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Modul 1:

Produksi dan Produktivitas Konstruksi

SI-5151 Produktivitas Konstruksi


Muhamad Abduh, Ph.D.
Outline Modul 1
Produksi sebagai sebuah Sistem
Organisasi Konstruksi
Konstruksi vs Manufaktur
Pengaruh pada Produktivitas
Discussion on the Meaning of Productivity

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Produksi Sebagai Sebuah Sistem

Input Proses Output


Workhours Teknologi Quantities
Dollars Konversi Value of Work ($)
Material
Energy
Capital
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Organisasi Konstruksi

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Konstruksi vs Manufaktur
Produksi
Lokasi
Basis Proyek
Hierarki Proses Konstruksi
Organisasi Konstruksi
Proses Konstruksi Berulang

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Produksi

Konstruksi Manufaktur

Craft Customized Mass

Unik Jumlah terbatas Tdk unik


Hanya sekali Sistem batch Banyak batch
Masterpiece Sesuai pesanan Standard

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Lokasi

Manufaktur:
Produk berjalan melalui station dimana
pekerja menunggu
Pekerja tidak berpindah
Pekerja di suatu station memberikan produk
hasil kerjanya ke station berikutnya
Konstruksi:
Pekerja berpindah dari suatu lokasi ke lokasi
lain
Produk tidak berpindah
Pekerja memberikan lahan untuk bekerja
kepada pekerja lain

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Berbasis Proyek

Manufaktur Product Development (project) Production

Operation &
Konstruksi Construction (project)
Maintenance

Karakteristik Proyek: Daur Hidup Proyek:


Terbatas waktu Definisi proyek
Organisasi temporer Perancangan
Customized Pengadaan
Cenderung unik Implementasi
Serah terima

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Pengaruh pada Produktivitas

Productivity
Effective Labor Labor Inactivity
Supply,
Nature of Quality,
Work Process Voluntary Inactivity Involuntary Inactivity
Work Quantity of
Elements

Design Management Work Crew-level Worker Discipline Resource Planning &


Constructability System Distribution Methods Motivation System Availability Coordination

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Pihak2 dan
Hubungannya
dgn Proses
Konstruksi

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Pengaruh Lingkungan

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Kegiatan Manajemen

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Discussion on the Meaning of Productivity
What can have productivity?
Interpretations of the meaning of productivity:
Productivity is a form of efficiency
Productivity is a Rate of Return
Productivity is the utilization of resources or the effectiveness
of utilization of resources
Productivity is a ratio
Other definitions
Productivity is the magnitude of productiveness

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What can have productivity?
Production is the means to the end of obtaining goods
and services
Usually there is an input in the form of raw materials, pre-
fabricated parts, or a source of energy
Production process involves a physical, chemical, or radioactive
change in these inputs, to convert them to finished goods
For services, production involves a physical or other change
applied to some object or person, or a change in place

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Things that can have productivity:
Energy Sources
Changes need energy in some form
Effectors
Effect the task in hand
Directors
Control or program the application of energy

Most of the factors that can affect productivity are


not the characteristics of the source of energy,
effectors, and directors

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Discussion in 30 minutes

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Existing Definitions of Productivity
Productivity is efficiency
rate at which we convert work and raw material into useful
goods and services a measure of our economic efficiency.
(US Chamber of Commerce Economic Research Department)
a measure of efficiency with which the resources at work
are utilized. (Federal Reserve Bank)
a measure of efficiency with which the resources are
converted into the commodities and services that men want.
(Solomon Fabricant)
yardstick for net efficiency of our industrial system in
delivering goods to the final customer. (Harry Jerome)

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Existing Definitions of Productivity
Productivity is the utilization of resources
The degree to which the power to make or provide goods
or services having exchange value is utilized. (Industrial
Relations Research Association, US)
Utilization of resources in relation to some standard.
(Organization for European Economic Cooperation)

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Existing Definitions of Productivity
Productivity is a ratio
Ratio between output and the input associated with given
productive activities. (Irving H. Siegel)
Any ratio of the output of a worker, machine, plant or
industry to the amount of one of the factors of production
used or to some weighted sum of the amounts of two or more
factors. (T.E. Easterfield)
Is the ratio between units of results obtained and units of
effort or expenditure required to gain that output. (Charles S.
Young)
Output per unit of associated input in a sequence of
compared periods. (Organization for European Economic
Cooperation)
is always a ratio of output to input. (Solomon Fabricant)

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Interpretations of the meaning of
productivity (Russel W. Fenske):
Productivity is a form of efficiency
This interpretation is rejected
Efficiency, in regard to production, is a relative measure of what has been produced
compared to some standard that theoretically or actually could have been produced
Productivity and efficiency sometimes are not positively correlated
Productivity is a Rate of Return
It is also rejected
Rate of return is the ratio of an incremental loss or gain in a parameter to the original
quantity of that parameter or a related parameter
Productivity is the utilization of resources or the effectiveness of utilization of
resources
The first one is too general
The second one is defective since effectiveness involves comparison to a standard
Productivity is a ratio
This is an abstract concept, a mathematical relationship
The productiveness does not involve ratio calculation

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Productivity Definition (by Russel W.
Fenske)
Productivity is the magnitude of productiveness;
the amount of goods and services produced by a unit of a
productive factor in a specific period of time, or
the average amount of goods and services produced by a unit
of the productive factor in a specific period of time
If only one productive factor is required in a process
single productivity
If two or more factors are utilized jointly, then the joint
magnitude of productiveness is called the combined
productivity; the net productiveness of each factor is
termed the partial productivity

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Definisikan Kata-kata Berikut

?
Efisiensi
Efektivitas
Produktivitas

Input Proses Output

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Tugas #1
Tugas Perorangan.
Waktu 1 Minggu.
1. Baca CP Chapter 1
2. Buat matriks yang menggambarkan efek rendahnya
produktivitas bagi semua stakeholder di industri
konstruksi
3. Buat Summary yang menggambarkan penyebab
rendahnya produktivitas di industri konstruksi. Analisa
apakah ada kaitan antara satu sebab dengan sebab yang
lain. Buatkan diagram interaksinya.

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