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Define leadership

Present the background & classic studies of leadership

Discuss the traditional theories of leadership

Identify modern frameworks for leadership

Identify and analyze the skills needed for effective leadership


What is leadership?

How does a leader exercise power?

What are leadership skills and traits?

Theories of leadership behavior

How to improve your leadership skills


The ability to influence a group toward the

achievement of goals
When you boil it down, contemporary
leadership seems to a matter of aligning people
toward common goals and empowering them to
take the actions needed to reach them.
Sherman, 1995
Sanctioned vs. non sanctioned leadership
Leader Vs Manager
Not all leaders are managers, nor are all
managers leaders
Persons whose influence on others is limited to the
appointed managerial authority of their positions
Persons with managerial and personal power who
can influence others to perform actions beyond those
that could be dictated by those persons formal
(position) authority alone
Managers Vs Leaders

Manager Characteristics Leader Characteristics

Administers Innovates
A copy An original
Maintains Develops
Focuses on systems and structures Focuses on people
Relies on control Inspires trust
Short range view Long range perspective
Asks what and why
Asks how and when
Eye on horizon
Eye on bottom line
Challenges the status quo
Accepts the status quo Own person
Classic good soldiers Does the right thing
Does things right
Trait Theories

What characteristics or traits make a person a leader?

Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or
without the necessary traits for leadership
Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social,
physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders
from non leaders
Trait view has little analytical or predictive value
Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)
Behavioral Theories of
Theories that attempt to isolate behaviors
that differentiate effective leaders from
ineffective leaders
Behavioral studies focus on identifying
critical behavioral determinants of
leadership that, in turn, could be used to
train people to become leaders
Behavioral Theories

Ohio state studies: initiating structure (task or goal

orientation) vs consideration (recognition of individual
needs and relationships)

University of Michigan studies: Employee oriented (

genuine concern for people) vs production oriented
genuine concern for task)
The Managerial Grid
1,9 9,9
High 9 Country club management Team management
Thoughtful attention needs of people Work accomplishment is from
for satisfying relationships leads to committed people, interdependence
8 A comfortable, friendly organization through a common stake in organization
purpose leads to relationship
atmosphere and work tempo of trust and respect
Concern for people

Organization Man Management
4 Adequate organization performance
possible through balancing the necessity to
get out work with maintaining
morale of the people at a satisfactory level
3 9,1
Impoverished Management
Efficiency in operations results
2 Exertion of minimum effort to get
from arranging conditions of
required work done is appropriate
work in such a way that human
Low to sustain organization membership
elements interfere to a minimal degree

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Low Concern for production High
Charismatic Leadership

Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders

1. Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability.

1. A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity
between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the

1. Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to
others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers needs and, hence acts as a motivating

1. Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing
to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.

1. Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being
novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration
in followers.

1. Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather
than as caretakers of the status quo.

1. Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental
constraints and resources needed to bring about change.
Transactional vs Transformational leaders

Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders

Transactional Leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good
performance, recognizes accomplishment
Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and
standards, takes corrective action.
Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met
Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions

Transformational Leaders
Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important
purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually,
coaches, advises.
The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders

Description categories
Type of Activity
Derived from free Observation

Exchange Information
Routine Communication
Handling paperwork

Traditional Management Decision Making

Interacting with outsiders

Socializing /Politicking

Human Resource Management
Managing conflict
Relative Distribution of Managers Activities

Traditional Management

Human resources

Routine Communication
What skills do leaders need?

Personal Skills

Coping with stressors

Managing time

1.Developing 3. Solving
Self-awareness Problems

Determining values
and priorities Using the rational approach
Identifying cognitive style Using the creative approach
Assessing attitude toward change Fostering innovation in others
Interpersonal Skills

Gaining power
Coaching Exercise influence
Counseling Empowering others
Listening 5. Gaining power
and influences

4. Communication 6. Motivating others


7. Management

Diagnosing poor performance

Identifying causes Creating a motivating environment
Selecting appropriate strategies Rewarding accomplishment
Resolving confrontations
The right stuff
Empower your inner child-children are genuine, speak their mind-so
do successful leaders
Be slightly weird-effective leaders have their own approach to do
Embrace compensation-everyone likes money, but successful
leaders can talk about it
Focus carefully successful leaders are able to handle more than 2-
3 things at a time because they are able to filter out extraneous
information and focus on critical issues
Speak openly- successful leaders say what they think
Don't get even-get mad-good leaders let off steam and get on to the
next issue
Keep up on the latest developments- successful leaders know the
latest jargon and trends