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INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

FAULT CALCULATIONS AND RELAY COORDINATION/GRADING

A SPECIAL PRESENTATIONS FOR PEE ASPIRANTS

TECHNICAL RESOURCE SPEAKER


ENGR. EUTIQUIO M. GUANTERO JR. PEE 1320

2011 MOST OUTSTANDING ELECTRICAL ENGINEER IN THE


FIELD OF CONSULTANCY
FOUNDING AND FIRST PRESIDENT OF IIEE-CRCSA

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TODAYS TOPICS FOR PRESENTATIONS

1. Functions of the Electrical Power Systems


2. Electrical Power System Structural Considerations.
3. Main Components Of Electrical Power Systems.
4. Basic Design Principles of Power System Protection Scheme
5. Tools Needed in Protection Relaying Study.
6. Definitions and Protection Terminology.
7. Criteria for Good Design of Power System Protections.
8. Principles of Time and Current Grading.
9. Power System Protections or Protective Relaying.
10. Basic Components Power System Protections
11. General Classifications of Protective Relays.
12. Power System Earth / Grounding.
13. Purpose of Fault Calculations.
14. Pre-requisite of Fault Calculations.
15. Basic Theory in Fault Calculations.
16. Samples For Fault Calculations
17. Basic Rules For Correct Relay Grading/ Coordination.
18. Sample for Relay Grading / Coordination
19. Theory and Complexities in Fault Calculations
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The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate electrical
energy and to deliver this electrical energy to the consumer safely,
reliably and economically.

The power system is composed of the following major elements;


A. Generators
B. Transformers
C. Transmission lines
D. Bus bars
E. Loads.

The main components that make up a power system are generating


sources, transmission and distribution networks and loads.

It is not practical to generate and transmit the power at the same


voltage level as required by consumer. For this reason power
transformers are used to step the voltage UP and DOWN.

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MAIN COMPONENTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

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POWER SYSTEM STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS

The power system is made up of the following three (3) levels of


interconnected equipment;

Level 1 Power Apparatus/Equipment;


Is the level which generates, transforms and distributes the electric
power to the loads.

Level 2 Control Equipment;


This level helps maintain the power system at its normal voltage,
Frequency and generates sufficient power to meet the load, maintains
optimum economy and security in the interconnected network.

Level 3 Protection Equipment;


Is the protective relays with protection functions which is generally faster
than that of the control functions. Protection acts to open and close circuit
breakers, thus changing the structure of the power system, whereas the
control functions act continuously to adjust system variables such as
voltages, frequency, currents and power flow on the network.

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MAIN COMPONENTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

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A power system is not only capable to meet the present load but also has
the flexibility to meet the future demands.

And it is designed to generate electric power in sufficient quantity to meet


the present and estimated future demands of users or consumers in a
particular area and to transmit it to the areas where it shall be served and
then distribute it within that area on a continuous basis.
And to ensure the maximum return on the large investment in the
equipment, which goes to make up the electrical power system and to
keep the users satisfied with the reliable service.

Therefore, the whole power system must be kept in operation continuously


without any major equipment breakdowns.

So it very important to take the necessary action to prevent equipment


breakdowns due to FAULTS.
And if they do occur, to minimize the possible damage and power
disruption.
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FUNCTION OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

The function of power system protection is a system design concerned


with minimizing damage to equipment and power interruptions to service
when electrical failures or fault occurs.

And to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power
system when it suffers a short circuit or it starts to operate in any
abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with
the effective operation of the rest of the system.

It also provides indications and alarms, location and type of failure.

In order to understand the function of power system protection or the


protective relaying system one must be familiar with the nature and
modes of operation of an electric power system.

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FUNCTION OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

Since the power system is subjected to constant disturbances created


by random load changes, by faults created by natural causes and
sometimes as a result of equipment or operator failure.

Protective relaying is the branch of electric power engineering concerned


with the principles of design and power operation of equipment called
relays or protective relays which detect abnormal power system conditions.
and initiate corrective action as quickly as possible in order to return the
power system to its normal state.

The quickness of response is an essential element of protective relaying,


the response time is in the order of a few milliseconds are often required.

The response must be automatic, quick and should cause a minimum


amount of disruption to the power system.

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A protection system shall continuously monitors the power system to
ensure maximum continuity of electrical supply with minimum damage to
life, equipment and property.

The consequences of faults are diverse and include the following;

1. Abnormally large currents are caused to flow in parts of the system with
the associated overheating of components.

2. System voltages will be off from their normal acceptable levels, resulting
in possible equipment damage.

3. Parts of the system will be caused to operate as unbalanced three-phase


systems, which will mean improper operation of the equipment.

In view of the possible consequences, there are important requirements to


be considered in the power system protection scheme design criteria;

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BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION SCHEME OR PROTECTIVE RELAYING:

The correct application of protective relays requires not only, the knowledge
of the relay design parameters, but also a good understanding of the
behavior of the power system in which the relay is to be applied.

The nature of the power system condition, which is being guarded against
must be thoroughly understood in order to make an adequate protection
design.

And protective relaying is a highly specialized technology requiring an in-


depth understanding of the power system as a whole.

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BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLE OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION SCHEME OR PROTECTIVE RELAYING;

A power system represents a very large capital investment therefore an


adequate protection design is of the highest importance.

In a very large power system, the chances of fault occurring and


disturbances are so great that without protection equipment to remove
or isolate faults, the power system will become, in practical terms,
inoperable.

The objective of the power system will be defeated if adequate


provision for fault clearance is not made in the system.

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BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLE OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION SCHEME OR PROTECTIVE RELAYING;

Therefore, a discriminative protective gear designed to meet the


characteristics and requirements of the power system must be
provided.

A System is not properly designed and managed if it is not adequately


protected. This is the measure of the importance of the protection
system in the modern practice.

* The Electrical Protection Relaying is not an exact science, but is rather


an art with philosophy based on a number of principles.

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

Technical tools needed in protection relaying study are the


following;

I. Phasors or Vectors

II. Polarity.

III. Symmetrical Components.

IV. General knowledge of the electrical power system


network.

V. Understanding the protection relay operating


principle, application and commissioning procedures
and parameters.

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

PHASORS OR VECTORS is a complex number used to represent


electrical quantities. Originally called VECTORS, the quantities
were renamed to avoid confusion with SPACE VECTORS.

In relaying, phasors and phasor diagrams are used both to aid in


applying and connecting relays and for analysis of relay
operations after faults.

Phasor diagrams must be accompanied by circuit diagram.

The phasor diagram shows only the magnitude and relative phase
angle of the currents and voltages.

While the circuit diagram shows only the location, direction and
polarity of the currents and voltages.

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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PHASORS OR VECTORS

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PHASORS OR VECTORS

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY
POLARITY is always associated with directional type protection
relay units such as those indicating the direction of power flow.

Other protective relays such as DISTANCE types may also have


polarity markings associated with their operation.

Relay polarity is indicated on the schematic or wiring diagrams


by a small + mark above or near the terminal symbol or relay
winding together with a note indicating its meaning. The two
marks are necessary, one mark alone has no meaning.

Polarity in a CT is similar to the identification of +ve and ve terminals


of a battery.

Polarity is very important when connecting relays, as this will determine


correct operation or not depending on the types of relay used.

The terminals of the CT are marked by P1 (H1) and P2 (H2) on the primary
S1(X1) and S2 (X2) on the secondary side of the CT.

It means that the instant when current is flowing from P1 to P2 in primary


then current in the secondary must flow from S1 to S2 thru the external
circuit. 21
TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS the method of symmetrical


components is the foundation for obtaining and understanding
fault data on the three-phase power systems.

It consists of reducing any unbalanced three-phase system of


phasor into three balanced or symmetrical systems; the positive
negative and zero phase sequence components, this reduction
can be performed in terms of current, voltage, impedance and so
on.

A number of protective relays are based on symmetrical


components, so this method must be understood in order to apply
these relays successfully.

The method of symmetrical components is one of the protection


engineer most powerful technical tools and it lies in his ability to
think and visualize in symmetrical components.

This skill requires practice and experience.

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

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TOOLS NEEDED IN PROTECTION RELAYING STUDY

General Knowledge in the Behavior of the Electrical Power System


Networks

Is the technical information of the electrical power system


or networks where the protection relays are to be applied,
this technical information includes the following;

System configuration.
* Existing power plant or substations system protections.
Existing operating procedures and practices.
Degree of protection requirements.
Fault study and analysis.
Maximum load, current transformer ratios, rating etc.
Voltage transformer locations, connections, rating and ratios etc.
Impedance of the lines (OH & UG) and transformers
* Length of the lines.

40
DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Protection Scheme is the coordinated arrangements for the protection


of one or more elements of a power system. It may comprise several
protective system designs for the purpose of protecting networks,
transformers and other vital equipment in the power system.

Protective Gear is the apparatus, including the protective relays,


transformers and ancillary equipment for use in a protection system.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

RELAYS are compact analog, digital and numerical devices that are
connected throughout the power system to detect intolerable or
unwanted conditions within an assigned area.

Protection Relay is a relay designed to initiate disconnection of a part


of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal, in case of a
fault or other abnormal condition in the installations.

Protection system is a combination of protective gear designed to


secure, under predetermined conditions, usually abnormal, the
disconnection of an element of a power system or to give an alarm
signal or both.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Protected Zone is the portion of a power system protected by a given


protective system or a part of that protective system.

Unit Protection is a protection system, which is designed to operate


only for abnormal conditions within a clearly defined zone of the power
system.

Unrestricted Zone of Protection is a protection system which has no


clearly defined zone of operation and which achieves selective
operation only by time grading.

Zones of Protection is the term used to describe the division of a


power system.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Discrimination is the ability of a protective system to distinguish


between power system conditions for which it is intended to operate
and those for which it is not intended to operate.

Biased Relay is a relay in which the characteristics are modified by the


introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity and
which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity.

Burden is the loading imposed by the circuits of the relay on the


energizing power sources or sources which are expressed in VA.

Selectivity or Discrimination is the ability of the protection to isolate


only the faulted part of the system, minimizing the impact of the fault
on the power network.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Knee point emf is that sinusoidal emf applied to the secondary


terminals of a current transformer, which when increased by 10%
causes the exciting current to increase by 50%.

Operating time means that with a relay de-energized and in its initial
condition, the time which elapses between the application of a
characteristic quantity and the instant when the relay operates.

Knee (saturation Curve) represents the point of voltage magnitude


where the CT exciting current (Imag) increases more rapidly than the
CT secondary voltage.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Operating Time Characteristic is the curve depicting the relationship


between different values of the characteristic quantity applied to a relay
and the corresponding values of the operating time.

Pick-up a relay is said to pick up when it changes from the un-


energized position to the energized position.

Saturation Curve (CT) is a curve that describe the relationship


between the CT secondary exciting current (Imag) and the CT
secondary voltage (Es). It is sometime called excitation curve.

Instantaneous Relay is a relay or other device to


indicate that no time delay is purposely introduced.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Setting is the limiting value of a characteristic or energizing quantity


at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions,
such values are usually marked in the relays and maybe expressed as
direct values, percentage of rated values or multiples.

Overshoot Time the overshoot time is the difference between the


operating time of the relay at a specified value of the input energizing
quantity and the maximum duration of the value of input energizing
quantity which, when suddenly reduced to a specific value below the
operating level is insufficient to cause operation.

Back Up is protective device that perform the circuit interrupting


function in the event that the primary protective device fails to operate
or is out of service.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Static Relay is an electrical relay in which the designed response is


developed by electronic, magnetic, optical or other components without
mechanical motion.

Characteristic Curve is the curve showing the operating value of the


characteristic quantity corresponding to various values or combinations
of the energizing quantities.

Short Circuit Current is usually very large current


that flows in an electrical system as the result of a
three phase, phase to phase, double phase to earth
or single phase to ground / earth fault.

X / R ratio is the ratio of the Reactance (X) to the


Resistance (R) in a faulted electrical circuit.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Drop Out a relay drops out when it moves from the energized position
to the un-energized position.

Earthed Transformer is a three phase transformer intended


essentially to provide a neutral point to a power system for the purpose
of earthed

Through Fault current is the current flowing through a protected zone


to a fault beyond that zone.

Power Factor (pf) is the term cosine angle theta where theta is the
angle between the voltage and current wave shapes or the ratio of the
circuit real power (KW) to the circuit apparent power (KVA).

Restraint Coil is a coil that is contained within a


relay that restricts or prevents tripping of an electrical circuit.

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DEFINITIONS AND PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

Short Time Rating is a rating for low voltage power circuit breakers
and the medium voltage power circuit breakers that describe the
breakers ability to withstand a fault current for a period of time.
For low voltage CB 0.5 seconds (30 cycles)
For medium voltage CB 3 seconds

Inverse Time Relay is a relay in which the input quantity and


operating time are inversely related throughout at least a substantial
portion of the performance range.

Over Current Protective Device is an electrical device (fuse or CB)


that is inserted in a circuit to protect the circuit against damage from
overload or short circuit.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

RELIABILITY means security of continuous power supply to


consumers, it provide flexibility during normal operations and ensures a
minimum of dislocation following a breakdown.

It is the ability of a substation or a piece of electrical equipment to


operate without failure.

System reliability consists of two elements; Dependability and Security.

Dependability means the certainty of correct operations in response to


system trouble. It is the degree of certainty that the relay will operate
correctly.

Whereas, Security is the ability of the system to avoid miss operation


with or without faults. It is the degree of certainty that the relay will
not operate incorrectly.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

2. SPEED is to isolate faults from the power system in a very much


shorter time than could be achieved manually, even with a great deal of
personal supervision.

The objective is to safeguard continuity of supply by removing each


disturbance before it leads to widespread loss of synchronism, which
would necessitate the shutting down of plant.

When applied to a relay, high speed indicates that the operating time
should not exceed 50 ms (three cycles on 60 HZ base).

Note: One cycle at 60HZ = 16.6 milliseconds.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

3. Performance versus Economics:

When designing your protection scheme, the cost is very crucial in


decision making and if possible, should be minimized.

Relays having a clearly defined zone of protection provide better


selectivity, but generally it cost more.

High speed relays offer greater service continuity by reducing fault


damage and hazards to personnel, but the initial cost is much higher.

Therefore, higher relay performance and cost cannot always be


justified.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

4. SIMPLICITY As the same with any other engineering discipline,


simplicity in a protective relay system is always the Hallmark of Good
Design. The simplest relay system, however, is not always the most
economical.

Simplicity of design improves system stability, if only because there are


fewer elements that can malfunction.

5. Stability is the ability of the system to remain inert to all load


conditions and faults external to the relevant zone.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

6. Sensitivity this refers to the minimum operating current of a


complete protective system. A protective system is said to be sensitive,
if the primary operating current is low.

7. Selectivity the protection is arranged in zones, which should cover


the power system completely, leaving no part unprotected.

When a fault occurs, the protection is required to select and trip only
the nearest circuit breakers. This property of selective tripping is also
called Discrimination and is achieved by two general methods;

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

When a fault occurs, the protection is required to select and trip only
the nearest circuit breakers. This property of selective tripping is also
called Discrimination and is achieved by two general methods;

a. Time Graded System the protective systems in successive zones are


arranged to operate in times, which are graded through the sequence of
equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault, although a number
of protective equipments respond, only those relevant to the faulty zone
complete the tripping function. The others make incomplete operations
and then reset

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

b. Unit System is a protection scheme which respond only to fault


conditions lying within a clearly defined zone.

This unit protection or restricted protection can be applied throughout


a power system and, since it does not involve time grading, it can
relatively fast in operation.

The unit protection is usually achieved by means of a comparison of


quantities at the boundaries of the zone.

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CRITERIA FOR GOOD DESIGN OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTION

Whichever method is used, it must be kept in mind that SELECTIVITY is


not merely a matter of relay design.

It also depends on the correct coordination of current transformers and


relays with a suitable choice of relay settings, considering the possible
range of variables such as fault currents, maximum load current,
system impedances and other related factors.

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PRINCIPLE OF TIME AND CURRENT GRADING

There are three methods used to achieve correct relay coordination;

a. Discrimination by time.
b. Discrimination by current.
c. Combination of both time and current.

Discrimination by time in this method an appropriate time interval is


given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breaker in a power
system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first.

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PRINCIPLE OF TIME AND CURRENT GRADING

Discrimination by current this method relies on the fact that the fault
current varies with the position of the fault, because of the difference in
impedance values between the source and the fault.

Hence typically, the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are
set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay
nearest to the fault, trips its circuit breaker.

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PRINCIPLE OF TIME AND CURRENT GRADING

The disadvantage of the discrimination by time is due to the fact that


the more severe faults are cleared in the longest operating time.

The disadvantage of the discrimination by current is that it can be


applied only, where there is an appreciable impedance between the two
circuit breakers concerned.

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AN ILLUSTRATI0N OF TIME GRADING

E F
CB
0
CB TF TF
CB CB

S
S F
A F
A
C
A BB C DD
1.45s 1.05s 0.65s 0.25s

RADIAL FEEDER WITH TIME GRADING

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ILLUSTRATION OF CURRENT GRADING

CB CB TF CB

A B C F4
F1 F2 F3

RADIAL FEEDER WITH CURRENT GRADING

63
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS OR PROTECTIVE RELAYING

A protective relaying system is based on detecting fault conditions by


continuously monitoring the power system variables such as current,
voltage, power, frequency and impedance.

The protective system always measures certain system quantities such as


voltages and currents.

And compare these system quantities or some combination of these


quantities against a threshold setting that is calculated in the relay setting
and is applied into the protection relay.

The protection system shall together with other devices instrument


transformers (CT & VT) and circuit breakers should disconnect faulty parts
of the power system to;

-Protect the primary equipment against unnecessary damages.


-Save people in the vicinity of the electrical plant from injuries.
-To enable continuity of service in the undamaged parts of the network.

The protection of the primary equipment must involve not only the faulty
parts but also the other equipment in the network.
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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

The basic components of power system protections are as


follows;

1. Instrument Transformers CT current transformer and VT voltage


Transformers which provides the input current and voltage to the
protection relays. The CTS and VTS will monitor and provide feedback
about the healthiness of the protection system.

2. Protective relays is a device designed to initiate disconnection of a part


of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal in case of a
fault or other abnormal condition in the installation.
It opens and closes electrical contacts to cause the operation of other
devices under electric control.

It is an electric device that is design to interrupt input conditions in a


prescribe manner and after specified conditions are met to respond to
cause contact operation or similar abrupt change in associated electric
control circuits.

Relay inputs are usually electric but maybe mechanical, thermal and
other physical quantities. 65
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

3. Circuit Breakers is mechanical & electrical device that is used to make


circuits carrying enormous currents and to break or open the circuit
carrying the fault currents for a few cycles based on the feedback from
the protection relay.

It is a mechanical switching device that is capable of making, carrying


and breaking currents under normal and abnormal circuit conditions
which are operated by means of spring mechanism and coils.

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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

3. Fuses is a self destructing device used to save the downstream


equipment being protected.

A FUSE is an over current protective device with a circuit opening


fusible part that is heated and severed by the passage of over
current through it.

Fuse links are usually made of tin, lead or silver in various alloys or
combinations to achieve a desired time-current characteristic.

It is the simplest circuit interrupting devices.

4. DC Batteries And Charger - is an equipment that provide uninterrupted


supply of DC power source to the relays and circuit breakers, that is
independent of the main power source being protected.

67
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS BASIC COMPONENTS OF
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

There are two types of Voltage Transformer (VT) which are commonly used
for protective relaying;

a. The electromagnetic type called potential transformer is a conventional


transformer having primary and secondary windings. The primary
winding is connected directly to the power circuit either between two
phases or between one phase and ground depending on the rating
of the transformer and the required application.

b. The capacitive voltage or capacitance potential transformer is a voltage


transforming equipment using a capacitance voltage divider connected
between phase and ground of a power circuit.

The capacitance potential devices are used for protective relaying only
when they are sufficiently less expensive that potential transformer and
when the circuit voltage is higher than 69 kv especially if carrier current
is involved. Because potential device coupling capacitor can be used for
coupling the carrier current equipment to the circuit.
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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

Current Transformers (CTs) are classified into two main groups according
to their application;
a. The metering CT
b. The protection CTs.

The metering CT is required to retain a specified accuracy over


the normal range of load currents.

While the protective current transformer must be capable of


providing an adequate over a wide range of fault conditions from a
fraction of full load to many times full load.

There is no significant difference between a protective voltage


transformer and the measuring voltage transformer, the
DIFFERENCE being only in the nature of the voltage transformed.

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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

Metering CTS are designed and manufactured to be very accurate usually


within 0.5% from very low currents up to approximately 140% of the Full
Load Current (FLC).

The CT will saturate at higher currents, meaning that the CT secondary


current will stay constant, irrespective of the primary current.

Metering CTS are usually connected in series in the primary circuit for
low current as this method is more accurate.

However, for high current applications the RING type CT or Bar type are
used as no current then passes directly through the CT.

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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION BASIC COMPONENTS

Protection CTS are designed to saturate at very high levels in


order that the secondary current stays accurate in the fault
current range to provide correct information to the protection
relays.

The linear region of the CT should therefore extend to


approximately 12 x FLC, depending on the specific protection
requirements.

CTS for Differential protection applications need to be more


accurate as for over current applications and in addition it need
to be matched.

74
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER BASIC COMPONENTS OF
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

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PROTECTIVE RELAYS BASIC COMPONENTS OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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CIRCUIT BREAKERS BASIC COMPONENTS OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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13.8 kv Switchgear with Circuit breaker- BASIC
COMPONENTS OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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HV CIRCUIT BREAKERS BASIC COMPONENTS OF POWER
SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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FUSES BASIC COMPONENTS OF POWER SYSTEM
PROTECTIONS

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DC POWER WITH BATTERY & CHARGER BASIC
COMPONENTS OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTIONS

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GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS;

1. Protective relays are used to detect defective lines, apparatus or


equipment and other dangerous or intolerable conditions.

2. Monitoring relays are used to verify conditions on the power system


or in the protection system. These relays include alarm units, fault
detectors, synchronism, network phasing etc.

3. Re- closing relays are used to establish a closing sequence for a


circuit breaker following tripping of the protective relays.

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GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS;

4. Regulating relays are used to activate, when an operating parameter


deviates from predetermined limits. Regulating relays function through
supplementary equipment to restore the quantity to the prescribed
limits. As an example is the AVR relay.

5. Auxiliary relays are used to operate in response to the opening or


closing of the operating circuit to supplement another relay or device.

These include timers, contact multiplier relays, lockout relays, closing


and tripping relays etc.

6. Synchronizing relays are used to check and assure that proper and
correct conditions exist for interconnecting two sections of a power
system.

83
GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS;

For solid state and static relays, they are further categorized under one of
the following designations.

a. Analog relays are those in which the measured quantities are converted
into lower voltage but similar signals, which are then combined or
compared directly to reference values in level detectors to produce the
desired output.

84
GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS;

b. Digital relays are those in which the measured AC quantities are


manipulated in analog form and subsequently converted into square
wave (binary) voltages.

Examples of these are logic circuits or microprocessors which compare


the phase relationships of the square waves to make a trip decision.

85
GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS;

c. Numerical relays or Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) are those in


which the measured AC quantities are sequentially sampled and
converted into numeric data form.
IEC - 61850 Compliant.

A microprocessor performs mathematical and / or logical operations on


the data to make a trip decision.

Example: Distance relay type RELZ 100, REC 670, RED 670, REL 670,
RET 670 etc. from ABB.

From Alstom such as relay type Micom P122, P139, P443, P543, P546
P663 etc.

And other numerical relays from Siemens, GE and SEL, Schneider


Electric and others.
Siemens 7SD522
GE - L90
SEL - SEL 411L

86
POWER SYSTEM EARTHING

The Power Systems are classified according to the method used


to connect the neutral to earth.

There are four methods to connect neutral to earth;

a. Isolated Neutral there is no intentional connection of the


neutral point to earth.
This is used in special industrialized areas where continuity of
service is essential.
b. High impedance the neutral point is connected to earth via
a high impedance either a RESISTOR or REACTOR.
This is commonly used on generators & synchronous motors.
c. Low Impedance the neutral point is connected to earth via a
low impedance either a RESISTOR , REACTOR or Special
Transformer.
This is commonly found in distribution circuits.

87
POWER SYSTEM EARTHING

d. Solid Earthing the neutral is tied solidly to earth with no


intention of series impedance.

This is common in high voltage portion of the power system.

The methods of earthing affects the behavior of the POWER


System and the magnitude of the fault current during earth fault.

And Safety, Technical, Economic and Regulatory considerations


shall influence decisions on SYSTEM EARTHING.

88
PURPOSE OF FAULT CALCULATIONS

Fault calculations are performed to determine the current, voltage


and phase relationships during a fault.

This information is then used in the design of station equipment,


protection relay settings, system operating conditions and to
determine what steps can be taken to minimize the consequences
of a fault.

FAULTS are unplanned events that lead to equipment damage


in the power system.

These FAULTS maybe electrical or mechanical resulting in mechanical


damage.

And mechanical failures may lead to electrical faults or faults


maybe electrical resulting from breakdown of insulation.

89
PURPOSE OF FAULT CALCULATIONS

Fault calculation is the analysis of the electrical behavior in the power


system under fault conditions.

The currents and voltages at different parts of the network for the different
types of faults, different positions of the faults and different configurations
of the network are calculated.

The fault calculations are one of the most important tools when
considering the following;

- Choice of suitable transmission system configurations.


- Load and short circuit ratings for the high voltage equipment.
- Breaking capacity of CBS.
- Application and design of control and protection equipment.
- Service conditions of the system.
- Investigation of unsatisfactory performances of the equipment.

90
FACTORS AFFECTING THE FAULT CALCULATIONS

The fault current and fault voltage at the different parts of the network
will be affected by the following;

- - Type of fault.

- - Position of the fault.

- - Configuration of the network.

- - Neutral earthing / grounding.

- The configuration of the network is of the greatest importance when


- making fault calculations because there will be a big difference in
- comparing the results, if the calculations are performed at the minimum
- or maximum generating conditions.
- The result will be affected by how many parallel lines that are in service
- and if the bus bars are connected via bus coupler or not etc.
91
ELECTRICAL FAULTS

FAULTS is a short circuit resulting from an insulation breakdown.

In three phase power system three basic types of faults;

a. Open circuited phase faults.


b. Short circuited faults.
c. Simultaneous faults.

The OPEN circuited phase faults are due to conductor breakage such as
open isolators or circuit breaker poles, busted fuses and high
resistance connections.

Open circuit faults consists of the following;


- - Single phase open circuit.
- - Two phase open circuit.
- - Three phase open circuit

92
ELECTRICAL FAULTS

The SHORT CIRCUITED faults are the most severe and are always the
results of insulation breakdown in electrical machines, transformers
and cables.

Short circuited faults consists of the following;

- Three phase faults with or without earth connections.


- Two phase faults with or without earth connections.
- Single phase to earth faults.

Simultaneous faults are a combination of the two groups described above.


For example, if one conductor in an overhead line is broken and one end
of the line falls down.

Then, there is both one single phase to earth fault and one single phase
open circuited fault in the system

93
ELECTRICAL FAULTS

According to some study from Power Utility Companies, the


percentage of fault occurrence in power system networks are;

a. Transmission lines 85 %
b. Bus bars - 12 %
c. Transformer / Generators 3 %

And the percentage of the type of faults occurrence are;

a. Single line to earth - 80%


b. Double line to earth 10%
c. Line to line - 5%
d. Three phase - 5%

94
PRE REQUISITES OF FAULT CALCULATIONS

Before proceeding with the fault calculations, we shall state our


basic assumptions and review some basic POWER THEORY.

1. The voltage at the fault point is zero.

2. All the three phase circuits are balanced and can be


represented as single phase system where the voltage is the
phase voltage and the current is the line current.

3. The return path in single phase equivalent circuits has zero


impedance.

4. Generators are represented as an ideal voltage source with a


series impedance.

5. Transformers are represented as a series impedance.


shunt reactance are neglected.

95
PRE REQUISITES OF FAULT CALCULATIONS

6. Transmission lines and feeders are represented by a series


impedance which is considered to be distributed linearly over
the length of time.
7. Bus bar and switchgear impedances are neglected.
8. System symmetrical fault data is available expressed as fault
current or MVA.
9. All transformer the positive and negative sequence reactance
are identical.
The ZERO sequence reactance is either equal to the other two
two sequence reactance or infinite.
10. In transmission lines the positive and negative sequence
reactance are the same. The resistance terms for the three
sequences are usually neglected for overhead lines, except
for lower voltage lines and cables. And cable length of less than
5 km. is neglected in fault calculations.

96
RULES FOR FAULT CALCULATIONS

1. Represent the system under consideration as a single line


diagram showing all the system elements by their symbol.
2. Determine the impedance of each element and replace the
system elements by their impedances to make an impedance diagram.
3. Refer all the impedances to a common voltage base.
4. Add all the impedances between the source and the measuring
point to get an equivalent source impedance.
Add the impedances between the measuring point and the fault
to get the total impedance to the fault. And use the information
to draw the equivalent circuit.

5. Calculate the fault current and the voltage at the measuring


point as desired. Remember that the voltage in the equivalent circuit is
the PHASE VOLTAGE.
The relationships for calculating fault current If and voltage VM
at the measuring point is;

VPHASE
If = ---------------- or VM = If Zf
ZT

97
BASIC THEORY IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

1. In balanced three phase system two basic voltage are present;

VL = Voltage line to line


VP = Voltage line to neutral
VL = I/ 3 VP
2. If the line voltage and the short circuit current are known, a
balanced three phase system can be replaced with a single
phase equivalent where the source voltage is the phase voltage
and the system impedance is the ratio of the phase voltage
over the short circuit current.

ZS = VP ISC
where;
ZS = Source Impedance
VP = Phase Voltage
ISC = Short Circuit Current

98
BASIC THEORY IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

3. If the three phase network short circuit capacity is given in MVA instead
of current, the system can be still be represented by a single phase
equivalent.
2
( KV line)
ZBASE = ---------------- where; ZBASE = Base Impedance
MVA KV line = Voltage of the line
MVA = given MVA of the power system
network
4. Transformer impedances are usually represented as a percent ( Z%)
on the MVA rating. To get the OHMIC ( ZTR ) value of the transformer
impedance, the base impedance must be calculated using the voltage
rating and MVA rating. 2
(KV)
ZBASE = -----------------
MVA

99
BASIC THEORY IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

The transformer impedance in OHMS as seen from the


voltage level can then be calculated;
Z%
ZTR = ZBASE ( ----------------)
100
5. Impedance can be only be added if they have all been referred to the
same voltage level.

To change impedance from one voltage reference level


to another;
Z1 V1 2
------------- = ( -----------)
Z2 V2

100
BASIC THEORY IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

If the source FAULT MVA is given;

Therefore the source impedance is calculated as;

ZS = MVABASE x 100 / MVA FAULT ( At 100MVA Base)

For Power Transformer, usually the transformer rating is known or


given;
Therefore, the transformer impedance is calculated as;

ZTR = Z TR x MVA BASE / TF rating

101
BASIC THEORY IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

Note:
The positive and negative sequence reactance of all transformers
are identical.

In transmission lines, the positive and negative sequence reactance


are the same.

The resistance terms for the three sequences (Z1, Z2, Z0) are
usually neglected for overhead lines, except for lower voltage lines
and cables.

In later cases, line angles of 30 degrees to 60 degrees may


exist and resistance can be significant, a good compromise is to
use the impedance value rather than reactance and neglect the
angular difference in fault calculations.

Zero sequence mutual impedance resulting from paralleled lines


can be in the order of 50 to 70% of the zero sequence self
impedance.

102
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

103
From the substation single line diagram, we shall simplify it into
an equivalent circuit in terms of impedance values.

ZS
33 kv busbar

ZL
33 kv Bus bar

ZTF

13.8 kv Bus bar

ZT = ZS + ZL + ZTF

F
104
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

PROBLEM:

FIND the Fault in terms of MVA at 13.8 kv Bus-bars of S/S 7356 as


shown above.

SOLUTIONS:
Given:
1. Maximum Through Fault Currents at 33 kv bus-bars (Source) of
S/S 8053 (132/33kv Substation) = 15KA
2. Under ground cables, two parallel feeders with 850 meters in length
for each circuit; ckts; 7356 8053 (A &B).
3. The Cable size used is 2 x 3c x 240 sq. mm, XLPE, Cu. 33 kv
4. The cable parameters / characteristics are;

a. Positive sequence impedance of cables Z1 = 0.0900 + j 0.1212


ohm/km.
b. Zero sequence impedance of cables Zo = 0.276 + j 2.387
ohm/km.

5. The 20 MVA Power Transformer Short circuit Percent Impedance


is 8.27 % at 20 MVA.
105
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

In order to find the Fault MVA at the 13.8 kv Bus bars,


we shall solve for total Impedance ZT of the equivalent
circuit.

Where;
ZT = total impedance
ZT = ZS + Z L + ZTF

Where; Zs = Source impedance


Z L = Impedance of the two
underground cable feeders
ZTF = Transformer impedance

106
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

To solve for the source impedance Zs, we have to transform fault


current level to MVA;

FAULT MVA = 3 x 33 kv x 15KA


= 857.34 MVA

Solving for Zs = MVA BASE x 100 / MVA FAULT


(at 100 MVA base)
= 100 x 100 / 857.34
= 11.66%

107
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

Since the length of the two underground cable feeders is only 850
meters, we shall ignore it and Z L shall not be included in our fault
calculations in solving for ZT.

We can also include it, but the impedance value is very small which
have no significant effect and it does not contribute much in the fault
current level calculations.

For underground cable circuit whose length is less than 5 Kms., shall be
ignored in the fault calculations.

108
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

1. Given two parallel under ground cable feeders with 850 meters in
length for each circuit;

a. 7356 8053A b. 7356 8053B.

2. The cable size used is 2 x 3C x 240 sq. mm, XLPE, CU, 33kv

3. The cable parameters / characteristics are;

a. Positive sequence impedance of the cable is;


Z1 = 0.0900 + j 0.1212 ohm / km.

b. Zero sequence impedance of the cable is;


Zo = 0.276 + j 2.387 ohm / km.

In FAULT calculations the Positive Sequence Impedance of cables is


only considered in the calculations.

109
SAMPLE FAULT CALCULATIONS

Therefore, the cable positive sequence impedance in ohm per km


shall be transformed to the line total impedance,
considering the line length of 850 meters.

Z1 = 0.0900 + j 0.1212 ohm / km.

ZL = 0.850 (0.0900) + j 0.850 (0.12120)

ZL = 0.0765 + j 0.1030 ohm (Rectangular Form)

To transform rectangular to polar form, we can use a calculator or


computer and / or the pythagorean theorem;

110
FAULT CALCULATIONS - CABLES

Pythagorean method of conversion from rectangular to polar;

C=5
A=+j3

B=4
Rectangular form ( 4 + j3), to convert it polar form, we shall use the formula ;

2 2 2
C = A + B
Polar form ( 5 with an angle 36.87 degrees)
5( cosine 36.87) = 4 (Real Component)
5( sine 36.87) = 3 (Imaginary Component)

3
Polar angle Arc tan = ---------- = 36.87 degrees
4 111
FAULT CALCULATIONS

Solving for ZTF = Transformer Impedance


ZTF = Z TF x MVA BASE / TF rating
= 8.27 x 100 / 20
= 40% (for 2 x TF)

For 1 x TF = 40/2
= 20%

Therefore, solving for ZT = ZS + ZTF


= 11.66 + 20
= 31.66%

112
FAULT CALCULATIONS

Solving for the FAULT MVA at 13.8 kv Bus bars;

FAULT MVA = MVA BASE x 100 / ZT


= 100 x 100 / 31.66
= 315.85 MVA

Solving for Fault Current at 13.8 kv bus-bars;

At 13.8 KV = 315.85 MVA / 3 x 13.8 kv


= 13.21 KA (This is for 2 x TF)

Therefore for 1 x TF
= 13.21 / 2
= 6.6 KA

113
ILLUSTRATION OF CURRENT GRADING

CB CB TF CB

A B C F4
F1 F2 F3

RADIAL FEEDER WITH CURRENT GRADING

114
EXAMPLE 2 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

Given:

a. Source - 250 MVA at 11 Kv


b. Length of 240 sq. mm of PIC cables between Relay A & B is 2km.
c. Length of 120 sq. mm of PIC cables between Relay
B & 4 MVA transformer is 200 M.
d. Transformer rating is 4MVA, 11 / 3.3 kv.

For Fault at F1;


6350
The system short circuit current is ISC = ----------
ZS + ZL1

115
EXAMPLE 2 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

Where ZS = Source Impedance

(11)(11)
= ------------------------- = 0.485 ohms
250

Where ZL1 = Cable impedance between Relay A & B.


= 0.24 ohm

6350
Hence ISC = ------------------
0.725

= 8800A

116
EXAMPLE 2 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

So the relay controlling the circuit breaker at A and it is set to operate


at a fault current of 8800A, would in simple theory protect the whole
cable section between A & B.

Therefore, it is not practical to distinguish between a fault at F1 and a


fault at F2, since the distance between these points is only few meters
which corresponds to a change in fault current of approximately 0.1%.

In practice, there would be some variations in the source fault level,


maybe typically from 250MVA to 130MVA.

In this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800A even
for a cable fault close to A, so a relay set at 8800A would not protect
any of the cable section concerned.

Therefore, discrimination by current grading is not practical


proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at relay A
and B.

However, the problem changes appreciably when there is significant


impedance between two circuit breakers concerned.
117
EXAMPLE 2 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

This can be seen by considering the current grading between


the circuit breakers at relay B and C.

For a fault at F4, the short circuit current is;

6350
ISC = ----------------------------
ZS + ZL1 + ZL2 + ZTF

Where ZTF = Transformer impedance

11(11)
= 0.07 ( ----------------- )
4
= 2.12 ohms

6350
ISC = ----------------- = 2200A
2.885

118
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

119
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

120
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

121
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

122
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

123
EXAMPLE 3 - FAULT CALCULATIONS

124
125
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The basic rules or guidelines for the correct relay


coordination, grading or discrimination can be stated as follows;

NOTE: THIS ARE APPLICABLE ONLY FOR BACK UP PROTECTION


RELAYS SUCH AS OVERCURRENT (O/C) AND EARTHFAULT (E/F) RELAYS
WITH THE SAME CHARACTERISTIC CURVES.

1. Whenever possible, use relays with the same operating characteristics


installed in series with each other in the protective system.

126
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

2. Make it sure that the relay farthest from the source has current settings
equal to or less than the relays behind it.

That is, that the primary current required to operate the relay in front is
always equal to or less than the primary current required to operate the
relay behind it.

3. Always consider at downstream side of the power systems or networks


to start the time and current grading of back-up protection relays.

127
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

4. Calculate the maximum and minimum through fault currents of the power system or
network to be protected.

5. Plot the characteristic curve of the relays on the maximum and minimum fault levels
(which are represented by vertical lines) in a logarithmic graphing paper in order to
obtain the relays time and current grading.

And to evaluate properly the time margin between


relays, so that the relay at downstream end of the
power network will trip first.

128
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

From the basic rules or guidelines in correct relay


coordination / grading or discrimination, we shall
discuss RULE 1 further, what does it mean.

Let us study the general types of over current and


earth fault protection relays;

There are three general types of over current +


earth fault relays;

1. Non- Directional Over current + earth fault relay.


2. Directional Over-current relay.
3. Voltage Dependent

129
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR C0ORDINATIONS

The purpose of over current protection is to detect


faults on a power system and as a result initiate
the opening of circuit breaker of the switchgear
feeder panel in order to isolate the faulty part of
the system.

Over current relays responds to current input


quantities that exceed their predetermined pick-up
value.

130
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

Thus the protection must be discriminative, meaning to


say that as far as possible, select and isolate only the
faulty part of the system leaving all other parts in
normal operation.

And this discrimination can be achieved by grading,


the time, current and combination of both current and
time.

131
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

There are four types of non- directional over current +


earth fault relays which are classified according to
their Time Current Characteristic Curves;

1. Normal Inverse or Standard Inverse.


2. Long Time Inverse
3. Very Inverse Time
4. Extremely Inverse Time

132
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The Normal Inverse (NI) is used as protection for phase and earth faults.

In general, NI relays are used when;

a. There are no co-ordination requirements with


other types of protective equipment farther out
on the system such as fuses, thermal characteristics
of transformers, motors etc.

b. The fault level at the near and far ends of the system
does not vary significantly.

c. There is minimal inrush on cold load pick up. Cold


load inrush is that current which occurs when a
feeder is energized after a prolonged outage.

133
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

134
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The Long Time Inverse (LTI) is used for Standby Earth


fault protection of neutral earth resistor and for
other applications where a long time delay is required
(30 seconds at 5 times the step value).

The relay has two fixed settings of 15% and


20%.

135
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

136
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The Very Inverse Time (VI) is used and it is


recommended where greater time selectivity is
required and the fault current at any point does not
vary widely with the system condition.

And VI relay is used if there is a substantial


reduction in fault level as the distance from
the source increases.

137
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

138
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The Extremely Inverse Time (EI) this relay has an even


steeper time current characteristic which permit a
graded setting in conjunction with the fuses with
minimum characteristic.

It can also guard against overloading of machines and


transformers by more closely matching the heating
characteristic of protected apparatus than is
obtained with other relay characteristics.

With the Extremely Inverse characteristic the


operating time is approximately inversely
proportional to the square of the current.

139
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

The long operating time of the relay at peak values of


load current make the relay particularly suitable for
grading with fuses and also for protection of feeders
which are subject to peak currents on switching in,
such as feeders supplying refrigerators, pumps, water
heaters etc which remain connected even after a
prolonged interruption of supply.

Therefore, an INVERSE RELAY means that the


higher the current magnitude, the faster the
operating time of the relay.

140
BASIC RULES FOR CORRECT RELAY (O/C, E/F) GRADING,
DISCRIMINATION OR COORDINATIONS

141
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

142
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

From the Diagram as shown is a Utility Transmission Network


whose objective is to achieve proper discrimination for non unit
protection schemes where the principle of grading and zones of
protection are applied and where the protection relay consists of
only over current with same type and characteristic curves;

The main functions of the relay in the diagram are as follows;


Relay 4 Protect the feeder cable to the motor and the motor itself
zone 4.
(Specialized motor protection is ignored in this example)
Relay 3 Protect the low voltage switchgear and bus bars in zone
3.
Relay 2 - Protect the feeder cables and transformer in zone 2.
Relay 1 - Protect the high voltage switchgear panel and bus bar
in zone 1.

Assumed that the relays in our example were all of same type and
no lower and upper restrictions were placed on the grading, it would
be very simple and the time current grading would look like as
shown in the next slide.

143
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

144
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

Normally a factor of 0.5 should be applied between adjacent


curves to ensure proper discrimination.

This is necessary to allow for inaccuracies in the instrument


transformers, relay operation, circuit breaker operating times as
well as uncertainties in the network and equipment reaction under
fault conditions.

Considering Fault at point A, causing a fault current of 50A


(referred to the primary side) to flow.

Relay 4 will trip in 4 seconds, clearing the fault, without any of the up
stream relays tripping.

Should Relay 4 (or the circuit breaker) fail to trip, Relay 3 will
trip in 10 seconds, clearing the fault.
(This is also an example of the principle of back up protection)

145
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

Considering a Fault at point B, causing a fault current of 100A to


flow.

Relay 2 will trip in 5 seconds, clearing the fault. Relay 3 and 4 will
not see the fault, and hence will not trip.
Should Relay 2 (or the circuit breaker) fail to trip, Relay 1 will trip
in 8 seconds, clearing the fault.

Therefore, the proper discrimination is obtained in this example.

But if there are restrictions imposed and put into practice by


Power Utilities then it can be seen that it will not be practically
possible to fit the four relay curves in the graph due to following
reasons;

a. The upper limit will be imposed on Relay 1 by the protection


relay settings of the Power Utility Company.
b. The lower limit for Relay 4 exists in order not cause tripping
of the over current relay due to motor start up.
c. The upper limit for Relay 2 exists to avoid permanent damage to
the transformer
146
SAMPLE FOR RELAY COORDINATION

The disadvantage of the discrimination by time is due to the fact that


the more severe faults are cleared in the longest operating time.

The disadvantage of the discrimination by current is that it can be


applied only, where there is an appreciable impedance
between the two circuit breakers concerned.

147
GRAPH / CURVES FOR RELAY COORDINATION

over current setting

1000

100
Transformer value

10 Feeder value
time

stuck breaker value


1
Transformer
capability
0.1

0.01
1 10 100 1000 10000 1E+05

current
148
THEORY AND SAMPLE OF ADVANCE FAULT CALCULATIONS

149
THEORY AND SAMPLE OF ADVANCE FAULT CALCULATIONS

150
THEORY AND SAMPLE OF ADVANCE FAULT CALCULATIONS

151
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

152
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

153
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

154
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

155
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

156
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

157
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

158
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

159
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

160
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

161
THEORY AND COMPLEXITIES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS

162
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

163
164
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Figure T1-1- Shows a single line diagram of an industrial plant

It is required to carry out a protection coordination exercise to obtained


over current relays settings for the system as shown above.

The following technical information/data are given;

1. Three phase symmetrical short-circuit currents at the 11 kv


switchgears are;
a. Peak load 6 KA
b. Base load 4.5 KA

2. Continuous ratings and short-circuit ratings of switchgear and CT


ratios are given in the single line diagram .
The relay rating is 5A.
The maximum demand of the installations is 4.7 MVA.
165
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

3. The 415V and 600V loads at the outgoing circuits are well- distributed
such that their individual maximum load is 800A.

4. It is necessary to provide a relay tripping time of 0.25s for the each


415 or 600V outgoing circuit relay during peal load.

5. The accuracy limit factors of CTS were checked and confirmed adequate
for the respective burdens.

6. The 3.3 kv loads are also well distributed such that the rated primary
CT currents are close to the maximum load envisaged.

The relay operating time for the a fault close to the respective circuit
breaker was previously calculated to be 0.4s

166
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

7. All the over current relays are of the same type with pug setting
adjustable at 50%, 75%, 100%, 125% and 150% and time
multiplier setting is continuously adjustable from 0 to 10.

Their operating characteristic is given in figure T1-2.

8. The grading margin is to be 0.4s.

Problem;

1. Calculate the protection settings for the condition that the two
3.5MVA 11/3.3 kv transformers are in service.

2. Indicate graphically that the relay settings are adequate for the
range of fault currents occurring between peak load and base load.

167
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

3. What improvements can be made to the relay coordination?

4. How would the protection settings change if in case of one of the


4 MVA 11/3.3 kv transformer taken out of service is to be considered?

168
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Solution to Over Current Protection Grading.

Step A. Calculate the impedance in per unit.

Choose MVA base = 100

i. Calculate impedance and current bases.


2

11
For 11 kv base, impedance base = --- = 1.21 ohms.
100

100
Current base =------ kA
3 x 11

= 5.249 kA
169
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

3.3
For 3.3 kv base, impedance base = --- = 0.1089 ohm.
100

100
Current base =------ kA
3 x 3.3

= 17.95 kA

170
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

0.6
For 0.6 kv base, impedance base = --- = 0.006 ohm.
100

100
Current base =------ kA
3 x 0.6

= 96.225 kA

171
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

0.415
For 0.415 kv base, impedance base = --- = 0.00415 ohm.
100

100
Current base =------ kA
3 x 0.415

= 139.12 kA

172
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

ii. Source Impedances

11
At Peak load = -----
3 x 6

= 1.0585 ohms

1.0585
= ---------
1.21

= 0.8748 pu

173
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

11
At Base load = -----
3 x 4.5

= 1.4113 ohms

1.4113
= ---------
1.21

= 1.1663 pu

174
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

iii. 11 kv Cable;

Length of cables = 0.1 km

Impedance of cable = (0.128 + j0.073) x 0.1

= 0.128 + j0.073 ohms

0.0128 + j 0.073
= ------ -------
1.21 1.21

= 0.01058 + j 0.006033 pu

175
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

iv. 4 MVA, 11/3.3 kv Transformer

Neglecting winding resistance (X/R > 10)

0.07
Impedance = ------ x 100 pu
4

= 1.750 pu

176
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

v. 1.5 MVA, 3.3/0.6 kv Transformer

Neglecting winding resistance (X/R > 10)

0.055
Impedance = ------ x 100 pu
1.5

= 3.6667 pu

177
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

vi. 1.0 MVA, 11/ 0.415 kv Transformer

Neglecting winding resistance (X/R > 10)

0.05
Impedance = ------ x 100 pu
1.0

= 5 pu

178
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

179
180
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Step C Calculate the 3 phase symmetrical short circuit currents and


contributions.
Assume 1.0 pu voltage as the Thevenims equivalent source voltage.

1. At 11 kv bus bar;
1
Peak load fault current = ---- pu
contribution from source 0.8748

= 1.1431 pu

Bus bar fault current at peak load = 1.431

1
Bus bar fault current at base load = ------
1.166
= 0.8576 pu
181
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

ii. At 3.3 kv bus bar, neglecting the series resistance;

1.0 x 0.5
Fault current contribution from each circuit peak load = ----------------- pu
0.8748 + 1.756/2

= 0.2853 pu

Hence, bus bar fault current at peak load = 2 x 0.2853 pu

= 0.5705 pu

182
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

ii. At 3.3 kv bus bar, neglecting the series resistance;

1.0 x 0.5
Fault current contribution from each circuit base load = ----------------- pu
1.166 + 1.756/2

= 0.2446 pu

Hence, bus bar fault current at base load = 2 x 0.2446 pu

= 0.4892 pu

183
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

iii. At 600V bus bars;

1
Peak load fault current = --------------------- pu
0.5707 + 3.6667

= 0.1845 pu

1
Base load fault current = ------------------ pu
0.4892 + 3.6667

184
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

iv. At 415V bus bars;

1
Peak load fault current = --------------------- pu
0.8748 + 5.0

= 0.1702 pu

1
Base load fault current = ------------------ pu
1.166 + 5.0

= 0.1622 pu

185
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Step D Carry out protection coordination or grading for the relays closest
to the loads.

i. Grading at 600V switchboard;

Outgoing circuits;

Assuming all 600V outgoing circuit are the same and hence the same
maximum load of 800A.

CT ratio = 800/5A

800
Hence, the plug setting = ---------
800/5A x 5

= 100%
186
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Maximum tripping time at peak load = 0.25s

Fault current from Figure S1-1 = 0.1845 pu

= 0.1845 x 96.225 kA

= 17.75 kA

17,750
Plug-setting multiplier (PSM) =-----------
800/5 x5 x1.0

= 22.2 > 20

Using Figure T1-2.

187
188
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

At PSM = 20 and TMS = 1.0, relay operating time = 2.1s

Hence, for relay operating time at 0.25s.

0.25 x 1.0
TMS = -------------
2.1

= 0.12

189
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) at Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) 3.3kv Base (S)
2 291 1.2

3 436 0.74

5 727 0.51

10 1,454 0.36

20 2,908 0.26

22.2 3,228 0.25

190
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Incoming Circuits;

Maximum load current 1500 x 1000


------------------------------ = -----------------
Transformer full load circuit 3 x 600

= 1443A

Relay rating = 5A

CT ratio = 1600/5A

1443
Plug setting = ----------------
1600/5 x 5

= 0.902 191
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Hence, choose plug setting = 100%

For the same, fault current of = 17.75kA

17,750
Plug Setting Multiplier ( PSM) = ----------------------
1600/5 x 5 x 1.0

= 11.09
At TMS = 1.0 and PSM = 11.09, relay operating time = 2.90s

Required operating time = 0.25s + 0.4s


= 0.65s

0.6 x 1.0
Hence, TMS = ---------
2.90
= 0.22

192
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 582 2.2

3 873 1.4

5 1455 0.94

10 2911 0.66

11.09 3228 0.65

193
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

(ii) Grading at 415V switchboard.

Outgoing circuits;

Assuming all 415V outgoing circuit are the same and hence the same
maximum load of 800A.

CT ratio = 800/5A

800
Hence, the plug setting = ---------
800/5A x 5

= 100%

194
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Maximum tripping time at peak load = 0.25s

Fault current from Figure S1-1 = 0.1702 pu

= 0.1702 x 139.12 kA

= 23.68 kA

23,680
Plug-setting multiplier (PSM) =-----------
800/5 x5 x1.0

= 29.6 > 20

Using Figure T1-2.


195
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

At PSM = 29.6 and TMS = 1.0, relay operating time = 1.9s

Hence, for relay operating time at 0.25s.

0.25 x 1.0
TMS = -------------
1.9

= 0.13

196
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 201 1.3

3 302 0.81

5 503 0.55

10 1,006 0.39

20 2,012 0.29

29.6 2,978 0.25

197
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Incoming Circuits;

Maximum load current 1000 x 1000


------------------------------ = -----------------
Transformer full load circuit 3 x 0.415

= 1391A

Relay rating = 5A

CT ratio = 1600/5A

1391
Plug setting = ----------------
1600/5 x 5

= 0.87 198
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Hence, choose plug setting = 100%

For the same, fault current of = 23.68 kA

23,680
Plug Setting Multiplier ( PSM) = ----------------------
1600/5 x 5 x 1.0

= 14.8
At TMS = 1.0 and PSM = 14.8 relay operating time = 2.5s

Required operating time = 0.25s + 0.4s


= 0.65s

0.65 x 1.0
Hence, TMS = ---------
2.5
= 0.26

199
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 402 2.6

3 604 1.6

5 1,006 1.1

10 2012 0.78

14.8 2,978 0.65

200
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Step E Continue Grading Towards the Power Source;

i. Grading at 3.3 kv switchboard;

I. Transformer Outgoing Circuits;

For the transformer circuits, the relay operating time for a fault at the
600V switchboard must be the same as that for the 2000A circuit breaker
to avoid having too many grading stages.

Hence, consider the fault current of 0.1845 pu.

The 3.3 kv fault current = 0.1845 x 17.495 kA

= 3.228A

CT ratio = 300/5A
201
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

1500
Transformer full load current = -------------
3 x 3.3

= 262A

262
Plug Setting = ----------
300/5 x 5

= 0.87
Hence, choose plug setting = 100%

3 x 228
Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = ------------
300/5 x 5 x 1.0
= 10.8
202
203
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING =

The 600V relay operating time = 0.65s

At TMS = 1.0 and PSM = 10.8, relay operating time = 2.85s

0.65 x 1.0
Hence, TMS = -----------
2.85

= 0.23

204
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 598 2.3

3 897 1.4

5 1,494 0.98

10 2,989 0.69

10.8 3,228 0.65

20 5,978 0.51

205
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

II. For a 3.3 kv fault, the fault current = 0.5705 pu

= 0.5707 x 17.495 kA

= 9.981 KA

9,981
At this current, the PSM = ----------
300/5A x 5 x 1.0

= 33.3 > 20

With TMS = 0.23, the relay operating time = 0.41s

206
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Outgoing Circuits to 3.3 kv Loads;

Since the tripping time of relays to the other 3.3 kv loads is 0.4s, the
longest relay tripping is due to the transformer relays. Hence, they will
used to grade with the upstream relays.

Incoming Circuits;

For a fault at any transformer terminal, the fault current contribution


from the power source through one 4 MVA 11/3.3 kv transformer.

= 0.2853 pu

= 0.2853 x 17.495 kA

= 4.991 kA

207
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

4000
The transformer full load current = -------------- = 700A
3 x 3.3

CT ratio = 800/5A, Relay rating = 5A

700
Plug Setting = -------
800/5 x 5
= 0.875

Hence, plug setting = 100%


4,991
PSM = --------- = 6.24
800/5 x 5 x 1.0

The minimum relay operating time = 0.41s + 0.4s = 0.81s


208
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

The minimum relay operating time = 0.41s + 0.4s = 0.81s

= 0.81s
Using Figure T1-2,

0.81 x 1.0
The TMS = ------------
3.7

= 0.22

209
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)

2 1,600 2.2

3 2,400 1.4

5 4,000 0.94

8.32 4,991 0.81

210
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

ii. Grading At 11 kv switchboard;

Outgoing Circuit to 11/0.415 kv transformer.

I . For a fault at the 415V switchboard, the fault current

= 0.1702 pu

= 0.1702 x 5.249 kA

= 0. 8934 kA

The 415V relay operating time = 0.65s

Relay rating = 5A .

CT ratio = 75/5A
211
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

1000A
The transformer full load current = -------------
3 x 11

= 52.49A

52.49
Plug setting = ------------
75/5 x 5

= 0.7

Hence, plug setting = 75%

212
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

893.4
PSM = ------------
75/5 x 5 x 0.75

= 15.9

The relay operating time is chosen to be 0.65s to reduce the number


of grading stages.

Using Figure T1-2,

0.65 x 1.0
The TMS = ----------- = 0.27
2.4

213
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 375 2.7

3 562 1.8

5 936 1.1

10 1,873 0.81

15.9 2978 0.65

20 3,746 0.59

30 5,618 0.51

214
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

II. For a fault at the 11 kv terminals of the transformer, the fault current;

= 1.143 pu

= 1.143 x 5.249 kA

= 6.0 kA

6000
PSM = -------------
75/5 x 5 x 0.75

= 107

At such high currents, the relay operating time is less than 0.3s.
But the overheating problems are expected.

215
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Outgoing Circuit to 4MVA 11/3.3 kv Transformer;

I . For a fault at the 3.3 kv side, the fault current = 0.2853 x 5.249 kA

= 1.498 kA
Relay rating = 5A, CT ratio = 250/5A;
4000
Transformer full load current = --------
3 x 11

= 210A

210
Plug setting = ---------
250/5 x 5
= 0.84

216
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Hence, choose plug-setting = 100%

1,498
PSM = -----------
250/5 x 5 x 1.0

= 5.99

The relay is to operate with the same time as the 3.3kv relay to reduce
the number of grading stages.

Relay operating time = 0.81s

0.81 x 1.0
Hence TMS = --------------
3.8
= 0.21
217
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 1, 667 2.1

3 2,500 1.3

5 4, 168 0.89

5.99 4,991 0.81

10 8, 336 0.63

20 16, 672 0.46

24 20, 000 0.42

218
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

II. For a fault at the 11 kv terminal of the transformer, the fault current;

= 1.143 pu

= 1.143 x 5.249 kA

= 6.0 kA

6000
PSM = -----------
250/5 x 5 x 1.0

= 24

From Figure T1-2, relay operating time = 0.21 x 2.0s


= 0.42s

219
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Incoming Circuit;

I. For a fault at the 11 kv terminal of the transformer, the fault current


contribution from the source.
= 1.143 pu
= 1.143 x 5.249 kA
= 6.0 kA

Relay rating = 5A, CT ratio = 250/5A

Maximum load = 4.7 MVA


= 247A

247
Plug setting = ---------
250/5 x 5

= 0.987

220
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Hence, choose plug setting = 100%

6000
PSM = ----------
250/5 x 5 x 1.0

= 24 >20

The required relay operating time = 0.42 + 0.4s

= 0.82s

From Figure T1-2,


0.82 x 1.0
TMS = -----------
2.1
= 0.39
221
TUTORIAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION GRADING

Plug Setting Current (A) Operating Time


Multiplier (PSM) At 3.3kv base (S)
2 1,666 3.9

3 2, 500 2.4

5 4,166 1.7

10 8, 333 1.2

20 16, 666 0.86

24 20, 000 0.82

222
Circuit Time
Switchboard Breaker / CT Ratio Pug Setting Multiplier
Relay Setting

600V Outgoing 800/5A 100% 0.12


circuits
Incoming 1600/A 100% 0.22
circuits

415V Outgoing 800/5A 100% 0.13


Circuits
Incoming 1600/5A 100% 0.26
circuits

3.3 kv Outgoing 300/5A 100% 0.23


circuits to
3.3/0.6kv TF

Incoming 600/5A 100% 0.22


Circuits to
11/3.3 kv TF

11 kv 11/0.415 kv 75/5A 75% 0.27


TF circuit
Outgoing CKt 200/5A 100% 0.21
to 11/3.3 kv
TF
250/5A 100% 0.39
Incoming Ckt.
223
PRINCIPLE OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIONS OR UNIT PROTECTION

b. Unit System is a protection scheme which


respond only to fault conditions lying within a
clearly defined zone.

This unit protection or restricted protection can


be applied throughout a power system and, since
it does not involve time grading, it can relatively
fast in operation.

The unit protection is usually achieved by means


of a comparison of quantities at the boundaries of
the zone.

224
INTERPOSING CURRENT TRANSFORMER
(IPCT)

225225
HOW IT WORKS AT NORMAL CONDITION

226226
HOW IT WORKS DURING EXTERNAL
FAULTS

227227
HOW IT WORKS DURING INTERNAL
FAULTS

228228
- THE END -
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SUPPORT AND COOPERATION IN ANY IIEE CRCSA
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2011 MOST OUTSTANDING ELECTRICAL ENGINEER IN THE
FIELD OF CONSULTANCY- IIEE - NATIONAL

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THANK YOU
229