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Individual Differences,

Diversity, Ability, and


Chapter
2 Personality

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
PowerPoint Presentation
Andrew J. DuBrin by Charlie Cook
Learning Objectives
1. Explain how individual differences influence the
behavior of people in organizations.
2. Describe the key factors contributing to
demographic diversity.
3. Explain how mental ability relates to job
performance.
4. Identify major personality variables that influence
job performance.
5. Explain how emotional intelligence is an important
part of organizational behavior.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 22


Individual Differences
Personal characteristics of individuals produce
variations in their behavioral responses to the
same situations:
Behavior is a function of the person
interacting with the environment.
B = (P x E)
Behavior is determined (moderated)
by the interactive effects of the
person and the environment.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 23


Consequences of Individual Differences
Variations in Productivity
The more complex the job, the larger the impact of
individual productivity differences on work output.
Ability and Talent
Having the right skills and abilities directly affects job
performance.
Propensity for Achieving High-Quality Results
Some workers take pride and pursue excellence in their
work while others do not.
Empowerment and Involvement
Workers differ in their desires to be fulfilled by and involved
in their work.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 24


Consequences of Individual Differences
Preferred leadership style
Some workers prefer or require more supervision than
others.
Need for contact with other people
Workers differ in the need to relate to others on the job.
Commitment and loyalty to the firm
There are large variations in the degree to which individuals
are committed (loyal) to their firms.
Variations in workers self-esteem
High self-esteem is linked to self-efficacy (personal
capability), self-respect (personal worth), and increased
productivity.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 25


Demographic Diversity
Difference in background factors shape worker
attitudes and behaviors.
Key sources of diversity include gender, age, race and
ethnicity, and physical disability.
Advantages of understanding diversity:
Capitalize on differences
Avoid negative
stereotyping

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 26


Sex and Gender Differences
Sex differences
are actual biological differences in males and females.
Gender differences
are based on perceptions of male and female roles.
Research findings indicate that:
Men Women
Communicate to convey Communicate to convey and
information or establish establish rapport and to solve
status problems
Emphasize immediate More courteous and polite;
goals and value equity value equality (sharing
(fair treatment) equally)
More aggressive and
less sensitive to others
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 27
Age- and Experience-Based Differences
Shortages of skilled workers are likely by 2010.
Job discrimination against older workers
is problematic for employers who need workers.
is well-documented by AARP testers.
Job-related consequences of age
Research results are mixed:
Age and experience are predictive of
performance on complex jobs although
age and job performance are generally unrelated.
Older workers have lower absenteeism, illness and accident
rates, higher job satisfaction, and positive work values.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 28


Racial and Ethnic Differences
Racioethnicity
Term refers to a variety of racial and ethnic differences.
Racioethnic differences in individual job performance are
more attributable to culture than to racial or ethnic
background.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 29


Disability Status
American with Disabilities Act (1991)
Defines disability as a physical or mental condition that
substantially limits an individuals major life activities:
learning, thinking, concentrating, interacting with others,
caring for ones self, speaking, performing manual tasks,
working, and sleeping.
Companies with 25 or more employees must avoid
discriminatory hiring practices that rule
out hiring disabled individuals who
can carry out the essential functions
of the job with reasonable
accommodation.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 210
Mental Ability
Intelligence
Is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge, including
solving problems.
Is a major source of individual differences affecting job
performance and behavior.
Is difficult to measure accurately.
The relative contributions of heredity
and environment in fostering
individual intelligence
are in dispute.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 211
Components of Intelligence
Standard Theory of Intelligence
Intelligence consists of general cognitive factors (g) and
special factors (s) that contribute to problem-solving ability.
High scores on g are associated with good scholastic
performance and success on the job.
Special factors contributing to overall mental aptitude:
Verbal comprehension Memory
Word fluency Perceptual speed
Numerical Inductive reasoning
Spatial

Source: These seven factors stem from the pioneering work of L. L.


Thurston, Primary Mental Abilities, Psychometric Monographs, 1 (1938)

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 212
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
(Emphasis on Practical Intelligence)

Three mental ability subtypes:


Analytical
Traditional type of intelligence focused on
problem solving involving abstract reasoning.
Creative
Intelligence needed for imagination and
combining things in novel ways.
Practical
Street smarts needed to adapt to
the environment.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 213
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Analytical

Creative Practical

EXHIBIT Source: Based on information in Robert J. Trotter, Three Heads Are Better Than One,
2-2 Psychology Today, August 1986, pp. 5662; modified and updated with information from
Robert J. Sternberg, book review in Personnel Psychology, Summer 1999, pp. 471476.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 214
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardners theory of mental abilities
People know and understand the world in different ways
and through different lenses.
Individuals possess eight intelligences (faculties) to varying
degrees which create distinct individual intelligence profiles
that influence behaviors:
Linguistic Bodily/kinesthetic
Logical-mathematical Intrapersonal
Musical Interpersonal
Spatial Naturalist

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 215
Personality Differences
Personality
Is the persistent and enduring behavior patterns of an
individual as expressed in wide variety of situations.
Is regarded as the core of who a person is.
Personality factors are important to performance on the job
and to performance as a team member.
Seven major personality factors and traits:
Extraversion Openness to experience
Emotional stability Self-monitoring of behavior
Agreeableness Risk taking and thrill seeking
Conscientiousness

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 216
Psychological Types and Cognitive Styles
(Myers-Briggs)

Cognitive style
Is the mental processes a person uses to perceive and
make judgments from information.
Is defined by how a person gathers information and
evaluates information (Carl Jung).
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Is a widely used test of personality and cognitive style.
Uses a four-way classification of cognitive styles:
Sensation / Thinking Sensation / Feeling
Intuitive / Thinking Intuitive / Feeling

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 217
Four Problem-Solving Styles and
Work Match-Up

Sensation / Thinking Sensation / Feeling


Decisive, dependable, Pragmatic, analytical, methodical,
alert to details conscientious

Accounting, bookkeeping Supervision


Computer programming Selling
Manufacturing technology Negotiating

Intuitive / Thinking Intuitive / Feeling


Creative, progressive, perceptive Colorful, people oriented, helpful

Design of systems Customer service


Law, paralegal work Business communications
Middle manager Human resources

EXHIBIT
2-3
Source: John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., James G. Hunt, and
Richard N. Osburn, Managing Organizational Behavior,
5th ed. (New York: John Wiley, 1994):119.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 218
Emotional Intelligence
Concept of emotional intelligence
Understanding of ones own feelings
Having empathy for others
Regulating emotions to enhance living
Key factors of emotional
intelligence
Self-awareness
Self-regulation
Motivation
Empathy
Social skill
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