Anda di halaman 1dari 19

Slide 2.

Chapter 2

The multinational enterprise (MNE)

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.2

The multinational enterprise (MNE)


A company headquartered in one country but with
operations in one or more other countries.
MNEs often downplay the fact that they are
foreign held.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.3

The nature of MNEs

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.4

Table 2.1 The worlds largest 500 multinational enterprises, 2010 ranking
Note: Data are for 2009
Source: Authors calculations and adapted from Fortune, The Global 500, July 26, 2010.
Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.5

Characteristics of MNES
Affiliates must be responsive to a number of
important environmental forces, including
competitors, customers, suppliers, financial
institutions and government.
Draw on a common pool of resources, including
assets, patents, trademarks, information and
human resources.
Affiliates and business partners are linked
together by a common strategic vision.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.6

Figure 2.1 The multinational enterprise and its environment

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.7

The internationalization process


Internationalization: the process by which a
company enters a foreign market.
Not all international business is done by MNEs.
Indeed, setting up a wholly owned subsidiary is
usually the last stage of doing business abroad.
Why do businesses wait to set up wholly owned
subsidiaries?
Foreign markets are risky.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.8

A typical internationalization process


Initially, the firm might license patents, trademarks or
technology to a foreign company in exchange for a fee or
royalty.
The firm sees a potential for extra sales by exporting and
uses a local agent or distributor to enter a foreign market.
The firm may use exporting as a vent for its surplus
production and might have no long-term commitment to
the international market.
As exports become more important, the MNE will set up an
office for its sales representative or a sales subsidiary.
The firm might set up local packaging and/or assembly
operations.
Finally, the firm will set up a wholly owned subsidiary (FDI).

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.9

Figure 2.2 Entry into foreign markets: the internationalization process

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.10

Why do firms become MNEs?


To diversify themselves against the risks and
uncertainties of the domestic business cycle;
To tap the growing world market for goods and
services;
In response to foreign competition;
To reduce costs;
To overcome barriers to entry into foreign
markets;
To take advantage of technological expertise by
manufacturing goods directly.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.11

The strategic philosophy of MNEs


MNEs make decisions based on what is best for
the overall company, even if this means
transferring jobs to other countries and cutting
back the local workforce.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.12

Table 2.2 The international expansion of four MNEs


Source: United Nations, World Investment Report 2001 (Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
2001)
Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.13

Strategic management and MNEs


The strategic management process involves four
major functions: strategy formulation, strategy
implementation, evaluation and the control of
operations.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.14

Figure 2.3 The strategic management process in action

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.15

Basic mission
The following questions must be answered to
determine the firms basic mission:
What is the firms business?
What is the reason for its existence?
For example,
Royal Dutch/Shell; BP and ExxonMobil are in the
energy business, not the oil business.
AT&T and France Telecom are in the communications
business, not the telephone business.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.16

Analysis of the external and


internal environment
The goal of external environmental analysis is to
identify opportunities and threats that will need to
be addressed.
The purpose of an internal environmental analysis
is to evaluate the companys financial and
personnel strengths and weaknesses.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.17

Formulation of objectives
and overall plan
Internal and external analyses will help identify
long-term (25 years) and short-term (<2 years)
goals.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.18

The implementation process


Once goals have been established, the plan is
then broken into major parts and each affiliate and
department is assigned goals and responsibilities.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013
Slide 2.19

Evaluation and control of operations


Progress is periodically evaluated and changes
are made in the plan to accommodate changing
circumstances and new information.

Rugman and Collinson, International Business, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2013