
Recommended off potential for
coatings
Coal tar -1.5V
FBE coating -1.2 V
3LPE coating -1.5V
Field surveys on CP systems
Close Interval Potential Logging
Current Attenuation Test Survey
Direct Current Voltage Gradient Survey
AC / DC Interference Survey
CPL survey
0.75 5 meter interval
ON/OFF 4:1 timing
Data logging
Lateral potential gradients
Locates deffects
Pearson & CAT surveys
Audio frequency transmitter
CAT locator
Locates pipe & depth
Electrical contact between pipe and metallic
structure
Signal strength v/s distance curve
DCVG survey
On / OFF potential
Two balanced reference anodes 2mtrs apart
Sources of Power for cathodic
protection
A.C. Power from grid
Solar Power
Wind Power
Thermoelectric generators & CCVT
Accessories
GPS based based interrupter
Synchronized interrupters
Permanent half cells
Data logger
Bonding diodes
Bonding cables
Remote bed