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presentation

© All Rights Reserved

- Conduction
- Book11
- Tutorial
- Lesson-6[2]
- Oberbeck Convection
- Physics Radiations
- 1015
- Mathematical Modeling and Parameter Bargo Estimation on a Heat Conducting Rod Experiment
- Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling for a Coaxial Solar Collector
- conduction, convection, radiation.pptx
- Determination of Thermal Performance of Wall Materials for the Construction of Green Building
- Jacketed Vessels
- Conduction
- Semi Infinite Solid
- 17683_02 - Energy, Energy Transfer, And General Energy Analysis [30 August 2018]
- KC21402_Lect1_2015
- cae
- laporan Termodinamika terakhir
- BioEqn.pdf
- Mass and heat transfer

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College of Engineering, Pune (COEP)

Forerunners in Technical Education

Introduction

OUTLINE

1-1 General Remarks

1-2 Conduction

1-3 Convection

1-4 Radiation

1-5 Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanism

1-6 Conservation of Energy

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1-1 General Remarks (1)

Heat: the form of energy that can be transferred from

one system to another as a result of temperature

difference.

Thermodynamic analysis concerns the amount of heat

transfer during a process

Heat transfer deals with the rates of such energy

transfers

Modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection and

radiation

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1-1 General Remarks (2)

modes

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1-1 General Remarks (3)

Governing equations of heat transfer modes

Conduction---Fouriers law:

Convection---Newtons cool:

Radiation:

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1-2 Conduction (1)

Conduction may be viewed as the transfer of energy

from the more energetic to the less energetic particles of

a substance due to interactions between the particles.

Conduction can take place in solids, liquids, or liquids.

molecules in a lattice and the energy transport by free

electrons.

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1-2 Conduction (2)

In liquids and gases, conduction is due to the collisions

and diffusion of the molecules during their random

motion.

the geometry of the medium, its thickness, and the material

of the medium, as well as the temperature difference

across the medium.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

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1-2 Conduction (3)

( Area )(Temp Diff )

Rate of heat conduction a

thickness

dT

Q = kA

dx

Fouriers law of heat conduction Q = - kA dT

dx

thermodynamics with the flux being positive when it

flows in the direction of decreasing temperature.

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The rate of heat conduction through a solid is directly

proportional to its thermal conductivity.

In heat conduction analysis, A represents the area

normal to the direction of heat transfer

Example

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The range of k for various materials at room temperature

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The

The variation

mechanism of kofofheat

various

conduction

solids, liquids,

in different

and phases

gases with

of a

temperature

substance

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The thermal conductivity, k, is a thermo-physical

property of the material through which the heat flows and

has the units of W/m-

The values of the thermal conductivity for most

substances must be obtained experimentally.

Usually, ksoild>kliq>kgas

Heat Conducted k

Thermal diffusivity (): a = = ( m 2

/ s)

Heat Stored r Cp

The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the

propagation of heat into the medium. A small value of

thermal diffusivity means that heat is mostly absorbed by

the material and a small amount of heat will be conducted

further.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

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Convection

Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a solid

surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion.

It involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid

motion.

The faster the fluid motion, the greater the convection

heat transfer.

In the absence of any bulk fluid motion, heat transfer

between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid is by pure

conduction

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Heat transfer from a hot surface to air by convection.

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Convection = Conduction + Advection (fluid motion)

Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a solid

surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion.

Convection is commonly classified into three sub-modes:

Forced convection,

Natural (or free)convection,

Change of phase(liquid/vapor, solid/liquid, etc.)

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Forced convection: the fluid is forced to flow over the

surface by external means such as a fan, pump, or the

wind.

Natural (free) convection: the fluid motion is caused by

buoyancy forces that are induced by density differences

due to the variation of temperature in the fluid.

Heat transfer processes that involve change of phase of a

fluid are also considered to be convection because of the

fluid motion induced during the process, such as the rise

of vapor bubbles during boiling or the fall of the liquid

droplets during the condensation.

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Newtons law of cooling:

Q = h A ( T s - T )

Ts: surface temperature

T: the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the

surface

h is not a property of fluid, but is a flow property.

It is an experimentally determined parameter whose

value depends on all the variables influencing convection

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1-4 Radiation

Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of

electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the

changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or

molecules.

Unlike conduction or convection, radiation does not

require the presence of an intervening medium.

Energy transfer by radiation is fastest (at the speed of

light) and it suffers no attenuation in a vacuum.

This is how the energy of the sun reaches the earth.

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In heat transfer, we are interested in thermal radiation,

which is in the form of radiation emitted by bodies

because of their temperature.

All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit

thermal radiation.

Stefan-Boltzmann law:

The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from

a surface at an absolute temperature Ts is given by

Q e, max = AT s4

Department of Mechanical Engineering

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Blackbody radiation:

radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same

temperature, and is expressed as

4

Q e = AT s (W )

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Absorptivity, : It is the fraction of the radiation energy

incident on a surface that is absorbed by the surface.

A blackbody absorbs the entire radiation incident on it,

i.e., =1.

The absorption of radiation incident on an opaque

surface of absorptivity,

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Kirchhoffs law:

and of a surface are equal at the same temperature

and wavelength.

In most practical application, the dependence of and

on the temperature and wavelength is ignored, and the

average absorptivity of a surface is taken to be equal to

its average emissivity.

Radiation heat transfer

between a surface and the

surfaces surrounding it.

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Combined heat transfer coefficient:

Q combined = Q convection Q radiation

4 4

= hA(Ts - T ) A(Ts - T )

hcomb = h A(Ts2 - T2 )(Ts T )

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Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanism (1)

medium may involve only two of them simultaneously

and Radiation Heat Transfer

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Example

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Conservation of Energy (1)

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Conservation of Energy (2)

balance and to treat the conversion of nuclear,

chemical, mechanical, and electrical energies into

thermal energy as heat generation.

The energy balance in that case can be expressed as

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1-6 Conservation of Energy (3)

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1-6 Conservation of Energy (4)

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1-6 Conservation of Energy (5)

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1-6 Conservation of Energy (6)

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