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Klinik Jurnal PPSUB 28 Maret 2013

PARAGRAF
ARTIKEL JURNAL
INTERNASIONAL
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Sifat bahasa ilmiah yang khusus dan spesifik tampak pada


pemilihan dan pemakaian kata, serta sintaksisnya.

Kata-kata yang lazim digunakan dalam bahasa ilmiah bersifat


denotative.
Setiap kata hanya mempunyai satu makna yang paling sesuai
dengan konsep atau fakta yang disampaikan.
Kalimat-kalimat yang digunakan dalam bahasa ilmiah seyogyanya
bersifat logis.

Hubungan antara bagian-bagian kalimat dalam kalimat tunggal


atau hubungan antara klausa-klausa dalam kalimat majemuk
(kompleks) mengikuti pola-pola bentuk hubungan yang logis.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Sintaksis adalah ilmu mengenai prinsip dan peraturan untuk


membuat kalimat dalam bahasa alami.
Kata sintaksis juga digunakan untuk merujuk langsung pada
peraturan dan prinsip yang mencakup struktur kalimat dalam suatu
bahasa.
Kata merupakan kesatuan bahasa terkecil yang membentuk
kalimat. Kata dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu kata yang mengandung
makna leksikal dan kata yang mengandung makna gramatikal
atau makna struktural. Jenis pertama dapat dikenal melalui arti
atau maknanya seperti orang, rumah.
Makna leksikalnya suatu kata dapat dicari dalam kamus. Dalam
tata bahasa tradisional, kata adalah kesatuan bahasa terkecil yang
mengandung arti atau makna.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Kalimat merupakan satuan bahasa terkecil yang


merupakan kesatuan pikiran.

Dalam bahasa tulis, kalimat merupakan satuan bahasa


yang diawali oleh huruf kapital, diselingi atau tidak
diselingi tanda koma (,), titik dua (:), atau titik koma
(;), dan diakhiri dengan tanda titik (.), tanda tanya (?),
atau tanda seru (!).
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Kalimat dalam bahasa Indinesia mempunyai beberapa cirri:


1. Kalimat diawali dengan huruf kapital dan diakhiri dengan
tanda titik, tanda tanya, atau tanda seru.
2. Kalimat miimal terdiri dari atas subjek dan predikat.
3. Predikat transitif disertai objek, predikat intransitif dapat
disertai pelengkap.
4. Kalimat mengandung suatu pemikiran yang utuh, makna, ide,
atau pesan yang jelas.
5. Mengandung urutan logis, setiap kata atau kelompok kata yang
mendukung fungsi (subjek, predikat, objek, dan keterangan)
disusun dalam satuan menurut fungsinya.
6. Dalam suatu paragraph yang terdiri dari dua kalimat atau
lebih, kalimat-kalimat disusun dalam satuan makna yang saling
berhubungan.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Subjek dalam Kalimat:

Fungsi subjek merupakan pokok dalam sebuah kalimat. Pokok


kalimat itu dibicarakan atau dijelaskan oleh fungsi sintaksis lain,
yaitu predikat. Ciri-ciri subjek adalah:

1. Jawaban terhadap pertanyaan apa atau siapa,


2. Dapat didahului oleh kata bahwa,
3. Berupa kata atau frasa benda (nomina)
4. Dapat disertai kata ini atau itu,
5. Dapat disertai kata yang,
6. Tidak didahului preposisi di, dalam, pada, kepada, bagi, untuk,
dan lain-lain,
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Predikat dalam Kalimat


Predikat berfungsi menjelaskan pokok kalimat atau subjek.
Predikat mempunyai ciri-ciri:

1. Bagian kalimat yang menjelaskan pokok kalimat,


2. Dalam kalimat biasa, predikat berada langsung di belakang
subjek,
3. Prediket umumnya diisi oleh verba atau frasa verba,
4. Prediket dapat merupakan jawaban dari pertanyaan apa yang
dilakukan (pokok kalimat) atau bagaimana (pokok kalimat).
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Objek dalam Kalimat

Obyek adalah unsur kalimat yang kehadirannya dituntut oleh


verba transitif pengisi predikat dalam kalimat aktif.

Objek dapat dikenali dengan melihat verba transitif pengisi


predikat yang mendahuluinya.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Tata Paragraf dalam Bahasa Indonesia

Paragraf adalah bagian dari suatu Bab pada sebuah karya


ilmiah, cara penulisannya harus dimulai dengan baris baru.
Paragraf dikenal juga dengan nama lain alinea.

Paragraf dibuat dengan membuat kata pertama pada baris


pertama masuk ke dalam (geser ke sebelah kanan) beberapa
ketukan atau spasi.

Demikian pula dengan paragraf berikutnya mengikuti


penyajian seperti paragraf pertama.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Dalam suatu paragraf harus memuat dua bagian penting, yakni :

1. Kalimat Pokok, biasanya diletakkan pada awal paragraf, tetapi


dapat juga diletakkan pada bagian tengah maupun akhir
paragraf. Kalimat pokok adalah kalimat yang menjadi inti
dari ide atau gagasan dari sebuah paragraf. Biasanya berisi
suatu pernyataan yang dijelaskan lebih lanjut oleh kalimat-
kalimat lainnya dalam bentuk kalimat penjelas.

2. Kalimat Penjelas, adalah kalimat yang memberikan penjelasan


tambahan atau detail rincian dari kalimat pokok dalam suatu
paragraf.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Bagian-Bagian Suatu Paragraf yang Baik

1. Ada ide atau gagasan yang spesifik dan diperlukan untuk


merangkai keseluruhan tulisan (Bab).
2. Dalam suatu paragraph, kalimat yang satu dengan kalimat
lainnya saling berkaitan dan berhubungan dengan wajar.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Paragraf Narasi:

Paragraf yang menceritakan suatu kejadian atau


peristiwa.

Ciri-cirinya :

Ada peristiwa, ada pelaku peristiwa, ada waktu dan


tempat berlangsungnya peristiwa.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Paragraf Deskripsi:

Paragraf yang menggambarkan suatu objek sehingga pembaca


seakan bisa melihat, mendengar, atau merasa objek yang
digambarkan itu.

Objek yang dideskripsikan dapat berupa orang, benda, atau


tempat.

Ciri-cirinya :
Ada objek yang dijelaskan.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Paragraf Eksposisi:
Paragraf yang menginformasikan suatu teori, teknik, kiat, atau
petunjuk sehingga orang yang membacanya akan bertambah
wawasannya.

Ciri-cirinya:
Ada informasi.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Paragraf Argumentasi:
Paragraf yang mengemukakan suatu pendapat beserta
alasannya.

Ciri-cirinya :
Ada pendapat dan ada alasannya.
PARAGRAF DALAM TULISAN ILMIAH

Paragraf Persuasi:
Paragraf yang mengajak, membujuk, atau mempengaruhi
pembaca agar melakukan sesuatu.

Ciri- cirinya :
Ada bujukan atau ajakan untuk berbuat sesuatu.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF

Ada enam tahapan yang lazim dilakukan dalam menulis


paragraf deskripsi, yaitu:
(1) menentukan tema; (2) menetapkan tujuan penulisan; (3)
mengumpulkan bahan; (4) membuat kerangka tulisan; (5)
mengembangkan kerangka tulisan; dan (6) merevisi tulian.

1. Langkah yang pertama adalah menentukan tema bagi paragraph


yang akan ditulis. Hal ini berarti bahwa harus ditentukan apa yang
dibahas dalam paragraf. Tema adalah gagasan pokok yang hendak
disampaikan di dalam penulisan paragraf. Gagasan atau ide pokok
dapat diperoleh dari pengalaman, hasil penelitian, beberapa sumber,
pendapat, dan pengamatan.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF

Langkah ke dua adalah menetapkan tujuan penulisan


paragraf.

Pada langkah ini setiap penulis harus mengungkapkan dengan


jelas tujuan penulisan paragraph yang akan dilaksanakannya.
Perumusan tujuan penulisan sangat penting dan harus
ditentukan lebih dahulu karena hal ini merupakan titik tolak
dalam seluruh kegiatan menulis selanjutnya.
Dengan menentukan tujuan penulisan, akan diketahui apa
yang harus dilakukan pada tahap penulisan, bahan-bahan apa
saja yang diperlukan, macam organisasi tulisan yang akan
diterapkan, atau mungkin sudut pandang yang akan dipilih.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF

Langkah ke tiga adalah mengumpulkan bahan-bahan


referensi.
Pada waktu memilihdan membatasi topik paragraph
hendaknya sudah diperkirakan kemungkinan mendapatkan
bahan. Dengan membatasi topik, maka sebetulnya telah
memusatkan perhatian pada topik yang terbatas itu, serta
mengumpulkan bahan yang khusus pula.
Bahan penulisan ini dapat dikumpulkan pada tahap
prapenulisan dan dapat pula pada waktu penulisan
berlangsung.
Untuk masalah yang tujuannya sudah jelas dalam pikiran kita
maka penetapan dan pengumpulan bahan dapat dilakukan
pada waktu penulisan.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF
Langkah ke empat adalah membuat kerangka tulisan (outline)
paragraph.

Menyusun kerangka tulisan merupakan satu cara


untuk menyusun suatu rangkaian yang jelas dan terstruktur
yang teratur dari tulisan yang akan dibuat.
Kerangka tulisan merupakan suatu rencana kerja yang dapat
digunakan sebagai garis besarnya dalam menulis.
Kerangka tulisan juga menjamin penulis dalam ide secara logis
dan teratur.
Penyusunan kerangka tulisan sangat dianjurkan karena dapat
menghindarkan penulis dari kesalahan-kesalahan yang tidak
perlu terjadi.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF

Langkah yang ke lima adalah mengembangkan


kerangka tulisan.

Pada langkah ini penulis mengembangkan kerangka


tulisan menjadi suatu tulisan paragraph yang utuh.
CARA MENYUSUN PARAGRAF

Tahapan ke enam adalah merevisi dan


memperbaiki tulisan.

Pada langkah ini penulis melakukan


penelitian secara meyeluruh mengenai ejaan
baku Bahasa Indonesia.
Membuat Paragraf Argumentasi

Paragraf argumentasi mengungkapkan ide, gagasan, atau


pendapat penulis dengan disertai bukti dan fakta.
Dalam argumentasi ini penulis menyampaikan pendapat yang
disertai penjelasan dan alasan yang kuat dengan maksud agar
pembaca dapat terpengaruh.
Dasar tulisan argumentasi adalah berpikir kritis dan logis, oleh
karena itu harus berdasarkan pada fakta-fakta yang dapat
dipertanggungjawabkan.
Fakta-fakta tersebut dapat diperoleh dengan berbagai cara,
antara lain:
(1) bahan bacaan (jurnal, textbook, dan lainnya); (2)
wawancara atau angket; (3) penelitian atau pengamatan
langsung melalui observasi.
BEBERAPA
CONTOH PARAGRAF

Dalam

JURNAL ILMIAH
Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron,
aluminium and bronze in sand moulds
NIELS TIEDJE, RUDOLF CREPAZ, TORBEN EGGERT and NIKI BEY
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A (2010) 45, 18661876

Only very few investigations distinguish between emission of fumes and


toxic gasses in the different parts of the cooling line, such as: in the
pouring area where liquid metal is cast in the moulds, in the cooling area
where the castings sit in the moulds while they cool before they are
extracted, and at the shake out where the moulds are opened. [1214]

1. [12] Kauffmann, P.; Voigt, R. Modeling foundry air emissions. Mod. Cast. 1997, 87, 5355.
2. [13] Rarick, T.R.; Crandell, G.R. Grasping the impact of emission factors. Mod. Cast. 2003, 93,
3537.
3. [14] Westberg, H.; Lofstedt, H.; Selden, A.; Lilja, B.G.; Naystrom, P. Exposure to low molecular
weight isocyanates and formaldehyde in foundries using hot box core binders. Ann. Occup. Hyg.
2005, 49, 719725.
Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron,
aluminium and bronze in sand moulds
NIELS TIEDJE, RUDOLF CREPAZ, TORBEN EGGERT and NIKI BEY
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A (2010) 45, 18661876

Over the past 10 years new binders have been developed that improve the working
environment on the moulding line and in the core shop. Serious improvements have been
achieved in the later years with regard to toxicity and smell of binders in the part of the
foundry where moulds and cores are produced. [37] However, it is not clear from these
investigations whether the use of new binder systems have reduced the type and level of
emissions in the pouring, cooling or shake out areas in the foundry.
.

1. [3] Ladegourdie, G.; Loechte, K.; Schuh, W. Cold Box 96 the new environmentally friendly cold box binder system.
Foundry Trade J. 1997, October, 434436.
2. [4] L ochte, K.; Clarke, C. Dont Cold Shoulder Cold Box Process. Foundry Trade J. 1999, January, 4649.
3. [5] Berthelet, M; Vargas, M. Nouvelles possibilit es pour les fonderies, gr ace lemploi du syst` eme liant polysialate pour
lagglorm eration de mat eriaux de moulage. Hommes et fonderie 1999, 297, 2225.
4. [6] Siak, J.-S.; Whited, W.T.; Schreck, R.M.; Ferrero, A.; Badiali, M. A green core sand binder facilitating easy core removal
from complex aluminium castings. In CIATF Technical Forum 1999; Verein Deutsche Geissereifachleute, D usseldorf, June
1011, 1999.
5. [7] Hendershot, G.; Werner, A. Eine neue Cold-Box-Technologie. In CIATF Technical Forum 1999; Verein Deutsche
Geissereifachleute, D usseldorf, June 1011, 1999.
Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron,
aluminium and bronze in sand moulds
NIELS TIEDJE, RUDOLF CREPAZ, TORBEN EGGERT and NIKI BEY
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A (2010) 45, 18661876

From previous investigations a few general conclusions can be drawn: Serebro et al.
nds that water evaporates from core sand at 130 to 140 C and that the organic material
degenerates from 350 to 480C.[9] This is conrmed by Wang et al.[11] who compares
three phenolic urethane resins and among other show how binders degrade at different
temperatures. They describe and quantify the degradation products of the binders they
investigate. And they nd that emissions are very different fromcore shop to production
line. They also conclude that more comprehensive studies are necessary to compare the
many binder systems available.

..

1. [9] Serebro, V. S.; Rits, B. A.; Sergeeva, T. E. Curing and Thermal Degradation of
Phenol-Formaldehyde Binders. Russ. Cast. Prod. 1974, 2, 5556.
2. [11] Wang, Y.; Cannon, F. S.; Salama, M.; Goudzwaard, J.; Furness, A. J.
Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by
analytical pyrolysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 79227927.
Ambient levels of air pollution induce clinical worsening of blepharitis
Fernando Korn Malerbi, Lourdes Conceicao Martins , Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Alfesio Lus Ferreira Braga
Environmental Research 112 (2012) 199203

.
Environmental conditions have always been considered important elements in the
. Even though adverse impacts
of air pollution on ocular mucosa (Novaes et al., 2007, 2010 ), tear lm and ocular surface (Novaes et
al., 2010; Gupta et al., 2002; Saxena et al., 2003), have been demonstrated, as well as increased rates
of ocular symptoms in areas with high concentrations of pollutants (Versura et al., 1999; Wolkoff et
al., 2005) , to our knowledge there has never been a measurement of the correlation between
environmental pollutants and the clinical course of blepharitis.

1. Gupta, S.K., Gupta, V., Joshi, S., Tandon, R., 2002. Subclinically dry eyes in urban Delhi: an impact of air pollution?
Ophthalmologica 216, 368371.
2. Novaes, P., Saldiva, P.H.N., Kara-Jose, N., Macchione, M., Matsuda, M., Racca, L., Berra, A., 2007. Ambient levels of air
pollution induce gobletcell hyperplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Environ. Health Perspect. 115, 17531756.
3. Novaes, P., Saldiva, P.H.N., Matsuda, M., Macchione, M., Rangel, M., Kara-Jose , N., Berra, A., 2010. The effects of
chronic exposure to trafc derived air pollution on the ocular surface. Environ. Res. 110, 372374.
4. Saxena, R., Srivastava, S., Trivedi, D., Anand, E., Joshi, S., Gupta, S.K., 2003. Impact of environmental pollution on the eye.
Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 81, 491494.
5. Versura, P., Profazio, V., Cellini, M., Torreggiani, A., Caramazza, R., 1999. Eye discomfort and air pollution.
Ophthalmologica 213, 103109.
6. Wolkoff, P., Njgaard, J.K., Troiano, P., Piccoli, B., 2005. Eye complaints in the ofce environment: precorneal tear lm
integrity inuenced by eye blinking efciency. Occup. Environ. Med. 62, 412.
Ambient levels of air pollution induce clinical worsening of blepharitis
Fernando Korn Malerbi, Lourdes Conceicao Martins , Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Alfesio Lus Ferreira Braga
Environmental Research 112 (2012) 199203

Acute adverse health effects of ambient levels of air pollution have been demonstrated in
humans, mostly in terms of respiratory and cardiovascular events (Martins et al., 2006; Cendon et
al., 2006; Souza et al., 1998), and also in terms of ocular mucosa and ocular surface (Chen et al.,
2009; Novaes et al., 2007, 2010; Wolkoff, 2010).
.

1. Cendon, S., Pereira, L.A.A., Braga, A.L.F., Conceic - ~ ao, G.M.S., Junior, A.C., Romaldini, H., Lopes, A.C.,
Saldiva, P.H.N., 2006. Air pollution effects on myocardial infarction. Rev. Sau de Pu b. 40, 414419.
2. Martins, L.C., Pereira, L.A.A., Lin, C.A., Santos, U.P., Prioli, G., Luiz, O.C., Saldiva, P.H.N., Braga, A.L.F.,
2006. The effects of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases: lag structures. Rev. Sau de Pu b. 40, 677683.
3. Souza, M.B., Saldiva, P.H.N., Pope III, A., Capelozzi, V.L., 1998. Respiratory changes due to long-term
exposure to urban levels of air pollution. Chest 113, 13121318.
4. Chen, Y., Mehta, G., Vasiliou, V., 2009. Antioxidant defenses in the ocular surface. Ocul. Surf. 7, 176185.
5. Novaes, P., Saldiva, P.H.N., Kara-Jose, N., Macchione, M., Matsuda, M., Racca, L., Berra, A., 2007. Ambient
levels of air pollution induce gobletcell hyperplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Environ. Health
Perspect. 115, 17531756.
6. Novaes, P., Saldiva, P.H.N., Matsuda, M., Macchione, M., Rangel, M., Kara-Jose , N., Berra, A., 2010. The
effects of chronic exposure to trafc derived air pollution on the ocular surface. Environ. Res. 110, 372374.
7. Wolkoff, P., 2010. Ocular discomfort by environmental and personal risk factors altering the precorneal
tear lm. Toxicol. Lett. 199, 203212.
Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations
Jalonne L. White-Newsome, Brisa N. Sanchez , Olivier Jolliet , Zhenzhen Zhang Edith A. Parker, J. Timothy Dvonch ,
Marie S. ONeill.
Environmental Research 112 (2012) 2027

Epidemiological studies of commonly use a time-series


or case-crossover design to determine the association between ambient heat exposure and illness or
deaths, recorded in vital statistics data and hospital records. Heat exposure is often estimated using
an airport monitoring station and applied to residents of an entire community. Measuring ambient
temperature exposure at this city/county scale likely misclassies heat exposure that is more
variable at the home or neighborhood scale (Basu, 2009). Additionally, elderly people spend
approximately 90% of their time indoors (Environmental Protection Agency, 2009), especially older
people who have been shown to be more vulnerable to heat (Kovats and Hajat, 2008). Thus, indoor
temperatures are likely to better represent heat exposure of such vulnerable individuals (Smargiassi
et al., 2008). However, few studies have addressed how indoor temperatures, housing,
environmental characteristics, and ambient temperature measures are related in residences
occupied by the elderly.

1. Basu, R., 2009. High ambient temperature and mortality: a review of epidemiologic studies from 2001 to 2008. Environ.
Health 8.
2. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 2009. The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.html (accessed 1 April 2009).
3. Kovats, R.S., Hajat, S., 2008. Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29.
4. Smargiassi, A., Fournier, M., Griot, C., Baudouin, Y., Kosatsky, T., 2008. Prediction of the indoor temperatures of an urban
area with an in-time regression mapping approach. J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 18.
. Improving the Natural and Built Ecological Systems in an Urban Environment
Aminzadeh, B. and Khansefid, M.
Int. J. Environ. Res., 4(2):361-372,Spring 2010

In the recent years ample attention is paid to


(Aminzadeh & Ghorashi, 2007; Bahraini & Aminzadeh, 2007; Micarelli, et al., 2007; Vahadj et al.,
2007; Yavari, et al., 2007; Micarelli & Pizzioli, 2008). System refers to a regularly interacting or
interdependent group of items forming a unified whole, a group of interacting bodies under the
influence of related forces, an organized or established procedure and harmonious arrangement or
pattern. These meanings provide a good basis to use the term system for a more holistic approach
towards urban environment. The urban ecological systems can bridge the conflict between reserve
conservation, fixing nature in space and time and development. They help to focus on an effective
spatial scale as well.

1. Aminzadeh, B. and Ghorashi, S. (2007). Scenic landscape quality and recreational activities in natural forest parks, Iran. Int. J. Environ. Res.,
1(1), 5-13.
2. Bahraini, H. and Aminzadeh, B. (2007). Evaluation of Navab regeneration project in central Tehran, Iran. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(2), 114-127.
3. Micarelli, R., Irani Behbahani, H. and Shafie, B. (2007). River-valleys as intra-city natural feature. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(3), 204-213.
4. Micarelli, R. and Pizzioli, G. (2008). Metropolitan and rural areas: interscapes and interfaces. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(1), 1-12.
5. Vahadj, R., Karimi, S., Adl, M., Ghafari, A. R., Onagh, A. and Mohammadnejad, Sh. (2007). Evaluation of landscape structure in Eram park
using GIS. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(3), 258-263.
6. Yavari, A. R., Sotoudeh, A., Parivar, P. (2007). Urban Environmental Quality and Landscape Structure in Arid Mountain Environment. Int. J.
Environ. Res., 1 (4), 325-340.
Recreation Value of Hara Biosphere Reserve using Willingness-to-pay method
Dehghani, M. , Farshchi, P. , Danekar, A., Karami, M.and Aleshikh, A. A.
Int. J. Environ. Res., 4(2):271-280,Spring 2010

is a measure to determine the maximum amount an individual is


in other goods and/or services in order to obtain some other goods and/or
services (Arrow et al., 2000). For goods and services that can be sold at the market, the relevant
value is easily referred from its price in the competitive market (Heal, 2000). However, in term of
environmental goods and services that are not traded in the market such as amenity, watershed
services, etc. market prices are unavailable for measuring their economic value. Economic
evaluation techniques are therefore employed to estimate the economic value of these non-marketed
environmental goods and services (Pagiola et al., 2004; Heal, 2000). In fact, natural systems are
being converted to other land uses mostly on the basis of short term financial gain rather than their
long term value to society. In natural resource use decision-making process, non-marketed values of
natures services assigned too little or zero value to the cost benefit analysis of the resource use
decision due to absence of market data and their public good nature (Turner et al., 1998).

.
1. Arrow, K., Daily G. C., Dasgupta P., Levin S., Mler K-G., Maskin E., Starrett D., Sterner T., and Tietenberg T., (2000).
Managing ecosystem resources. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 1401-1406.
2. Heal, G., (2000). Valuing Ecosystem Services. Ecosystems, 3, 24-30.
3. Pagiola, S., von Ritter, K. and Bishop J. T. (2004). Assessing the economic value of ecosystem conservation. Environment
Department Paper No.101. Washington: World Bank.
4. Turner, R. K., Adger, W. N. and Brouwer, R. (1998). Ecosystem services value, research needs and policy relevance: A
commentary. Ecological Economics, 25(1), 61-65.
NILAI EKONOMI KESEDIAAN MEMBAYAR/ Berkorban

Managing ecosystem resources:


Economic value.
(Arrow, Daily , Dasgupta , Levin , Mler , Maskin ,
Starrett , Sterner , and Tietenberg , 2000).

Valuing Ecosystem Services.


(Heal, 2000).

Assessing the economic value of ecosystem


conservation.
(Pagiola, von Ritter, and Bishop , 2004).

Ecosystem services value:


Research needs and policy relevance.
(Turner, Adger, and Brouwer, 1998).
Recreation Value of Hara Biosphere Reserve using Willingness-to-pay method
Dehghani, M. , Farshchi, P. , Danekar, A., Karami, M.and Aleshikh, A. A.
Int. J. Environ. Res., 4(2):271-280,Spring 2010

MATERIALS & METHODS

Among the most widespread economic evaluation methods of the


forests and coastal areas is Contingent Method of evaluation which can be
considered as one of the Existence Value methods. For this purpose,
Contingent Valuation Method, Contingent Choice Method and referendum
are widely used (De Groot et al., 2002) among which the Contingent
Method is the most appropriate and important one (Walsh et al., 1984 and
Vankatachalam, 2004). Generally, this method is used as one of the
standard and flexible tools for Non-Use Value and No market Use Value of
environmental resources (Hanemann, 1994).
..
De Groot R.S., Wilson M.A. and Boumans R.M.J. (2002), A typology for the classification, description and valu-
ation of ecosystem functions, goods and services, Ecol
Econ. 41,393-408.
CHEMICALLY ASSISTED PHYTOEXTRACTION: A REVIEW OF POTENTIAL SOIL AMENDMENTS FOR
INCREASING PLANT UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS
E. Meers, F. M. G. Tack, S. Van Slycken, A. Ruttens, G. Du Laing, J. Vangronsveld, andM.G.Verloo1
International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10:390414, 2008

The idea of is very old


and cannot be traced to any particular source (Blaylock and Huang, 2000). Chaney (1983) was the
rst to reintroduce it as a remediation technique on metal-contaminated soils. Initially, the concept
was based on metal hyperaccumulating plants, which are able to uptake and tolerate extremely high
levels of metals. In the past, extensive research has been conducted in the eld of phytoextraction:
searching for newphytoextractors (Baker and Brooks, 1989); providing more fundamental
knowledge about metal uptake, translocation, and tolerance by plants (Rauser, 1995; Kramer et al.,
1996; Lasat et al., 1998; Salt et al., 1999); as well as improving plant metal accumulation and
tolerance by genetic transformations (Karenlampi et al., 2000; Clemens, Palmgren, and Kramer,
2002; Kramer, 2005). Another approach in the concepts development was based on high biomass-
producing plants used together with chemical agents to enhance metal solubility and uptake by
plants (Huang et al., 1997; Blaylock et al., 1997).

..
1. Blaylock,M.J. and Huang, J.W. 2000. Phytoextraction of heavymetals. In: Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the
Environment, pp. 5369. (Raskin, I. and Ensley, B.D., Eds.). New York, John Wiley and Sons.
2. Chaney, R.L. 1983. Plant uptake of inorganic waste. In: Land Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, pp. 5076. (Parr, J.E., Marsh, P.B., and Kla, J.M.,
Eds.). Park Ridge, IL, Noyes Data.
3. Baker, A.J.M. and Brooks, R.R. 1989. Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elementsA review of their distribution, ecology
and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1, 81126.
4. Rauser, W.E. 1995. Phytochelatins and related peptides. Plant Physiol. 109, 11411149.
5. K arenlampi, S., Schat, H., Vangronsveld, J., Verkleij, J.A.C., Van Der Lelie, D., Mergeay, M., and Tervahauta, A.I. 2000. Genetic engineering in
the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soil. Environ. Pollut. 107, 225231.
PARAGRAF FITOREMEDIASI

Phytoextraction Higher plants which


Plant uptake of hyperaccumulate metallic
of heavy metals
inorganic waste elements
(Blaylock and
Huang, 2000). (Chaney, 1983). (Baker and Brooks, 1989).

Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants


Phytochelatins and
for phytoremediation.
related peptides.
(Karenlampi, Schat, Vangronsveld, Verkleij, Van
(Rauser, 1995).
Der Lelie, Mergeay, and Tervahauta, 2000).
CHEMICALLY ASSISTED PHYTOEXTRACTION: A REVIEW OF POTENTIAL SOIL AMENDMENTS FOR
INCREASING PLANT UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS
E. Meers, F. M. G. Tack, S. Van Slycken, A. Ruttens, G. Du Laing, J. Vangronsveld, andM.G.Verloo1
International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10:390414, 2008

Qi et al. (2004) proposed pretreatment of soils with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to


increase heavy metal phytoavailability for phytoextraction purposes. Solubility of Zn
and Cu was observed to increase following treatment with 0.170.35 mL H2O2 per
kilogram of soil. Dissolved organic carbon also increased, suggesting that metal solubility
was caused by organic matter dissolution. The elevated solubility resulted in enhanced
accumulation of the metals by ryegrass, although growth depression was observed and Cu
exhibited risks for leaching. Lestan, Hane, and Finzgar (2005) also observed that
ozonation before soil washing with EDTA signicantly increased removal rates of Pb but
not Zn.

1. Qi, L., Xu, C.Y., Wei, W.Z., and Peng, W.Y. 2004. Study on the possibility of hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment and
plant system to remediate soil pollution. Chemosphere 57, 14391447.
2. Lestan, D., Hanc, A., and Finzgar, N. 2005. Inuence of ozonation on extractability of Pb and Zn from
contaminated soils. Chemosphere 61, 10121019.
Chaney et al. (1997) acknowledged the potential of synthetic chelants for the removal
of toxic metals from the soil by enhanced phytoextraction, yet cautioned regarding the
necessity of methods to prevent leaching of mobilized pollutants. The risks involved for
leaching of both contaminants and macronutrients have also been underlined by other
authors (Cooper et al., 1999; Barona, Aranguiz, and Elias 2001; Grcman et al., 2001;
Meers et al., 2004).

1. Chaney, R.L., Malik, M., Li, Y.M., Brown, S.L., Angle, J.S., and Baker, A.J.M. 1997. Phytoremediation of soil
metals. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 8, 279284.
2. Cooper, E.M., Sims, J.T., Cunningham, S.D., Huang, J.W., and Berti, W.R. 1999. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction
of lead from contaminated soils. J. Environ. Qual. 28, 17091719.
3. Barona, A., Aranguiz, I., and Elias, A. 2001. Metal associations in soils before and after EDTA extractive
decontamination: Implications for the effectiveness of further clean-up procedures. Environ. Pollut. 113, 7985.
4. Grcman, H., Velikonja-Bolta, S., Vodnik, D., Kos, B., and Lestan, D. 2001. EDTA enhanced heavy metal
phytoextraction: Metal accumulation, leaching and toxicity. Plant Soil 235, 105114.
5. Meers, E., Hopgood, M., Lesage, E., Vervaeke, P., Tack, F.M.G., and Verloo, M. 2004. Enhanced phytoextraction: In
search for EDTA alternatives. Int. J. Phytoremed. 6, 95109.
PERAGRAF KHELATE UNTUK FITOREMEDIASI

the potential of synthetic chelants


(Chaney et al., 1997)

Chelate-assisted Metal Enhanced EDTA enhanced


heavy metal
phytoextraction associations in phytoextraction
phytoextraction
of lead soils before and (Meers, Hopgood, (Greman,
(Cooper, Sims, after EDTA Lesage, Vervaeke, Velikonja-Bolta,
Cunningham, extractive Tack and Verloo, Vodnik, Kos and
Huang, and (Barona, 2004). Lestan, 2001).
Berti, 1999). Aranguiz and
Elias, 2001).
PARAGRAF IKLIM ORGANISASI
George Litwin (1968) dalam Harini Agustina (2002) mendefinisikan iklim organisasi
sebagai suatu set dari sifat-sifat yang dapat diukur dari suatu lingkungan organisasi yang
didasarkan pada persepsi secara kolektif dari orang-orang yang hidup dan bekerja
(. ref lainnya). Pentingnya iklim organisasi yang mendukung dalam meningkatkan
kinerja organisasi ditekankan oleh Redding (1986), mengemukakan bahwa iklim
organisasi adalah lebih krusial daripada keterampilan atau teknik berkomunikasi dalam
menciptakan suatu organisasi yang efektif (. ref lainnya). Penguatan yang positif
dapat membantu mengembangkan respon yang diinginkan dan lebih memungkinkan
mempengaruhi hubungan yang bersifat organisasi yang lebih menyenangkan daripada
tidak menye-nangkan (. ref lainnya).

1. Harini Agustina. 2002. Analisis Hubungan Antara Komitmen Karyawan Dengan Iklim Organisasi dan
Performasi Kerja Karyawan. Jurnal Riset Ekonomi dan Manajemen, Vol 2, Hal 24-33.
2. Redding (1986) tidak ada di daftar pustaka
PARAGRAF LINGKUNGAN PEMASARAN

Dalam lingkungan pemasaran, perusahaan dapat digolongkan menjadi


dua, yaitu lingkungan pemasaran mikro dan lingkungan pemasaran
makro (.. Ref). Lingkungan pemasaran mikro terdiri atas pelaku-pelaku
dan lingkungan pemasaran yang langsung berkaitan dengan perusahaan
dan mempengaruhi dalam pelayanan pasar, yang terdiri atas pemasok
bahan mentah, perantara pemasaran, konsumen, pesaing dan anggota
masyarakat lain (.. Ref). Lingkungan pemasaran makro terdiri atas
kekuatan-kekuatan yang mempengaruhi semua pelaku di dalam
lingkungan pemasaran mikro yaitu, faktor demografi, ekonomi, politik,
sosial dan budaya, hukum dan lain-lainnya (Ujang, 2002, .. Ref). ).

1. Ujang, S. 2002, Perilaku Konsumen, Teori dan Penerapan-nya Dalam Pemasaran, Penerbit Ghalia Indonesia,
Jakarta.
. Development of Environmental Thresholds for Streams
in Agricultural Watersheds
P. A. Chambers,* J. M. Culp, E. S. Roberts, and M. Bowerman
J. Environ. Qual. 41:16 (2012)

Efforts to safeguard or improve environmental conditions of agroecosystems while


maintaining agricultural and human food supply have traditionally focused on managing on-
farm activities to reduce materials loss and conserve habitat (e.g., correct management of
chemicals and manure, improved animal husbandry and crop production systems, and
interception of materials leaving the agricultural setting). These onfarm activities, often known
as beneficial management practices (BMPs), have had varied success. Many field and modeling
studies indicate that implementation of various BMPs can have positive effects on surface and
groundwater quality (Cook et al., 1996; Edwards et al., 1997; Chaplot et al., 2004; Thomas et
al., 2007). However, ineffectual placement or timing of BMPs in watersheds, lag effects arising
from legacy conditions (e.g., historic land management), and vagaries in weather can
sometimes off set anticipated improvements (e.g., Tomer and Locke, 2011).

1. Chaplot, V., A. Saleh, D.B. Jaynes, and J. Arnold. 2004. Predicting water, sediment and NO3N loads under scenarios of land-use and management practices in a fl at
watershed. Water Air Soil Pollut. 154:271293.
2. Cook, M.G., P.G. Hunt, K.C. Stone, and J.H. Canterberry. 1996. Reducing diff use pollution through implementation of agricultural best management practices: A
case study. Water Sci. Technol. 33:191196.
3. Edwards, D.R., T.C. Daniel, H.D. Scott, P.A. Moore, J.F. Murdoch, and P.F. Vendrell. 1997. Eff ect of BMP implementation on storm fl ow quality of two
northwestern Arkansas streams. Trans. ASAE 40:13111319.
4. Th omas, G.A., R.C. Dalal, and J. Standley. 2007. No-till eff ects on organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient distribution in a Luvisol in the semi-
arid subtropics. Soil Tillage Res. 94:295304.
5. Tomer, M.D., and M.A. Locke. 2011. Th e challenge of documenting water quality benefi ts of conservation practices: A review of USDA-ARDSs conservation eff ects
assessment project watershed studies. Water Sci. Technol. 64:300310.
. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Utilization By-Products
Interacting with Environmental Waters
Lev J. Spivak-Birndorf, Brian W. Stewart,* Rosemary C. Capo, Elizabeth C. Chapman,
Karl T. Schroeder, and Tonya M. Brubaker
J. Environ. Qual. 41:144154 (2012)

In coal, Sr is a trace element with an average concentration of ~100 mg/kg (Swaine, 1990).
Coal utilization by-products are enriched in Sr relative to coal and many other geologic
reservoirs with concentrations up to ~3,000 mg/kg (Hurst and Davis, 1981; Hurst et al., 1991).
The Sr in CUB is also known to be readily mobilized and biogeochemically available (Hurst et
al., 1991; 1993). Studies of trace element partitioning during coal combustion indicate that Sr is
among the group of elementsincluding barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), chromium
(Cr), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)that condense within coal-fired power
plants, in contrast to volatile elements such as mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) (Vejahati et al.
[2010], and references therein).

1. Hurst, R.W., and T.E. Davis. 1981. Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fl y ash from coal-fi red power plants.
Environ. Geol. 3:363367.
2. Hurst, R.W., T.E. Davis, and A.A. Elseewi. 1991. Strontium isotopes as tracers of coal combustion residue in the
environment. Environ. Geol. 30:5977.
3. Hurst, R.W., T.E. Davis, A.A. Elseewi, and A.L. Page. 1993. Strontium and lead isotopes as monitors of fossil fuel
dispersion. p. 99118. In R.F. Keefer and K.S. Sajwan (ed.) Trace elements in coal and coal combustion residues. Lewis,
Boca Raton, FL.
4. Swaine, D.J. 1990. Trace elements in coal. Butterworth, London.
5. Vejahati, F., Z. Xu, and R. Gupta. 2010. Trace elements in coal: Associations with coal and minerals and their behavior
during coal utilization: A review. Fuel 89:904911.
. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Utilization By-Products
Interacting with Environmental Waters
Lev J. Spivak-Birndorf, Brian W. Stewart,* Rosemary C. Capo, Elizabeth C. Chapman,
Karl T. Schroeder, and Tonya M. Brubaker
J. Environ. Qual. 41:144154 (2012)

Sequential Leaching Procedure


A number of studies have examined the solubility and leaching potential of CUB
(Querol et al., 1996, 2001; Sheps-Pelleg and Cohen, 1999; Hassett et al., 2005).
Current procedures include serial batch leaching (Kim and Hesbach, 2009), synthetic
groundwater leaching (Hassett, 1998), and mine water leaching (Ziemkiewicz et al.,
2003), as well as the USEPAdeveloped toxicity characteristic leaching procedure
(USEPA Method 1311; USEPA, 1992). A review of these methods is provided by Kim
and Hesbach (2009). However, these procedures often attempt to simulate specifi c
environments to which the CUB may be subjected, in contrast to the procedure used
here, which attempts to identify geochemical associations by targeting specifi c phases
in the CUB.

1. Hassett, D.J. 1998. Synthetic groundwater leaching procedure. p. 47974803. In R.A. Meyers (ed.) Encyclopedia of environmental analysis and remediation. John
Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
2. Hassett, D.J., D.F. Pfl ughoeft-Hassett, and L.V. Heebink. 2005. Leaching of CCBs: Observations from over 25 years of research. Fuel 84:13781383.
3. Kim, A.G., and P. Hesbach. 2009. Comparison of fl y ash leaching methods. Fuel 88:926937.
4. Querol, X., R. Juan, A. Lopez-Soler, J.L. Fernandez-Turiel, and C.R. Ruiz. 1996. Mobility of trace elements from coal and combustion wastes. Fuel 75:821838.
5. Querol, X., J.C. Umaa, A. Alastuey, C. Ayora, A. Lopez-Soler, and F. Plana. 2001. Extraction of soluble major and trace elements from fl y ash in open and
closed leaching systems. Fuel 80:801813.
6. Ziemkiewicz, P.F., J.S. Simmons, and A.S. Knox. 2003. Th e mine water leaching procedure: Evaluating the environmental risk of backfi lling mines with coal
ash. p. 7590. In K.S. Sajwan et al. (ed.) Chemistry of trace elements in fl y ash. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.
. Carbon Export from the Raccoon River, Iowa: Patterns, Processes, and
Opportunities
Christopher S. Jones and Keith E. Schilling
Carbon (C) is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, pedosphere, and hydrosphere in the global C cycle.
J. Environ. Qual. 42:155163 (2013)
In one biogeochemical exchange, atmospheric CO2 is sequestered through chemical weathering of carbonate rock according to the
reaction

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca2+ + 2HCO3 ......... [1]

where the resultant bicarbonate (2HCO3-) consists of C liberated from the rock and C contributed by CO2. Production of organic
matter (OM) by photosynthesis is another sink for atmospheric CO2 (Stryer, 1981),

CO2 + 2H2O + light CH2O + O2 + H2O .......... [2]

Subsequent oxidation of OM (Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2003) via the reaction

CH2O + O2 CO2 + H2O ..............[3]

liberates the CO2, which can then return to the atmosphere or react with rocks during chemical weathering (Eq. [1]). Photosynthesis
links to rock weathering because the flux of CO2 from the oxidation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a major source of CO2 for
carbonate rock dissolution (Ludwig et al., 1998; Amiotte-Suchet et al., 2003). Belowground plant respiration also contributes CO2
to the soil (Edwards et al., 1970).

1. Amiotte-Suchet, P., J.L. Probst, and W. Ludwig. 2003. Worldwide distribution of continental rock lithology: Implications for the atmospheric/soil
CO2 uptake by continental weathering and alkalinity river transport to the oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17:10381051.
2. Edwards, C.A., D.E. Reichle, and D.A. Crossley, Jr. 1970. The role of soil invertebrates in turnover of organic matter and nutrients. In: D.E.
Reichle, editor, Analysis of temperate forest ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 12172.
3. Ludwig, W., P. Amiotte-Suchet, G. Munhoven, and J.L. Probst. 1998. Atmospheric CO2 consumption by continental erosion: Present-day controls
and implications for the last glacial maximum. Global Planet. Change 1617:107120.
4. Stryer, L. 1981. Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.
Carbon Export from the Raccoon River, Iowa: Patterns, Processes, and Opportunities
Christopher S. Jones and Keith E. Schilling
J. Environ. Qual. 42:155163 (2013)

Methods and Materials


Water withdrawn from the river for irrigation is negligible because precipitation is
adequate for crop production. Withdrawals for industrial or municipal purposes are also
insignificant upstream of the Van Meter gauge. A few km downstream of the gauge, the
Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) uses the stream as its principal source of supply.
Because its watershed is intensely agricultural and its water is a major source of
municipal supply, the Raccoon River has been extensively characterized for nitrate N
(Lucey and Goolsby, 1993; Schilling and Lutz, 2004; Schilling and Zhang, 2004; Hatfield
et al., 2009; Jha et al., 2010), sediment ( Jones and Schilling, 2011), and bacteria (Schilling
et al., 2009) loading.

1. Hatfield, J.L., L.D. McMullen, and C.S. Jones. 2009. Nitrate-nitrogen patterns in the Raccoon River Basin related to agricultural practices. J. Soil Water Conserv. 64:190199.
doi:10.2489/jswc.64.3.190
2. Jha, M.K., C.F. Wolter, K.E. Schilling, and P.W. Gassman. 2010. Assessment of TMDL implementation strategies for the Raccoon River, Iowa. J. Environ. Qual. 39:13171327.
3. Jones, C.S., and K.E. Schilling. 2011. From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 19162009. J. Environ. Qual. 40:1911
1923.
4. Lucey, K.J., and D.A. Goolsby. 1993. Effects of climatic variations over 11 years on nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the Raccoon River, Iowa. J. Environ. Qual. 22:3846.
5. Schilling, K.E., and Y.K. Zhang. 2004. Baseflow contribution to nitrate-nitrogen export from a large, agricultural watershed, USA. J. Hydrol. 295:305316.
6. Schilling, K.E., and D.S. Lutz. 2004. Relation of nitrate concentrations to baseflow in the Raccoon River, Iowa. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40:889900.
7. Schilling, K.E., Y.K. Zhang, D.R. Hill, C.S. Jones, and C.F. Wolter. 2009. Temporal variations of Escherichia coli in a large midwestern river. J. Hydrol. 365:7985.
Carbon Export from the Raccoon River, Iowa: Patterns, Processes, and Opportunities
Christopher S. Jones and Keith E. Schilling
J. Environ. Qual. 42:155163 (2013)

Discussion
Land Use, Climate, and Alkalinity Export Although much of the focus on alkalinity fluxes has been on
discharge, other factors may be contributing. Fertilization is one such factor. An estimated 128,000 Mg yr1 of N
inputs enters the Raccoon watershed in the form of chemical fertilizers, animal manures, and legume fixation
(Schilling et al., 2008). Nitrogen fertilizer can increase bicarbonate formation and transport through two
mechanisms. First, the formation of nitric acid in the soil can result in dissolution of carbonate minerals without
consuming atmospheric CO2 (Skiba et al., 1992; Amiotte- Suchet, 1995). This mechanism has been shown to
generate 6% of the bicarbonate load in a carbonate-abundant farmed watershed (Semhi et al., 2000). Second,
fertilization stimulates soil respiration and thus production of the source of CO2 for chemical weathering
(Schlesinger and Andrews, 2000). On the other hand, research has shown that N fertilization can enhance
sequestration of soil organic C (Halvorson et al., 2000), primarily through return of crop residues to the soil.
Overall, the role of N fertilizer on bicarbonate formation and transport is complex and worthy of future research.

1. Amiotte-Suchet, P., and J.L. Probst. 1995. A global model for present day atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption by chemical erosion of continental
rocks (GEM-CO2). Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 47:273280.
2. Halvorson, A.D., C.A. Reule, and L.S. Murphy. 2000. No-tillage and N fertilization enhance soil carbon sequestration. Fluid J. 8:811.
3. Schilling, K.E., C.F. Wolter, D.E. Christiansen, and D.J. Schnoebelen. 2008. Raccoon River, Iowa: Total maximum daily load for nitrate and
Escherichia coli. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA.
4. Schlesinger, W., and J. Andrews. 2000. Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle. Biogeochemistry 48:720.
5. Semhi, K., P.A. Suchet, N. Clauer, and J.-L. Probst. 2000. Impact of nitrogen fertilizers on the natural weathering-erosion process and fluvial
transport in the Garonne basin. App. Geochem. 15:865878.
6. Skiba, U., K.J. Hargreaves, D. Fowler, and K.A. Smith. 1992. Fluxes of nitric and nitrous oxides from agricultural soils in a cool temperate climate.
Atmos. Environ. 26:24772488.
Fate of Pesticides in Combined Paddy RiceFish Pond Farming Systems in Northern
Vietnam
Maria Anyusheva, Marc Lamers,* Nguyen La, Van Vien Nguyen, and Thilo Streck
J. Environ. Qual. 41:515525 (2012)

Several studies pinpointed the significant influence of water management practices on pesticide loss
from irrigated rice fields. The irrigation practices (continuous or intermittent automatic irrigation), water
holding period (WHP), and excess water storage depth were found to control pesticide export from paddy
fields in Asia, especially in monsoon rainy season (Inao et al., 2008; Phong et al., 2008; Watanabe et al.,
2006, 2007). Other factors, such as solubility, hydrophobicity, and half-life, are related to pesticide
properties. Only a few studies have been published on the fate of pesticides in paddy rice systems in
Vietnam. They typically focus on pesticide occurrence and distribution in conventional paddy rice systems
in the large lowland areas of the Mekong and Red River deltas (Giger et al., 2003; Hung and Thiemann,
2002; Minh et al., 2007; Toan et al., 2007). In contrast, little information is available about the behavior and
transport processes of paddy rice pesticides.

1. Giger, W., M. Berg, H.V. Pham, H.A. Duong, H.C. Tran, T.H. Cao, and R. Schertenleib. 2003. Environmental analytical research in northern Vietnam: A Swiss-
Vietnamese cooperation focusing on arsenic and organic contaminants in aquatic environments and drinking water. Chimia 57:529536.
2. Hung, D.Q., and W. Th iemann. 2002. Contamination by selected chlorinated pesticides in surface waters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Chemosphere 47:357367.
3. Inao, K., H. Watanabe, D.G. Karpouzas, and E. Capri. 2008. Simulation models of pesticide fate and transport in paddy environment for ecological risk assessment
and management. Japan Agric. Res. Q. 42:1321.
4. Minh, N.H., T.B. Minh, N. Kajiwara, T. Kunisue, H. Iwata, P.H. Viet, Cam, N.P Tu, B.C. Tuyen, and S. Tanabe. 2007. Pollution sources and occurrences of
selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments of the Mekong river delta, south Vietnam. Chemosphere 67:17941801.
5. Phong, T.K., H. Watanabe, T. Nishimura, K. Toyoda, and T. Motobayashi. 2008. Behavior of simetryn and thiobencarb in rice paddy lysimeters and the effect of
excess water storage depth in controlling herbicide runoff . Weed Biol. Manage. 8:243249.
6. Toan, V.D., V.D. Th ao, J. Walder, H. Schmutz, and C.T. Ha. 2007. Contamination by selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface
7. soils in Hanoi, Vietnam. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 78:195200.
8. Watanabe, H., M.H.T. Nguyen, S. Komany, S.H. Vu, Y. Asami, T.K Phong, and J. Tournebize. 2006. Applicability of ELISA in pesticide monitoring to control
runoff of bensulfuronmethyl and simetryn from paddy fi elds. J. Pestic. Sci. 31:123129.
9. Watanabe, H., M.H.T. Nguyen, K. Souphasay, S.H. Vu, T.K. Phong, J. Tournebize, and S. Ishihara. 2007. Eff ect of water management practice on pesticide
behavior in paddy water. Agric. Water Manage. 88:132140.
Fate of Pesticides in Combined Paddy RiceFish Pond Farming Systems in Northern Vietnam
Maria Anyusheva, Marc Lamers,* Nguyen La, Van Vien Nguyen, and Thilo Streck
J. Environ. Qual. 41:515525 (2012)

Data Processing
To calculate pesticide loss from the paddy field and fish pond, the volume of
respective surface discharge in hourly resolution was multiplied by the corresponding
pesticide concentration in the outflow. The hourly pesticide concentrations were
estimated by a piecewise linear interpolation as described in Potter et al. (2003) and
Shih et al. (1998). In a few cases, outflow concentration data were not available and
field water concentrations were taken as a surrogate for field outlet concentrations,
assuming homogeneous spatial distribution of pesticide concentrations. Regression
analysis was performed with SPSS software V. 18 (PASW Statistics, 2009).

1. PASW Statistics. 2009. SPSS. Version 18. PASW Statistics, Chicago, IL.
2. Potter, T.L., C.C. Truman, D.D. Bosch, and C.W. Bednarz. 2003. Organic compounds in the environment:
Cotton defoliant runoff as a function of active ingredient and tillage. J. Environ. Qual. 32:21802188.
3. Shih, G., X. Wang, H.J Grimshaw, and J. Vanarman. 1998. Variance of load estimates derived by piecewise
linear interpolation. J. Environ. Eng. 124:11141120.
Fate of Pesticides in Combined Paddy RiceFish Pond Farming Systems in Northern Vietnam
Maria Anyusheva, Marc Lamers,* Nguyen La, Van Vien Nguyen, and Thilo Streck
J. Environ. Qual. 41:515525 (2012)

Discussion

Water Balance of the Paddy Field


The high irrigation rate ensured an adequate water supply to the paddy field and adjacent fish
pond. The average irrigation rates to the paddy during SC and SAC were higher than those
reported for continuous irrigation elsewhere (Neumann et al., 2009; Watanabe et al., 2007). In
Japan, for example, Watanabe et al. (2007) measured an average rate of 1.6 cm d1. The
European Commission guidance document MEDRice reports a value of 2.5 cm d1 for
Mediterranean conditions (MED-Rice, 2003). As a consequence of high irrigation rates, the
water residence times in the Vietnamese paddy were short. Rainfall during the monitoring
periods was slightly lower than (SC) or comparable to (SAC) the values recorded in Yen Chau
during the respective periods of the years 2000 to 2006 (data not shown).

----------
1. Neumann, R.B., M.L. Polizzotto, A.B.M. Badruzzaman, M.A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and C.F. Harvey. 2009. Hydrology of a
groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh: Seasonal and daily mechanisms of infi ltration. Water Resour. Res. 45.
2. MED-Rice. 2003. Guidance document for environmental risk assessments of active substances used on rice in the EU for
Annex I inclusion. Document prepared by working group on MED-Rice, EU Document Reference SANCO/1090/2000rev.1.
Brussels, Belgium.
3. Watanabe, H., M.H.T. Nguyen, K. Souphasay, S.H. Vu, T.K. Phong, J. Tournebize, and S. Ishihara. 2007. Eff ect of water
management practice on pesticide behavior in paddy water. Agric. Water Manage. 88:132140.
Fate of Pesticides in Combined Paddy RiceFish Pond Farming Systems in Northern
Vietnam
Maria Anyusheva, Marc Lamers,* Nguyen La, Van Vien Nguyen, and Thilo Streck
J. Environ. Qual. 41:515525 (2012)

DISCUSSION
Risk Assessment
Pesticide concentrations in fish ponds connected to paddy fields depend mainly on
pesticide solubility and water management scheme. In view of the second factor, the risk to
species with relatively high PNEC (e.g., common carp, Table 2) can be signifi cantly reduced by
extending the WHP. Cong et al. (2009) reported adverse effects for snakehead fish, a common
fish species in paddy fields in Vietnam exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon. In
their experiment, exposure to realistic environmental pesticide concentrations (16350 g L1)
resulted in long-term inhibition of brain cholinesterase. Moreover, exposure at the highest
concentration level resulted in 30% growth inhibition. Klemick and Lichtenberg (2008)
reported that fi sh harvests in the Mekong Delta were affected by pesticide use in the paddy fi
elds, although the harvest losses were economically insignifi cant.

1. Cong, N.V., N.T. Phuong, and M. Bayley 2009. Eff ects of repeated exposure of diazinon on cholinesterase activity and
growth in snakehead fish (Channa striata). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 72:699703.
2. Klemick H., and E.Lichtenberg. 2008. Pesticide use and fish harvests in Vietnamese rice agroecosystems. Am. J. Agric. Econ.
90:114.
HASIL PENELITIAN

Konsentrasi pestisida di kolam ikan yang berhubungan dengan


sawah, tergantung pada kelarutan pestisida dan tata air sawah; dan
ini menjadi risiko bagi ikan

Cong, N.V., N.T. Phuong, and M.


Klemick H., and E.Lichtenberg.
Bayley. 2009.
2008.
Effects of repeated exposure of
Pesticide use and fish harvests in
diazinon on cholinesterase
Vietnamese rice agroecosystems.
activity and growth in snakehead
fish (Channa striata).