Anda di halaman 1dari 46

   

c 

 

 c  
    
    
m  
  


   
   

   
 

    
ë    
    
  
  !

       

  "   

ë    
 #
$    %
 

  

   
!
   

&
 
  
  ! 
    
      ! 
     

    


&   

' &
   

 
   

  
' ë
!" !
( )
!
!     
      
' *!  
 
    "     
 "
"
&   
' &        
       
 
 

' +    ,!


-!   .
      
 
 
&   
&   
&   
' /-   "
 

   
 0   
"

| ||  1 





    
 
 )2 
*
  2 

*
 &    *
 3 

m #44445 !
 4/  
6 744445 !
 
2  

$ 44445  8 2 $
 
9 :4445  *  ;
< =4445 

 Õ *  $
5 >4445   $  $
! 
? #4445  6
 $  

?  ( )m  ! "


@" #$
*      
' 3 
)$
!   
  5Aëëë

  B=4 2

444
=4 $
! 
44
4
 2 <78

m 6$9< 5 ?
C 47#>A=D: 47#>A=D:47#>AC
  

' $
 !


 "


   
 
 
   
 


' ? 4E

  ! -   
?  2(  
?  ?  2(  
' &    
   (  
   !
 
A$

  - 


  
 
   F

' 6   

   
 
   )
   )
   )
   )
   )
   )
   )
   )
&   

' ? 



 ,?  2(  .
G 2

  !     

 
G 2   
" " 
  
    
     (  
' $    
=444 


 ?2
&   
' &    !    
   
-  
' $!
-!     


  !  !

! /   
   /B7&>  
 
  

   


  
&   

' 2    "


 
  

 "


' &  
2ë   
?$22    
 !"  
' 2!   
?2      
The Radii of Stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram


6
 

;


44

 
;H2##:4 $ 
The Main Sequence (MS)

4E

 

   
(  $ 
  

 
  (  
$

  


  (  
 "  
   
  
;H2##:4 $ 
uminosity Classes
This classification is
based on spectral lines
ë 62   sensitive to stellar
ë surface gravity.
ë!
ë!2  
ëë
ëë6< 
ëëë
ëëë< 

ë82 ! 
ë8
8
+ 
8?  2(  2 

;H2##:4 $ 


Õ ample uminosity Classes
áince the radius of a giant star is much larger than a dwarf star while their
masses are roughly comparable, the gravity and thus the gas density and
pressure on the surface of a giant star are much lower than for a dwarf.
These differences manifest themselves in the form of luminosity effects
which affect both the width and the intensity of spectral lines which can
then be measured. Denser stars with higher surface gravity will exhibit
greater pressure broadening of spectral lines.

' m 2 ) <7  ?  2(  )<78

' ;
)<7 2  
 )<7ë!
Spectral ines of Giants

;         


  
  (   

BI$!  
          
    (   

´9
     
  
     

  "

A      

3
2
/& -
&
 - 

  
  
(   
  &
 
 
  
    

 
!

  
   

  


"
 

  
6


  1
  


 1

   

 "
 

3 
)


;H2##:4 $ 



 
m   

1
 
  
!1

  3


  1 
!

3 
)   

;H2##:4 $ 


"
H

  
 1   !


 !
   1
" 
 
"   

  1 

 

3 
)

;H2##:4 $ 


$ 
 %  
+

 
 1 
   
  (   
 

 "

   
 1
 
 
!

3 
)

;H2##:4 $ 


?
  (  
 )
2 !
  
  (   
 



  

 "   
  1
 

  !

3 
)  
  

;H2##:4 $ 



&
*
  
  
 
  (  1
   !
   


  1


  
 1
!  

3 
)  ' 

;H2##:4 $ 


ï &

?
 


13

    !

  1
  

 1

"
 
"
  1( 

 


3 
) &! 
  2 
;H2##:4 $ 
68*
ë 3 &   
   !
 
  
     
' 68
 3 (      

  
  

Ë  !
6
 

   

 "
     !


Ë  ,"
.8
 

 "
 

 

!  

   68


 3
4  "
*
   68
 3
74m   ! 
´ ?    ! 
3  
68
´ 7&
3    


    !  


 "
 

´ #*      
6 8
  

   4A
! 
cYI444J´      
 ÷'44 

   

   
>D4> 
 
 * 
 

"    !
 74E ï 68
 
(
44A *

   !   


44  68 44A
   !
   ?8
Mass±uminosity Relation

O  
      
 
   

 
            
 
               
    

  m3.5

á          


  
        
      
   
   

      
  
ifetime on the Main Sequence


 

!!?2    


Ka  ÷

  
K ?
 

    K / ?#A


 !   K

?@/B?@?#A B?7A

?2/ B44@?7A

4
m 2 


4   ?  2(  
Masses of Stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

&  0  ?   




  !  
) -ã
/L?#A ()
   "
*
 
" 

  ) +

 L?7A (,
(ã
ã)
ã

2 )L4!

 
4? )L#4

 
4? )L#

  ;H2##:4 $ 


ifetime on the Main Sequence

23 
)

67  4?>
 #734D 

94  7?>
 :34 

?4  A?>
 A=344 

6 M "#D344 


F

"?    "  | a

   (  FF


% FFF
2   3
CC