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contents

You will learn about:


Covalent bonds electron
sharing
Ionic bonds electron transfer
Formulas of ionic compounds
Chemical Bonding
Noble Gases
Scientists discovered a special group of elements in the
Periodic Table that does not participate in any chemical
reaction
These elements are: Helium, Neon, Argon etc

- -
- - - -
- - - -
- -
- + - - + - - - + - -
- - - -

- - - -
Helium
Neon - -
Argon
Chemical Bonding
Noble Gases
Scientists discovered that the reason for their un-reactive
nature is because of the number of outer-shell electrons
When the outer electron shell is fully filled, it gives the
atom a special stability that allows it to lose energy.
For the first electron shell, the max number is 2
For the second electron shell, the max number is 8
For the third electron shell, the max number is NOT 8 but
once the number of electron reaches 8, there is also a
special stability involved (Dont ask why)

Based on this, scientists thinks that atoms of elements


undergo bonding in order to achieve this filled outer-
shell structure
Chemical Bonding

Gilbert N Lewis

"I have attempted to give you a glimpse...of


what there may be of soul in chemistry. But it
may have been in vain. Perchance the chemist
is already damned and the guardian the
blackest. But if the chemist has lost his soul, he
will not have lost his courage and as he
descends into the inferno, sees the rows of
glowing furnaces and sniffs the homey fumes of
brimstone, he will call out-: 'Asmodeus, hand
me a test-tube.'"
Chemical Bonding
Chemical Bonding

Lewis was widely accepted to be the first scientist to


formulate the theory of bonding
He explained that chemical bonds were formed between
atoms because electrons from the atoms interacted with
each other.
Lewis had observed that many elements were most stable
when they contained 8 electrons in their valence shell.
He suggested that atoms with fewer than 8 valence
electrons bonded together to share electrons and complete
their valence shells
ionic bonds electron transfer
ions
atoms can lose or gain electrons to form ions
o atoms of metals form positive ions

o atoms of non-metals form negative ions

all ions achieve the electronic structure of a noble gas


ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic bonds
formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to
another; forming positive and negative ions
is the electrostatic attractive forces between the positive
and negative ions
usually formed between atoms of metals and non-metals
can also be formed when compounds of metals and non-
metals are joined together by transferring electrons to form
ionic compounds
ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic bonds
example of ionic bonding in sodium chloride

electron
transfer

sodium atom, Na chlorine atom, Cl


ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic bonds
example of ionic bonding in sodium chloride

-
+

sodium ion, Na+ chlorine ion, Cl-

has the same has the same


electronic structure as electronic structure as
the noble gas, neon the noble gas, argon
ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic bonds
example of ionic bonding in magnesium chloride

electron electron
transfer transfer

magnesium atom,
Mg

chlorine atom, chlorine atom,


Cl Cl
ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic bonds
example of ionic bonding in magnesium chloride

- -
2+

chlorine ion, magnesium ion, chlorine ion,


Cl- Mg2+ Cl-
has the same has the same has the same
electronic structure as electronic structure as electronic structure as
the noble gas, argon the noble gas, neon the noble gas, argon
ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic or covalent bonds?
Covalent bonds are formed between atoms of non-metals
in elements or in compounds of two or more elements.
examples include:

Substance with covalent Non-metallic elements in the


bonds substance

chlorine, Cl2 chlorine

water, H2O hydrogen, oxygen

sulphuric acid, H2SO4 hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur

ethanol, C2H5OH hydrogen, carbon, oxygen


ionic bonds electron transfer
ionic or covalent bonds?
Ionic bonds are formed between atoms of metals and non-
metals in compounds.
examples include:

Elements
Compounds with ionic bonds
Metals Non-metals

potassium chloride, KCl potassium chlorine

sodium bromide, NaBr sodium bromine

magnesium oxide, MgO magnesium oxygen

iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3 iron oxygen


covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds
formed when atoms of non-metals are joined together by
sharing two or more electrons to form molecules
can also be formed when compounds of non-metals are
joined together by sharing two or more electrons to form
covalent compounds
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

H + H

H atom H atom
hydrogen
H2
H H
gas
H H

H2
molecule
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

H O
H O
water H2 O

H
H
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

H
H

methane CH4 H C H H C H

H
H
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

oxygen O2 O O O O
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

carbon
CO2 O C O O C O
dioxide
covalent bonds electron sharing
covalent bonds

Simple Way of
Covalent Electronic Structure of Molecule
Formula Showing the
Molecule (Dot and Cross Diagram)
Bonds

H H

H H
ethene C 2 H4 C C C C
H H

H H
covalent bonds electron sharing
valency electrons
are electrons in the outermost shell used to form bonds
between atoms

valency
is the number of electrons an atom uses to form bonds

For example: Hydrogen will have a valency of 1


carbon will have a valency of 4
oxygen will have a valency of 2 (not 6!)
electrons transferred

lose electrons
to form to form
positive ions metals

ions have electronic ionic bonds join together to


structures of form gain
electrons to
form
negative ions non-metals
noble gas

atoms have electronic join together to form


structures of covalent
bonds

to form

electrons shared