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Ass. wr. wb.

PENELITIAN =
RESEARCH

Malang- 2007
KEPMENDIKBUD No. 212/U/1999

PENELITIAN adalah kegiatan


taat kaidah dalam upaya untuk
menemukan kebenaran dan/atau
menyelesaikan masalah dalam ilmu
pengetahuan, teknologi dan/atau
kesenian.
PENELITIAN, RESEARCH:

Kamus Oxford (1995):


Research = careful study esp in order to discover new facts or information

Kamus Webster (1966):


Research = careful or diligent search; to search or investigate exhaustively;
to search again or anew.

Kamus besar Bahasa Indonesia (2001):

Penelitian adalah:
1. Pemeriksaan yang teliti
2. Kegiatan pengumpulan, pengolahan, analisis, dan penyajian data yang
dilakukan secara sistematis dan objektif untuk memecahkan suatu
persoalan atau menguji suatu hipotesis untuk mengembangkan
prinsip-prinsip umum.
Woody (dalam Danim, 2002):
Penelitian merupakan metode untuk menemukan kebenaran , disamping itu juga
merupakan suatu pemikiran kritis.

Pearson (dalam Whitney, 1960):


Penelitian adalah pencarian atas sesuatu secara sistematik dan dilakukan terhadap
masalah-masalah yang dapat dipecahkan.

Burnd dan Grove (1993): research = is diligent systematic inquiry or investigation to


validate and refine existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.

Penny (1975): PENELITIAN ADALAH PEMIKIRAN YANG SISTEMATIK


MENGENAI BERBAGAI JENIS MASALAH YANG Pemecahannya memerlukan
pengumpuylan dan penafsiran fakta-fakta.

Hillway (1956): a method of study by which, through the careful and exhaustive of
all ascertainable evidence bearing upon a definable problem, we reach a solution to the
problem.

Kerlinger (1986): penelitian adalah suatu penyelidikan yang sistematis , terkendali,


empiris, dan kritis mengenai fenomnena-fenomena alam yang dibimbing oleh teori dan
hipoptesis mengenai hubungan-hubungan yang diduga ada di antara fenomena-
fenomena tersebut.
Jenis-jenis penelitian:

Kline (1980):
1. Perdasarkan Tujuan:
1.1. Penelitian Dasar
1.2. Penelitian Terapan
1.3. Penelitian Evaluasi

2. Berdasatkan Metode:
2.1. Penelitian Historis
2.2. Penelitian Deskriptif
2.3. Penelitian Perkembangan
2..4. Penelitian Kasus atau Studi Lapangan
2.5. Penelitian Korelasional
2.6. Penelitian Tindakan
2.7. Penelitian Komparatif
2.8. Penelitian Eksperimental
2.9. Penelitian Kualitatif

3. Berdasarkan tingkat penjelasan:


3.1. Penjelasan deskriptif
3.2. Penjelasan Asosiatif
3.3. Penjelasan Kausalitas.
Danim (2002):
Ada dua jenis metode penelitian, yaitu:
1. Metode penelitian kuantitatif
2. Metode penelitian kualitatif

Tipe-tipe penelitian kuantitatif: Tipe Penelitian Kualitatif:


1. Penelitian Deskriptif 1. Penelitian Fenomenologi
2. Penelitian Perkembangan 2. Penelitian Grounded
3. Penelitian Tindakan 3. Penelitian Etnografi
4. Penelitian Perbandingan-Kausal 4. Penelitian Historis
5. Penelitian Korelasional 5. Penelitian KAsus
6. Penelitian Eksperimental Semu 6. Penelitian Fisolofis
7. Penelitian Eksperimental 7. Penelitian Kritik Sosial
Uma Sekaran (1992): Karakteristik utama penelitian ilmiah:

1. Tujuan Penelitian: jelas, pasti dan terarah


2. Keseriusan Penelitian: ketelitian, kehati-hatian, kepastian
3. Dapat Diuji: hipotesis yang dapat diuji dg metode statistik tertentu
4. Dapat direplikasi: temuan penelitian akan sama kalau diulang pada
kondisi yang sama
5. Presisi dan keyakinan: presisi mencerminkan derajat kepastian dari
temuan p[enelitian terhadap kejadian yg dipelajari. Keyakinan
menunjukkan kemungkinan dari kebenaran estimasi yang dilakukan.
6. Obyektivitas: kesimpulan penelitian harus didasarkan pada data yang
aktual
7. Berlaku Umum: dapat-tidaknya hasil penelitian diterapkan pada
berbagai keadaan.
8. Efisien: kerangka penelitian yang melibatkan sedikit variabel yg dapat
menjelaskan suatu kejadian
John W Best (1982): Sebelas karakteristik penelitian:

1. Penelitian dirancang dan diarahkan untuk mencari jawaban atas suatu


permasalahan
2. Kerja penelitian dititik-beratkan pada pengembangan cara-cara
membuat generalisasi, prinsip dan teori-teori
3. Penelitian didasarkan atas pengalaman hasil observasi atau kejadian
empiris
4. Penelitian memerlukan observasi dan deskripsi yang akurat
5. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menemukan data yg baru dari sumber
primer , bukan sekedar data yg sudah ada sebelumnya
6. Penelitian memerlukan rancangan yg teliti dan hati-hati melalui prosedur
yg tepat dg menggunakan analisis yang rasional
7. Penelitian memerlukan keahlian
8. Penelitian menekankan pada logika dan obyektivitas yg tinggi
9. Penelitian menuntut kesabaran dan tidak dilakukan dg tergesa-gesa
10. Kerja penelitian memerlukan pencatatan dan pelaporan yang hati-hati
dan teliti
11. Kerja penelitian kadang-kadang memerlukan keberanian
Nazir (1988): Kriteria Penelitian Ilmiah:

1. Berdasarkan pada fakta yang nyata, bukan kira-kira


2. Bebas dari prasangka, berdasarkan pada alasan dan
buykti yang lengkap dengan metode epembuktian yg
obyektif
3. Menggunakan Analisis, solusi permasalahan dicari
dengan analisis yang logis.
4. Menggunakan hipotesis, untuk menuntun jalan
pikiran peneliti dalam mencapai hasil penelitiannya
5. Menggunakan ukuran yang obyektif, dengan alat ukur
yang obyektif pula
6. Menggunakan teknik kuantifikasi, untuk data yang
masih memungkinkan dikuantifikasikan
Penelitian Terapan = Applied Research = Practical Research :
Penyelidikan yang hati-hati , sistematis dan terus-menerus
terhadap suatu masalah dengan tujuan untuk digunakan
dengan segera bagi keperluan tertentu.

Ciri-ciri penelitian terapan:


1. Kegiatan untuk menemukan kebenaran yang obyektif, bukan
kegiatan spekulasi, atau untung-untungan
2. Memerlukan metode yang tepat dan dilaksanakan secara
cermat
3. Menggunakan teori-teori yang applied untuk menyusun
kerangka konsep penelitian, dan pembahasan
4. Memerlukan analisis yang tajam, rasional, kritis, dan
obyektif,
5. Data lengkap dan objektif,
6. Tidak cukup dengan menyajikan data, tetapi harus diadakan
pengolahan data, baik secara kuantitatif maupun kualitatif.
7.
METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF

Newman (1997): enam ciri utama penelitian kualitatif:


1. The context is critical, mengutamakan konteks sosial
2. The value of the case study, menggunakan pendekatan studi
kasus
3. Researcher integrity
4. Grounded theory, membangun teori dari data, induktif
5. Process and sequence, mencermati proses dan urutan
perintiwanya
6. Interpretation, interpretasinya mendalam:
i. The first order intrerpretation
ii. The second order interpretation
iii. The third order interpretation, menhubungkan dengan
teori-teori umum.
Lincoln dan Guba (1985): 14 karakteristik penelitian
kualitatif:

1. Natural setting
2. Human instruments
3. Utilization of tacit knowledge
4. Qualitative methods
5. Purposive sampling
6. Inductive data analysis
7. Grounded theory
8. Emergent design
9. Negotiated outcomes
10. Case study reporting mode
11. Idiographic interpretation
12. Tentative application
13. Focus determined boundaries
14. Special criteria for trustworthiness.
APA PENELITIAN KUALITATIF ITU ?

Strauss dan Corbin (1997): qualitative research adalah penelitian yang


menghasilkan temuan yang tidak dapat dicapai dg menggunakan prosedur
statistik atau dengan cara kuantifikasi lainnya.

Bogdan dan Taylor (1975): prosedur penelitian yang bertujuan


mengumpulkan dan menganalisis data deskriptif berupa tulisan, ungkapan
lisan dari orang dan perilakunya yang dapat diamati.

Kirk dan Miller (1986): penelitian kualitatif merupakan tradisi dalam ilmu
sosial yang secara fundamental bergantung pada pengamatan pada amanusia
dalam kawasannya sendiri dan berhubungan dengan orang-orang tersebut
menurut bahasa dan peristilahannya

Penelitian kualitatif bertujuan mengumpulkan data dalam setting alamiah,


yang akan digunakan untuk menyusun teori melalui analisis data secara
induktif.
JENIS PENELITIAN KUALITATIF

Bogdan dan Biklen (1982):


1. Interpretative research
2. Verstehen
3. Hermeneutics
4. Ethnomethodology
5. Ethnography
6. Cognitive research
7. Field research
8. Idealist research
9. Subjectivist
10. Phenomenological research
11. Symbolic interactionism
12. Naturalistic
13. Constructivism
14. Grounded research
15. Studi Kasus
16. Perspektif ke dalam
17. Ekologis
18. Deskriptif.
Danim (2000): tujuh jenis penelitian
kualitatif:

1. Penelitian Fenomenologi
2. Penelitian Grounded
3. Penelitian Etnografi
4. Penelitian Historis
5. Penelitian Kasus
6. Inquiry Filosofis: fundasional, filosofis,
etik
7. Teori kritik sosial
Beberapa Istilah lain

1. Policy Research: menjawab masalah sosial yang bersifat fundamental


dan hasilnya dimanfaatkan oleh pembuat kebijakan untuk menjawab
masalah-masalah fundamental dan mendesak
2. Philosophycal Inquiry: menekankan analisis intelektual yang dipandu
dengan pertanyaan filosofis dan mempertimbangkan ide dan isu-isu dari
semua perspektif, eksplorasi yang luas dan mendalam
3. Critical Social Theory: menemukan pemahaman mengenai cara
seseorang berkomunikasi dan dalam mengembangkan makna simbolik
dalam masyarakat.
4. Developmen Research: mempelajari pola pertumbuhan dan
perkembangan subyek tertentu, baik secara terus-menerus atau secara
periodik yang mendalam untuk menyempurnakan, memperbaiki atau
mengembangkan sesuatu yang telah ada
5. Evaluation research: mengukur suatu program, produk atau aktivitas
tertentu, dengan maksud untuk memperbaikinya
6. Verstehen: menggunakan pola pikir divergensi, kreatif, inovatif untuk
memperoleh pemahaman yang mendasar dan mendalam
7. Descriptive Research: mengungkap suatu maslaah atau keadaan tertentu
sebagaimana adanya sehingga dapat memberikan gambaran secara tepat
tentang keadaan sebenarnya dari obyek yang diselidiki dalam ranghka
memecahkan masalah tertentu yang spesifik.
8. Action Research: untuk medeskripsikan, konsepsi, pengambilan keputusan secara
kritis berdasarkan rekaman , pemantauan dan evaluasi terhadap tindakan dan
hasil tindakan.
9. Phenomenological Research: untuk memahami respon dari suatu unit tertentu
secara utuh termasuk interaksinya dengan lingkungan sekitarnya
10. Historical Research: merekonstruksi kondisi masa lampau secara obyektif ,
sistematis, dan akurat guna merumuskan kesimpulan yang lebih kuat dan akurat
11. Field Research: penelitian dilakukan secara langsung di lokasi penelitian untuk
dapat memahami secara mendalam lingkungan masyarakat atau obyek tertentu
baik melalui wawancara maupun pengamatan
12. Penelitian Kasus: tujuannya untuk mempelajari secara mendalam suatu fenomena
tertentu sehingga diperoleh gambaran yang menyeluruh dan utuh pada keadaan
sekarang apa adanya.
13. Penelitian Etnografi: penelitian dimaksudkan untuk memahami mudaya atau
aspek kebudayaan dalam kehidupan sosial masyarakat
14. Interaksionisme Simbolik: untuk memahami makna perilaku manusia dalam
kehidupan: motif, wawasan, internalisasi nilai.
15. Naturalist Inquiry: penelitian untuk memahami fenomena interaksi, perilaku,
yang pengkajiannya dalam latar belakang alamiah.
16. Grounded Research: penelitian untuk memahami permasalahan yang muncul
dalam suatu fenomena tertentu untuk menyusun, mengembangkan, dan
merekonstruksikan teori berdasarkan data yang digali dari bawah secara
langsung, induktif.
PENELITIAN KUANTITATIF VS KUALITATIF

Penelitian Kuantitatif Penelitian Kualitatif


1. Ilmu-ilmu keras Ilmu-ilmu lunak
2. Fakus ringkas dan sempit Fokus kompleks dan luas
3. Reduksionistik Holistik dan menyeluruh
4. Obyektif Subyektif atau prspektif etnik
5. Penalaran logis dan deduktif Penalaran dialektif-induktif
6. Basis pengetahuan: Hubungan Basis pengetahuan: Makna dan
sebab-akibat temuan
7. Menguji teori Mengembangkan/ membangun teori
8. Kontrol atas variabel Sumbangsih tafsiran
9. Instrumen Komunikasi dan observasi
10. Elemen dasar analisis: angka Elemen dasar analisis: kata-kata
11. Analisis statistik atas data Interpretasi individual
12. Generalisasi Keunikan
POSITIVIST vs. NATURALIST
Lincoln and Guba (1985)
Axiom About Paradigma Positivistik Paradigma Naturalistik

Ontologi: Nature of reality Reality is single, tangible Realities are multiple,


and fragmentable constructed, holistic

Epistemologi: relationship Knower and known are Know the known are
of knower and known independent, a dualisme interactive, inseparable

Possibility of generalization Time and context-free Only time and context


generalization bound working hypotheses
( idiographic statement)
are possible
Possibility of causal There are real causes, All intities are in state of
linkages temporally precedent to or mutual simultaneous
simultaneous with their shaping so that it is
effect impossible to distinguiosh
causes from effects
Aksiologi: To role of values Inquiry is value free Inquiry is value bound
in inquiry
ASUMSI PARADIGMA KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF
Asumsi Questions Kuantitatif Kualitatif
Asumsi What is the nature Reality is objective and Reality is subjective and
ontologis of reality? singular, apart from the multiple as seen by participant
researcher in a study
Asumsi What is the Reality is independent Researcher interact with that
epistemolog relationship of the from that being researched being researched
is researcher to that
researched?
Asumsi What is the role of Value-free and unbiased Value-bound and biased
aksiologis values?
Asumsi What is the Formal; based on set Informal; evolving; decisions;
rhetoris language of definitions; impersonal personal voice; accepted
research? voice; use of accepted qualitative words
quantitative words
Asumsi What is the Deductive process; cause Inductive process; mutual
metodologi process of the and effect; static design simultaneous shaping of
s research? categories isolated before factors; emerging design
study; context-free; categories identified during
genaralization leading to research process; context
prediction, explanation, bound; patterns, theories
and understanding; developed for understanding;
accurate and reliable accurate and reliable through
through validity and verification.
reliability
PERMASALAHAN PENELITIAN
Kamus Oxford (1995): problem is a thing that is difficult to deal with or understand
; a question to be answered or solved; esp. by reasoning or calculating.

Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2001): masalah diartikan sebagai sesuatu yang
harus diselesaikan (dipecahkan); soal, persoalan.

Permasalahan: hal yang menjadikan masalah; hal yang dimasalahkan; persoalan

Pertanyaan berarti sesuatu yang ditanyakan; soal; permintaan keterangan;


perbuatan bertanya.

Masalah adalah faktor yang dapat menyebabkan tidak tercapainya tujuan.

Ada permasalahan berarti ;


ada kesenjangan antara das Sollen dan das Sein;
ada perbedaan antara apa yang seharusnya dan apa yang ada dalam kenyataan
Antara harapan dan kenyataan
Antara apa yang diperlukan dan apa yang tersedia
BAGAIMANA MEMILIH MASALAH PENELITIAN
Dalam dunia nyata banyak masalah yang harus diselesaikan dengan segera
dalam waktu tertentu.
Namun tidak semua maslaah tersebut dapat diangkat menjadi maslaah
penelitian.

Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan identifikasi masalah

Ada beberapa cara yang dapat ditempuh:


1. Analisis literatur, terutama publikasi hasil-hasil penelitian yang relevan,
rekomendasi tindak lanjut hasiul penelitian
2. Kerja dan kontak profesional bidang keilmuan, forum-forum ilmiah
3. Pernyataan pemegang otoritas, baik ilmuwan maupun birokrasi
4. Pengamatan sepintas atas sutau kejadian atau peristiwa tertentu
5. Pengalaman pribadi peneliti dalam bidang tertentu yang menarik untuk
diteliti
BEBERAPA PERTIMBANGAN DALAM PEMILIHAN
MASALAH

1. Pertimbangan ilmiah
2. Pertimbangan non-ilmiah
3. Pertimbangan dari sudut pandang peneliti

Pertimbangan ilmiah:
1. Apakah maslaah tersebut dapat diteliti secara ilmiah? Yaitu masalah yang
realitasnya dapat diamati dan datanya tersedia dan dapat dikumpulkan
2. Apakah masalah tersebut memberikan manfaat dalam pengembangan ilmu
pengetahuan?
3. Dengan metode bagaimana masalah dapat diteliti?

Pertimbangan non-ilmiah:
1. Apa manfaat hasil penelitian bagi kepentingan praktis atau masyarakat?
2. Apakah masalah terlalu peka untuk diteliti? Resistensi sosial, budaya, ideologi
Pertimbangan peneliti:
1. Penguasaan teori dan metodologi
2. Minat peneliti terhadap masalaah
3. Kemampuan pengumpulan dan analisis data
4. Ketersediaan waktu, dana dan sumberdaya
Beberapa ciri khusus masalah
penelitian:

1. Masalah penelitian hendaknya dapat


mencerminkan kebutuhan yang dirasakan
2. Masalah penelitian merupakan kenyataan
yang betul-betul ada yang merupakan hasil
dari proses identifikasi masalah
3. Masalah penelitian relevan, dalam arti
merupakan permasalahan yang betul-betul
baru dan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik dan
benar.
PERUMUSAN MASALAH PENELITIAN.

1. Merumuskan masalah berarti mendeskripsikan


dengan jelas masalah yang dihadapi
2. Perumusan masalah merupakan proses
penyederhanaan maslaah yang rumit dan kompleks,
menjadi maslaah yang dapat diteliti
3. Perumusan masalah adalah merumuskan kaitan-
kaitan antara kesenjangan pengetahuan ilmiah atau
teknologi yang akan diteliti dengan kesenjangan
pengetahuan ilmiah yang lebih luas.
4. Rumusan maslaah penelitian biasanya terdiri atas
beberapa kalimat pertanyaan yang dibuat secara jelas
dan tegas yang dapat mengarahkan solusi atau
alternatif solusinya.
Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan DALAM
merumuskan masalah penelitian adalah:

a. Rumusan masalah dinyatakan secara singkat , jelas dan


padat
b. Rumusan masalah akan lebih baik jika menggunakan
kalimat tanya
c. Rumusan masalah akan lebih baik jika bersifat
menghubungkan dua variabel (atau faktor, atau indikator)
atau lebih
d. Rumusan maslaah hendaknya berisi implikasi adanya data
untuk pemecahan masalah
e. Rumusan masalah hendaknya relevan dengan judul dan
perlakuan yang akan diteliti
PERUMUSAN MASALAH DALAM
PENELITIAN KUALITATIF
1. Rumusan maslaah penelitian bersifat tentatif
yang dapat berubah dan disempurnakan.
2. Maslaah penelitian ada di lapangan, dan
perumusan masalah merupakan upaya untuk
menemukan teori dari dasarnya (grounded
theory)
3. Rumusan maslaah sering disebut fokus
penelitian yang dirumuskan dalam bentuk
pertanyaan penelitian.
PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN.

1. Pertanyaan penelitian Permasalahan Penelitian


Fokus penelitian
2. Pertanyaan yang harus dijawab melalui penelitian
3. Pertanyaan penelitian menekankan pada fakta dan
pengumpulan informasi
4. Pertanyaan penelitian dapat dirinci menjadi
Pertanyaan penyelidikan (Investigative question)
5. Pertanyaan pengukuran (measurement question):
pertanyaan yang diajukan kepada para responden
Arikunto (1998):

12 langkah dalam penelitian:

1. Memilih masalah
2. Studi pendahuluan
3. Merumuskan masalah
4. Merumuskan anggapan dasar
5. Merumuskan hipotesis
6. Memilih pendekatan
7. Menentukan variabel dan sumber data
8. Menentukan dan menyusun instrumen
9. Mengumpulkan data
10. Analisis data
11. Menarik kesimpulan
12. Menulis laporan
Husein Umar (1999):

Sembilan Langkah dalam penelitian:


1. Mendefinisikan dan merumuskan maslaah
2. Melakukan studi kepustakaan
3. Memformulasikan hipotesis
4. Menentukan Model
5. Mengumpulkan data
6. Mengolah dan menyajikan informasi
7. Menganalisis dan menginterpretasi
8. Membuat generalisasi dan kesimpulan
9. Membuat laporan
ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN

Etika merupakan norma atau standar perilaku yang menjadi pedoman moral
perilaku seseorang dan huungannya dengan orang lain

Tujuan etika dalam penelitian adalah untuk menjamin agar tidak ada
seorangpun yang dirugikan atau mendapat dampak negatif dari kegiatan
penelitian.

Cooper dan Emory (1996): kegiatan-kegiatan tidak etis dapat berupa:


1. Pelanggaran persetujuan tentang kerahasiaan
2. Salah menyajikan hasil dan temuan penelitian
3. Menipu orang
4. Menagih biaya yang tidak wajar
5. Menghindari tanggung-jawab hukum
6. Dan lainnya
OSullivan dan Ressel (1989):

Tiga pedoman etika thd responden:


1. Memulai pengumpulan data dengan
menjelaskan kepada responden mengenai
manfaat yang diharapkan dari penelitian.
2. Menjelaskan kepada responden bahwa hak-
haknya dan kesejahteraannya dilindungi
secukupnya dan bagaimana caranya
3. Memastikan bahwa pewawancara mendapat
persetujuan dari responden.
Primary Research
Primary research (also called field research)
involves the collection of data that doesn't already
exist.

This method of research is always used as the first


technique, this can then lead on to Field research.

The term is widely used in market research.


Methods of collection primary data

Observation: Looking at and recording what people do


and how they behave. Today, store cameras can be used to
observe consumer behaviour

Experiments: Market researchers can use experimental


techniques. e.g. test marketing, blind taste tests

Surveys: Involves asking questionnaires to respondents

Consumer panels: A select group of consumers that the


company regularly surveys to identify changing attitudes
Secondary research

Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the


summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather
than primary research, where data is collected from, for
example, research subjects or experiments.

The term is widely used in market research and in medical


research.

The principle methodology in medical secondary research is


the systematic review, commonly using meta-analytic statistical
techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realist
reviews and meta-narrative reviews, have been developed in
recent years.
Analytic frame

Analytic frame is a detailed sketch or outline of some social


phenomenon, representing initial idea of a scientist analyzing
this phenomenon.

Charles C. Ragin defines it as one of the four building blocks of


social research (the other three being ideas (social theories),
evidence (data) and images (new ideas synthetised from
existing data).
Thus analytic frames are used to elaborate on starting
ideas and they would usually consist of a list of some key
elements found in most of the analysed phenomena (for
example, social movements).

Two specific types of analytic frames are case and aspect


based frames.
Framing by case refers to researchers using concepts to
classify the phenomena they study, while framing by
aspect refers to using concepts to characterize the
phenomena.
For example, a scientists describing a restaurant, a bus, a
coffeehouse and a waiting room as a noninteraction places
is assigning them into the same category, thus framing
them by case.
Framing by aspect is going further and differentiating
between cases in a given category (how exactly is
noninteraction achieved in those places, what forms of
SOCIAL INTERACTION are permitted in those places,
etc.).

Frames can be also divided into fixed, fluid or flexible.


Fixed frame are those which won't change in later
research states - they are common in QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH , and are used to test and prove or falsify a
HYPOTHESIS.
Flexible frames are common in COMPARATIVE
RESEARCH, where they show which factors may be more
relevant in specific research context, helping to explore the
problem without making specific hypothesis.

Fluid frames are used when researcher wants to limit the


influence of the existing, more established theories; they are
thus subject to much change and the researcher can use
several frames switching between them depending on the
gathered data.

Fluid frames are most common in the QUALITATIVE


RESEARCH.
Analytic induction
Analytic induction refers to a systematic examination of
similarities between various social phenomena in order to
develop concepts or ideas.
Social scientists doing social research use analytic induction to
search for those similarities in broad categories and then
develop subcategories. For example, social scientist may
examine the category of 'marijuana users' and then develop
subcategories for 'uses marijuana for pleasure' and 'uses
marijuana for health reasons'.
If no relevant similarities can be identified, then either the data
needs to be reevaluated and the definition of similarities
changed, or the category is too wide and heterogeneous and
should be narrowed down. (Ragin 1994)
In the earlier sociological papers (from 1940s and 1950s) this
term could also be used to mean the search for "universals" in
social life, where "universal" meant an invariant, complete,
positivistic propriety (i.e. "all black males between 35 and 40
vote for Democrats"). (Ragin 1994)

This principle was formulated in 1934 by Florian Znaniecki. He


formulated it to identify universal propositions and causal laws.
He contrasted it with enumerative research, which provided
mere correlations and could not account for exceptions in
statistical relationships. This procedure was refined by Alfred
Lindesmith (1947) and Donald Cressey (1950) in their respective
studies of opiate addiction and embezzlers, and was used by
Howard S. Becker (1963) in his study of marijuana users.
(Taylor & Bogdan 1998) Eventually it became one of the classic
research methods in ethnography.
Znaniecki wrote that this procedure, known to natural
sciences (if never named so) involves "inducing laws
from a deep analysis of experimentally isolated
instances" and can be contrasted with defining and
using terms in advance of research.

Therefore it is a method involving inductive reasoning


(rather than deductive).

Analytic induction allows for modification of social


concepts and their relationships throughout the
process of doing research, with the goal of most
accurately representing the reality of the situation.
Cohort study
A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine
and social science.
It is one type of study design.

In medicine, it is usually undertaken to obtain evidence to try


to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause
and disease; failure to refute an hypothesis strengthens
confidence in it.
Crucially, the cohort is identified before the appearance of the
disease under investigation.
The study groups, so defined, are observed over a period of
time to determine the frequency of new incidence of the studied
disease among them.
The cohort cannot therefore be defined as a group of people
who already have the disease. Distinguishing causality from
mere correlation cannot usually be done with results of a
cohort study alone.
A cohort is a group of people who share a common
characteristic or experience within a defined time period (e.g.,
are born, leave school, lose their job, are exposed to a drug or a
vaccine, etc.).
Thus a group of people who were born on a day or in a
particular time period, say 1948, form a birth cohort.

The comparison group may be the general population from


which the cohort is drawn, or it may be another cohort of
persons thought to have had little or no exposure to the
substance under investigation, but otherwise similar.
Alternatively, subgroups within the cohort may be
compared with each other. The largest cohort study in
women is the Nurses' Health Study.
Started in 1976, it is tracking over 120,000 nurses and
has been analyzed for many different conditions and
outcomes.
Some cohort studies track a group of children from
their birth, and record a wide range of information
(exposures) about them. The value of a cohort study
depends on the researchers' capacity to stay in touch
with all members of the cohort.
Some of these studies have continued for decades. An
example of a cohort study that has been going on for
more than 50 years is the Framingham Heart Study.
An example of an epidemiologic question that can be
answered by the use of a cohort study is: does exposure to X
(say, smoking) correlate with outcome Y (say, lung cancer)?
Such a study would enroll a group of smokers and a group of
non-smokers (the unexposed group) and follow them for a set
period of time and note differences in the incidence of lung
cancer between the groups at the end of this time.

In this example, a statistically significant increase in the


incidence of lung cancers in the smoking group as compared
to the non-smoking group is evidence in favor of the
hypothesis. However, rare outcomes, such as lung cancer, are
generally not studied with the use of a cohort study, but are
rather studied with the use of a case-control study.
Shorter term studies are commonly used in medical research as
a form of clinical trial, or means to test a particular hypothesis
of clinical importance.
Such studies typically follow two groups of patients for a period
of time and compare an endpoint or outcome measure between
the two groups.

Randomized controlled trials, or RCTs are a superior


methodology in the hierarchy of evidence, because they limit
the potential for bias by randomly assigning one patient pool to
an intervention and another patient pool to non-intervention
(or placebo).
This minimises the chance that the incidence of confounding
variables will differ between the two groups.
Nevertheless, it is sometimes not practical or ethical to
perform RCTs to answer a clinical question.

To take our example, if we already had reasonable evidence


that smoking causes lung cancer then persuading a pool of
non-smokers to take up smoking in order to test this
hypothesis would generally be considered quite unethical.

A "prospective cohort" defines the groups before the study is


done, while a "retrospective cohort" does the grouping after
the data is collected.
Constructive research

Constructive research is perhaps the most common


computer science research method. This type of
approach demands a form of validation that doesnt
need to be quite as empirically based as in other types
of research like exploratory research.

Nevertheless the conclusions have to be objectively


argued and defined. This may involve evaluating the
construct being developed analytically against some
predefined criteria or performing some benchmark
tests with the prototype.
The term construct is often used in this context
to refer to the new contribution being developed.

Construct can be a NEW THEORY, ALGORITM,


MODEL, SOFTWARE, or A FRAMEWORK.
The following phrases explain the above figure.

The fuzzy info from many sources tab refers to different info
sources like training materials, processes, literature, articles,
working experience etc.

In the solution tab, theoretical framework represents a


tool to be used in the problem solving.

The practical relevance tab it refers to empirical knowledge


creation that offers final benefits.

The theoretical relevance tab it gives the new theoretical


knowledge that needs scientific acceptance: the back arrow to
theoretical body of knowledge tab.
Steps to be followed in practical utility tab (a):
Set objectives and tasks
Identify process model
Select case execution
Interview case organization
Prepare simulation
Run simulation
Interpret simulation results
Give feedback

Steps to be followed in epistemic utility tab (b):


Constructive research
Case research
Surveys
Qualitative and quantitative methods
Theory creating
Theory testing
Cross-sectional study

Cross-sectional studies (also known as Cross-sectional


analysis) form a class of RESEARCH METHOD that
involve observation of some subset of a population of items
all at the same time.
The fundamental difference between cross-sectional and
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES is that cross-sectional studies
take place at a single point in time and that a longitudinal
study involves a series of measurements taking over a
period of time. Cross-sectional studies are used in most
branches of science, in the social sciences and in other
fields as well.
Cross-sectional studies in medicine
Cross-sectional studies can be thought of as providing a
"snapshot" of the frequency and characteristics of a disease in a
population at a particular point in time.

This type of data can be used to assess the prevalence of acute or


chronic conditions in a population. However, since exposure and
disease status are measured at the same point in time, it may not
always be possible to distinguish whether the exposure preceded
or followed the disease.

The cross-sectional survey--which, like a snapshot, "freezes" a


specific moment in time--aims at finding the same kind of
relationships that might be shown by the "moving picture" of
the cohort study, but at far less cost.
In a cross-sectional survey, a specific group is looked at to see if
a substance or activity, say smoking, is related to the health
effect being investigated--for example, lung cancer.

If a significantly greater number of smokers already have lung


cancer than those who don't smoke, this would support the
hypothesis that lung cancer is caused by smoking.

Cross-sectional analysis studies the relationship between


different variables at a point in time.

For instance, the relationship between income, locality, and


personal expenditure. Unlike time series, cross-sectional
analysis relates to how variables affect each other at the same
time.
Longitudinal study
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that
involves repeated observations of the same items over long
periods of time, often many decades.

Longitudinal studies are often used in psychology to study


developmental trends across the life span.

The reason for this is that unlike cross-sectional studies,


longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore the
differences observed in those people are less likely to be the
result of cultural differences across generations.
Longitudinal studies are also used in medicine to uncover
predictors of certain diseases.

Because longitudinal studies are OBSERVATIONAL, in the


sense that they observe the state of the world without
manipulating it, it has been argued that they may have less
power to detect CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS than do
EXPERIMENT.

But because of the repeated observation at the individual level,


they have more power than cross-sectional observational
studies, by virtue of being able to exclude time-invariant
unobserved individual differences, and by virtue of observing
the temporal order of events.
Longitudinal studies allow social scientist to
distinguish short from long-term phenomena,
such as POVERTY.

If the poverty rate is 10% at a point in time, this may


mean that 10% of the population are always poor, or
that the whole population experiences poverty for
10% of the time.

It is not possible to conclude which of these


possibilities is the case using one-off cross-sectional
studies.
Types of longitudinal studies include cohort studies and panel
studies.

COHORT STUDIES sample a cohort, defined as a group


experiencing some event (typically birth) in a selected time
period, and studying them at intervals through time.

PANEL STUDIES sample a cross-section, and survey it at


(usually regular) intervals.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY is a longitudinal study that


looks back in time. For instance a researcher may look up the
medical records of previous years to look for a trend
Operations research
Operations research or operational research (OR) is an
interdisciplinary science which uses scientific methods
like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms
to help with decision making in complex real-world
problems which are concerned with coordination and
execution of the operations within an organization.
The nature of the organization is immaterial. The
eventual intention behind using this science is to elicit a
best possible solution to a problem scientifically, which
improves or optimizes the performance of the
organization.
The terms operations research and management
science are often used synonymously. When a
distinction is drawn, management science
generally implies a closer relationship to the
problems of business management.

Operations research also closely relates to


Industrial engineering. Industrial engineering
takes more of an engineering point of view,
and industrial engineers typically consider OR
techniques to be a major part of their toolset.
Some of the primary tools used by operations
researchers are statistics, optimization, stochastics,
queueing theory, game theory, graph theory,
decision analysis, and simulation.

Because of the computational nature of these fields,


OR also has ties to computer science, and
operations researchers regularly use custom-
written or off-the-shelf software.
Operations research is distinguished by its ability to
look at and improve an entire system, rather than
concentrating only on specific elements (though this
is often done as well).
An operations researcher faced with a new problem is
expected to determine which techniques are most
appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals
for improvement, and constraints on time and
computing power.
For this and other reasons, the human element of OR is
vital. Like any other tools, OR techniques cannot
solve problems by themselves.
Scope of operations research

A few examples of applications in which operations research is currently


used include:

1. Designing the layout of a factory for efficient flow of materials


2. Constructing a telecommunications network at low cost while still
guaranteeing QoS (quality of service) or QoE (Quality of Experience) if
particular connections become very busy or get damaged
3. Road traffic management and 'one way' street allocations i.e. allocation
problems.
4. Determining the routes of school buses (or city buses) so that as few
buses are needed as possible
5. Designing the layout of a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time
(therefore reducing cost)
6. Managing the flow of raw materials and products in a supply chain
based on uncertain demand for the finished products
7. Efficient messaging and customer response tactics
8. Roboticizing or automating human-driven operations processes
9. Globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper
materials, labor, land or other productivity inputs
10. Managing freight transportation and delivery systems (Examples: LTL
Shipping, intermodal freight transport)
11. Scheduling:
Personnel staffing
Manufacturing steps
Project tasks
Network data traffic: these are known as queuing models or
queuing systems.
Sports events and their television coverage
Blending of raw materials in oil refineries

Operations research is also used extensively in government where evidence-


based policy is used.
Systems thinking
Systems thinking is an approach to analysis that is
based on the belief that the component parts of a
system will act differently when isolated from its
environment or other parts of the system.
Because the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,
(the relationship between the parts is what should be
under observation) any atomistic analysis, is
considered reductionistic. Standing in contrast to
Descartes's, and others', reductionism, it proposes to
view systems in a holistic manner.
Consistent with systems philosophy, systems
thinking concerns an understanding of a
system by bringing the linkages and
interactions to bear between the elements that
comprise the entirety of the system.

It depicts all human-activity systems as open


systems, that they are affected by the
environment in which they exist.
Systems thinking attempts to illustrate that, in
complex systems, events are separated by
distance and time; hence, small catalytic
events can cause large changes in a system.

Acknowledging that a change in one area of a


system can adversely affect another area of the
system, it promotes organizational
communication at all levels in order to avoid
the silo effect.
Both systems thinkers and futurists consider that:
a "system" is a dynamic and complex whole,
interacting as a structured functional unit;
information flows between the different elements that
compose the system;
a system is a community situated within an
environment;
information flows from and to the surrounding
environment via semi-permeable membranes or
boundaries
systems are often composed of entities seeking
equilibrium but can exhibit oscillating, chaotic, or
exponential growth or decay behavior.
What is a system?

A system is any set (group) of interdependent or


temporally interacting parts. Parts are generally
systems themselves and are composed of other parts,
just as systems are generally parts or holons of other
systems.

Systems thinking techniques may be used to study any


kind of system natural, scientific, human, or
conceptual.
The Systems approach rests on two tenets:
"The Whole is more than the sum of the parts" Aristotle
The development ethic.

Examples

Systems thinking often involves considering a "system" in


different ways:

Rather than trying to improve the braking system on a car by


looking in great detail at the composition of the brake pads
(reductionist), the boundary of the braking system may be
extended to include not only the components of the car, but the
driver, the road and the weather, and considering the
interactions between them.
Looking at something as a series of conceptual systems
according to multiple viewpoints.

A supermarket could be considered as a "profit making


system" from the perspective of management, an
"employment system" from the perspective of the staff,
and a "shopping system" or perhaps an
"entertainment system" from the perspective of the
customers.

As a result of such thinking, new insights may be


gained into how the supermarket works, why it has
problems, or how changes made to one such system
may impact on the others.
Methods

The application of Systems thinking has been grouped into


three categories based on the techniques used to tackle a
system:

HARD SYSTEMS

involving simulation, often using computers and the techniques


of operations research. Useful for problems that can justifiably
be quantified.
However it cannot easily take into account unquantifiable
variables (opinions, culture, politics, etc), and may treat people
as being passive, rather than having complex motivations.
SOFT SYSTEMS

For systems that cannot easily be quantified, especially those


involving people holding multiple and conflicting frames of
reference.
Useful for understanding motivations, viewpoints, and
interactions and addressing qualitative as well as quantitative
dimensions of problem situations.
Soft systems are a field that utilizes foundation methodological
work developed by Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson and their
colleagues at Lancaster University.

Morphological analysis is a complementary method for


structuring and analysing non-quantifiable problem
complexes.
Evolutionary systems

Bela H. Banathy developed a methodology applicable to the


design of complex social systems.

This technique integrates critical systems inquiry with soft


systems methodologies.

Evolutionary systems, similar to dynamic systems are


understood as open, complex systems, but with the capacity to
evolve over time.

Banathy uniquely integrated the multidisciplinary perspectives


of systems research (including chaos, complexity, cybernetics),
cultural anthropology, evolutionary theory, and others.
Applications

Systems thinking is increasingly being used to tackle a


wide variety of subjects in fields such as:

Computing,
Engineering,
Epidemiology,
Information science,
Health,
Manufacture,
Management, and
Environment.
References

Charles C. Ragin, Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of


Method, Pine Forge Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8039-9021-9

Steven J. Taylor, Robert Bogdan, Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods,


John Wiley & Sons, 1998, ISBN 0-471-16868-8

Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by Coggon, Rose, and Barker, Chapter 8,


"Case-control and cross-sectional studies", BMJ(British Medical Journal)
Publishing, 1997

Research Methods Knowledge Base by William M. K. Trochim, Web Center for


Social Research Methods, copyright 2006