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# 02 September 2016

Power Quality

## Dr. Irfan Ullah

Assistant Professor
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Management and technology

## Renewable Electrical Energy Resources EE407

Contents

1. Power quality
2. Harmonics
3. Total harmonics distortion
5. Harmonics in transformer
Power quality

## Power quality problems

Harmonics

Nonlinear gulps
Blown circuit breakers
Computer malfunctions
Transformer failures
Harmonics distortion
Gulps of current

Electronic blast
Total harmonics distortion

## square of a sum of terms

Total harmonics distortion contd

We know that

## Total harmonic distortion

In power systems, lower THD means reduction in peak currents, heating, emissions,
and core loss in motors.
Example 2.12

A harmonic analysis of the current drawn by a CFL yields the following data. Find the
rms value of current and the total harmonic distortion (THD).
Solution:

The sum of the first through seventh Harmonic current spectrum for an 18-W,
harmonics of current for the CFL. electronic-ballast compact fluorescent
lamp. Currents are rms values.
Harmonics and voltage notching

## There will be a voltage drop in the

connecting lines during current surges
When notching is a potential problem,
capacitors may be added to help smooth
the waveform

A simple circuit to illustrate voltage notching Source voltage, line current, voltage drop across
the line, and resulting notched voltage to the load

## Showing the neutral line current in a four-wire,

three-phase, wye connected circuit.

## the current in the neutral wire

each out of phase with the other by 120is zero, the fundamental currents drop out

Example 2.13

## A four-wire, wye-connected balanced load has phase currents described by the

following harmonics. Find the rms current flowing in the neutral wire and compare it to
the rms phase current.
Solution:
Assuming the fundamental is 60 Hz

## the rms current in each phase

Harmonics in transformer

## Hysteresis due to magnetic materials

Soft magnetic materials (cast iron, cast steel, etc.)
Hard magnetic materials (carbon steel, cobalt steel, etc.)

## Eddy current loss

I2R losses in core, which is reduced by laminations
Transformer

Hyteresis loops
Discussion

Thanks
?