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Linking the Learning?

1. What type of bonding is there in NaCl?

Draw diagrams to show this.

2. What will happen when electricity is

passed through solid NaCl? Explain why.

3. Predict what the products would be

from the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Electrolysis of brine
Sodium chloride (salt) is made of an alkali metal and a
halogen. When its dissolved we call the solution brine,
and we can electrolyse it to produce 3 things

Chlorine gas (Cl2) used to Hydrogen gas (H2) used

kill bacteria and to make to manufacture ammonia
acids, bleach and plastics and margarine

chloride (brine)

Sodium hydroxide
(NaOH(aq)). Used to make
Positive Negative soap, paper and ceramics
9/12/17 electrode electrode
Electrolysis equations
Half equations can be written for the reactions that take place at the electrodes when
sodium chloride solution is electrolysed:
At the negative electrode (cathode):
2H+ + 2e- H2

At the positive electrode (anode):

2Cl- 2e- + Cl2

Half equations can also be written for the reactions that take place at the electrodes
when molten sodium chloride is electrolysed:
At the negative electrode (cathode):
Na+ + e- Na

At the positive electrode (anode):

2Cl- 2e- + Cl2
Practical 1: Electrolysis of Sodium Hydroxide

d.c. power
max 6 V


Sodium hydroxide solution

Review of Learning
1. What apparatus are needed for electrolysis?

2. What ions are there in aqueous NaOH? What

gas was produced?

3. Describe what is electrolysis.

Practical 2: Electrolysis of CuSO 4

d.c. power
max 6 V


Copper sulphate solution

1. What happens at the cathode?

2. What happens at the anode?

Review of Learning
Explain why molten copper chloride can be
electrolysed but solid copper chloride cannot.
Write half equations to show the products at the
anode and cathode.
Electrolysis is used to separate a metal from its compund.

When we electrolysed
copper chloride the _____
chloride ions moved to the
______ electrode and the
______ copper ions moved
to the ______ electrode

= chloride ion

= copper ion
Electrolysis equations
We need to be able to write half equations to show what
happens during electrolysis (e.g. for copper chloride):

At the negative electrode the

positive ions GAIN electrons to
become neutral copper ATOMS. The
half equation is:
Cu2+ + 2e- Cu

At the positive electrode the

negative ions LOSE electrons to
become neutral chlorine
MOLECULES. The half equation is:
2 Cl- - 2 e- Cl2
Electrolysis of aqueous solutions
When aqueous solutions undergo electrolysis it is
often easier to decompose the water than the
The quantity of electricity passed in an electrolysis Q
reaction can be calculated using the formula:
Charge = current x time
(in C) (in A) (in s)

1) A circuit is switched on for 30s with a current of 3A. How much

charge flowed?
2) During electrolysis 6A was passed through some copper chloride and a
charge of 1200C flowed. How long was the experiment on for?
3) One mole of a substance with a 1+ charge will be deposited by 96,500
coulombs. How many moles of silver ions are deposited when a solution
containing Ag+ ions is electrolysed for 24125 seconds by a current of