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02 September 2016

Power Quality

Dr. Irfan Ullah


Assistant Professor
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Management and technology

Renewable Electrical Energy Resources EE407


Contents

1. Power quality
2. Harmonics
3. Total harmonics distortion
4. Harmonics and overloaded neutrals
5. Harmonics in transformer
Power quality

Power quality problems


Harmonics

Nonlinear gulps
Blown circuit breakers
Computer malfunctions
Transformer failures
Fires caused by overloaded
Variable speed drive 3-phase ground overloading
Harmonics distortion
Gulps of current

Electronic blast
Total harmonics distortion

A series representation of a current waveform

The rms value of current

square of a sum of terms


Total harmonics distortion contd

We know that

Total harmonic distortion

In power systems, lower THD means reduction in peak currents, heating, emissions,
and core loss in motors.
Example 2.12

A harmonic analysis of the current drawn by a CFL yields the following data. Find the
rms value of current and the total harmonic distortion (THD).
Solution:

The sum of the first through seventh Harmonic current spectrum for an 18-W,
harmonics of current for the CFL. electronic-ballast compact fluorescent
lamp. Currents are rms values.
Harmonics and voltage notching

There will be a voltage drop in the


connecting lines during current surges
When notching is a potential problem,
capacitors may be added to help smooth
the waveform

A simple circuit to illustrate voltage notching Source voltage, line current, voltage drop across
the line, and resulting notched voltage to the load
Harmonics and overloaded neutrals

Current in the neutral wire

For balanced three-phase currents, with no harmonics

With third harmonics

Showing the neutral line current in a four-wire,


three-phase, wye connected circuit.
Harmonics and overloaded neutrals contd..

the current in the neutral wire

each out of phase with the other by 120is zero, the fundamental currents drop out

In terms of rms values

For even harmonics


Example 2.13

A four-wire, wye-connected balanced load has phase currents described by the


following harmonics. Find the rms current flowing in the neutral wire and compare it to
the rms phase current.
Solution:
Assuming the fundamental is 60 Hz

the neutral wire will carry

the rms current in each phase


Harmonics in transformer

Hysteresis due to magnetic materials


Soft magnetic materials (cast iron, cast steel, etc.)
Hard magnetic materials (carbon steel, cobalt steel, etc.)

Eddy current loss


I2R losses in core, which is reduced by laminations
Transformer

Hyteresis loops
Discussion

Thanks
?