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PHYSICS Electrical quantities (1)

LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
Core Supplement
State that there are positive and State that charge is measured in coulombs
negative charges State that the direction of an electric
State that unlike charges attract and field at a point is the direction of the force
that like charges repel on a positive charge at that point
Describe an electric field as a region in
Describe simple experiments to show
which an electric charge experiences a
the production and detection of
force
electrostatic charges Describe simple field patterns, including
State that charging a body involves the field around a point charge, the field
the addition or removal of electrons around a charged conducting sphere and the
Distinguish between electrical field between two parallel plates (not
conductors and insulators and give including end effects)
typical examples Give an account of charging
State that current is related to the Recall and use a simple electron model to
flow of charge distinguish between conductors and
Use and describe the use of an insulators
ammeter, both analogue and digital Show understanding that a current is a rate
State that current in metals is due to of flow of charge and recall and use the
equation I = Q / t
a flow of electrons
Distinguish between the direction of flow
of electrons and conventional current
Static Electricity

http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity
Static Electricity

http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity

Static electricity is all about


charges which are not free to
move.

As a result they build up in one


place, resulting in a spark or shock
when they do move.
Insulating materials, such as
Static Electricity polythene and perspex, can be
charged by rubbing them with a dry
woollen cloth.

+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity

Static electricity is all about


charges which are not free to + -
move. + -
As a result they build up in one
place, resulting in a spark or shock Perspex Polythene
when they do move.
Insulating materials, such as
Static Electricity polythene and perspex, can be
charged by rubbing them with a dry
woollen cloth.

+ + - -
+ + - -
+ + - -
+ + - -
http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity

Static electricity is all about


charges which are not free to + + - -
move. + + - -
As a result they build up in one
place, resulting in a spark or shock Like charges will try to repel each
when they do move. other.
Insulating materials, such as
Static Electricity polythene and perspex, can be
charged by rubbing them with a dry
woollen cloth.

+ - + -
+ - + -
+ - + -
+ - + -
http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity

Static electricity is all about


charges which are not free to + - + -
move. + - + -
As a result they build up in one
place, resulting in a spark or shock
when they do move. Unlike charges will try to attract
each other.
Insulating materials, such as
Static Electricity polythene and perspex, can be
charged by rubbing them with a dry
woollen cloth.

+ - + -
+ - + -
+ - + -
+ - + -
http://www.physics.upenn.edu/undergraduate/undergraduate-physics-
labs/experiments/electric-charge-and-static-electricity

Static electricity is all about


charges which are not free to + - + -
move. + - + -
As a result they build up in one
place, resulting in a spark or shock The closer the charges, the
when they do move. greater the force between them.
Static Electricity

Only
electrons
move, never
the positive
charges!
Static Electricity

-
- -
Only
electrons
- move, never
- - the positive
- charges!

Electrons
move from The rod becomes positively
the rod onto charged, and the duster
the duster. becomes negatively
charged.

Perspex
Static Electricity

+ + Only
+ electrons
+ + move, never
+ the positive
+ charges!

Electrons
move from The rod becomes negatively
the duster charged, and the duster
onto the rod. becomes positively
charged.

Polythene
Uses of Static Electricity
1. Electrostatic smoke precipitators.

As particles of
+ smoke or dust
- rise up the
+
- chimney they
+ - are attracted
+ - to the charged
+ - plates on
+ - either side.
Uses of Static Electricity
1. Electrostatic smoke precipitators. 2. Spray painting

_ _
As particles of +++
_
+ smoke or dust
- rise up the
+
- chimney they
+ - are attracted
+ - to the charged 1. The spray nozzle is connected
+ - plates on
to a positive terminal.
+ - either side.
2. Each spray drop is now +ve.
3. The drops repel and spread out.
4. The car is connected to the
earth (or ve).
5. +ve drops attracted to the ve
car.
Uses of Static Electricity
1. Electrostatic smoke precipitators. 2. Spray painting

_ _
As particles of +++
_
+ smoke or dust
- rise up the
+
- chimney they
+ - are attracted
+ - to the charged 1. The spray nozzle is connected
+ - plates on
to a positive terminal.
+ - either side.
2. Each spray drop is now +ve.
3. The drops repel and spread out.
4. The car is connected to the
earth (or ve).
3. Photocopiers make use of static to 5. +ve drops attracted to the ve
attract black toner to the paper. car.
Distinguish between
electrical
conductors and
insulators and give
typical examples
CONDUCTORS allow electrons to
pass through them. Metals have free
Distinguish between
electrical electrons between the individual
conductors and atoms, and this makes them excellent
insulators and give conductors. The free electrons also
typical examples make them good conductors of thermal
energy (heat).

Copper
(conductor)
CONDUCTORS allow electrons to
pass through them. Metals have free
Distinguish between
electrical electrons between the individual
conductors and atoms, and this makes them excellent
insulators and give conductors. The free electrons also
typical examples make them good conductors of thermal
energy (heat).

Copper
(conductor)
INSULATORS
electrons are held
tightly to their atoms PVC
so are not free to (insulator)

move, and so do not


conduct electricity
(but electrons can be
transferred by
rubbing static
charging).
CONDUCTORS allow electrons to
pass through them. Metals have free
Distinguish between
electrical electrons between the individual
conductors and atoms, and this makes them excellent
insulators and give conductors. The free electrons also
typical examples make them good conductors of thermal
energy (heat).

Copper
(conductor)
INSULATORS
electrons are held
tightly to their atoms PVC SEMI-CONDUCTORS
so are not free to (insulator)
neither an insulator or a
move, and so do not conductor. Poor conductors
conduct electricity when cold, but much better
(but electrons can be conductors when warm.
transferred by
rubbing static
charging).
CONDUCTORS allow electrons to
pass through them. Metals have free
Distinguish between
electrical electrons between the individual
conductors and atoms, and this makes them excellent
insulators and give conductors. The free electrons also
typical examples make them good conductors of thermal
energy (heat).
Eg. Metals
Copper (copper, gold)
(conductor) and carbon
INSULATORS
electrons are held
tightly to their atoms PVC SEMI-CONDUCTORS
so are not free to (insulator)
neither an insulator or a
move, and so do not conductor. Poor conductors
conduct electricity when cold, but much better
(but electrons can be conductors when warm.
transferred by
rubbing static Eg. Silicon and
charging). germanium
Eg. Plastics, glass, dry air
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
So whats all Use and describe the use of
this current an ammeter, both analogue
and digital.
stuff about? State that current in metals
is due to a flow of electrons.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
So whats all Use and describe the use of
this current an ammeter, both analogue
and digital.
stuff about? State that current in metals
is due to a flow of electrons.

Lets go back to
basics and consider
what is happening in
an electrical circuit.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
So whats all Use and describe the use of
this current an ammeter, both analogue
and digital.
stuff about? State that current in metals
is due to a flow of electrons.

Lets go back to
basics and consider
what is happening in
an electrical circuit.

Electricity is the flow of electrons around a


circuit.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
So whats all Use and describe the use of
this current an ammeter, both analogue
and digital.
stuff about? State that current in metals
is due to a flow of electrons.

Lets go back to
basics and consider
what is happening in
+ -
an electrical circuit.

Conventional
current flow

Electricity is the flow of electrons around a


circuit.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
So whats all Use and describe the use of
this current an ammeter, both analogue
and digital.
stuff about? State that current in metals
is due to a flow of electrons.

Lets go back to
basics and consider
what is happening in
+ - Electrons
actually flow
an electrical circuit. from the ve
to the +ve,
opposite to
the
conventional
current flow.

Electricity is the flow of electrons around a


circuit.
Electric current
will only flow if + + -
+
there are charges - -
-
which can move + + +
freely. -
-
+ + +
Electric current
will only flow if + + -
+
there are charges - -
-
which can move + + +
freely. -
-
Metals have a + + +
sea of free
electrons (-ve
charge) that are
free to flow
through the metal
Electric current
will only flow if + + -
+
there are charges - -
-
which can move + + +
freely. -
-
Metals have a + + +
sea of free
electrons (-ve This is why metals
charge) that are are such good
free to flow conductors of
through the metal electricity.
Electric current
will only flow if + + -
+
there are charges - -
-
which can move + + +
The flow of charge is freely. -
called an electric -
current. The higher the Metals have a + + +
current, the greater the sea of free
flow of charge. electrons (-ve This is why metals
charge) that are are such good
free to flow conductors of
through the metal electricity.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
Use and describe the use of an The unit of
ammeter, both analogue and current is the
digital.
ampere (A).
State that current in metals is
due to a flow of electrons. This is usually
abbreviated to
the amp.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
Use and describe the use of an The unit of
ammeter, both analogue and current is the
digital.
ampere (A).
State that current in metals is
due to a flow of electrons. This is usually
abbreviated to
the amp.

Current is
measured using
an ammeter.
State that current is related
to the flow of charge.
Use and describe the use of an The unit of
ammeter, both analogue and current is the
digital.
ampere (A).
State that current in metals is
due to a flow of electrons. This is usually
abbreviated to
the amp.

Current is
measured using
To measure the
current flowing an ammeter.
through a circuit,
the ammeter is
connected in series.
Measuring current

Ammeters can be placed


anywhere in a series circuit and
will all give the same reading.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/energy_electricity_forces/electric_current_voltage/revision/6/
Measuring current
In a parallel circuit
the current through
each component
depends upon its
resistance.
Measuring current
In a parallel circuit
5.5A the current through
1.5A each component
depends upon its
3A
resistance.
1A The total current
flowing around the
circuit is equal to the
total of all the
currents in the
separate branches.
Measuring current
In a parallel circuit
5.5A the current through
1.5A each component
depends upon its
3A
resistance.
1A The total current
flowing around the
circuit is equal to the
total of all the
A1 = A2 + A3 + A4 currents in the
separate branches.
Measuring current
In a parallel circuit
5.5A the current through
1.5A each component
depends upon its
3A
resistance.
1A The total current
flowing around the
circuit is equal to the
total of all the
A1 = A2 + A3 + A4 currents in the
separate branches.
5.5 = 1.5 + 3 + 1
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
Core Supplement
State that there are positive and State that charge is measured in coulombs
negative charges State that the direction of an electric
State that unlike charges attract and field at a point is the direction of the force
that like charges repel on a positive charge at that point
Describe an electric field as a region in
Describe simple experiments to show
which an electric charge experiences a
the production and detection of
force
electrostatic charges Describe simple field patterns, including
State that charging a body involves the field around a point charge, the field
the addition or removal of electrons around a charged conducting sphere and the
Distinguish between electrical field between two parallel plates (not
conductors and insulators and give including end effects)
typical examples Give an account of charging
State that current is related to the Recall and use a simple electron model to
flow of charge distinguish between conductors and
Use and describe the use of an insulators
ammeter, both analogue and digital Show understanding that a current is a rate
State that current in metals is due to of flow of charge and recall and use the
equation I = Q / t
a flow of electrons
Distinguish between the direction of flow
of electrons and conventional current
PHYSICS Electrical quantities (1)