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SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS

Nia Kurniadin
Bagian I
Pendahuluan

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Target Perkuliahan
1. Pemahaman yang baik tentang SIG (Sistem
Informasi Geografis atau GIS) sebagai sistem dan
bidang keilmuan (GIS as system and science)

2. Pemahaman yang baik tentang ruang lingkup sistem


informasi (SI) di dunia geologi, dengan penekanan
pada metode untuk menangani data geologi(data
management), metode untuk
memvisualisasikannya, dan metode untuk
menghasilkan informasi dari data

3. Memahami dasar-dasar analisis spasial (spatial


analysis)

4. Mendapatkan pengalaman secara aktif untuk


mengaplikasikan SIG dalam dunia geologi
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Pokok Bahasan Perkuliahan

I. Pendahuluan
II. Overview tentang GIS atau SIG
III. Prinsip-prinsip SI untuk geologi
IV. Sistem Koordinat dan Proyeksi Peta
V. Database dan data entry
VI. Mid Term
VII. Integrasi RS dan SIG
VIII. Teori Analisis Spasial
IX. Studi Kasus
X. Individual Project
XI. Final exam

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Penilaian

I. UTS 35%
II. UAS 35%
III. Tugas & Quis 20%
IV. Kehadiran 10%

Cat: Terlambat 15 menit dianggap tidak


hadir

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REFERENCES
Konecny, G. (2003) Geoinformation: Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry and Geographic
Information System. Taylor & Francis. London and New York
Weng, Q (2010) Remote Sensing and GIS Integration: Theories, Methods, and Application.
The McGrew-Hill Companies, Inc. New York.

Bonham-Carter, G.F. (1994) Geographic Information System for Geoscientists: Modelling


with GIS. Delta Printing , Ontario, 398 p.
de By, R.A. (ed) (2000) Principles of Geographic Information Systems. ITC educational
Texbook Series
Mitchel, A. (1999) The ESRI guide to GIS Analysis. Volume 1: Geographic patterns &
Relationships, ESRI Press, 186 pp.
Kennedy, H. (ed) (2001) Dictionary of GIS terminology. ESRI Press, Redlands, 116 p.
Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (2001) Geographic Information
Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons, 454 pp.
Maguire, D. J., Goodchild, M. F., and Rhind, D. W. (eds) (1991) Geographical information
systems: principles and applications, Longman.
Zeiler, M. (1999) Modeling Our World: the ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design. ESRI Press,
Redlands, 198 p.
ESRI Homepage ( http://esri.com/index.html ) : understanding GIS, industry applications,
user conference, virtual campus, ESRI Press books

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Do Remember !!

1. SIG telah menjadi ilmu yang sangat luas


cakupannya, sehingga tidak ada satu cara

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yang dianggap paling tepat untuk
mempelajarinya.

2. Pemahaman yang baik tentang konsep


dasar analisis spasial (dan BUKAN
pengetahuan untuk memakai software)
adalah esensial untuk memecahkan
berbagai masalah spasial dengan SIG.
HTTP://WWW.TEKMIRA.ESDM.GO.ID/KP/INFORMASIPERTAMB/INDEX.ASP
SISTEMINFORMASIPERTAMBANGANDIBADAN
GEOLOGI(HTTP://WWW.DIM.ESDM.GO.ID)

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WEBGISPERTAMBANGANOLEHBADAN
GEOLOGI(HTTP://WWW.DIM.ESDM.GO.ID)

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Bagian 2
Overview tentang GIS atau
SIG

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Towards a Definition of GIS
The relatively recent technology, rapid rate of development, commercial
orientation, and diversity of applications make no clear, unambiguous
definition of GIS
The term of GIS can be applied to computer technology, integrated
systems for use in substantive applications, and as a new discipline
Different point of views on the central point: hardware-software
(systems) vs. information processing (science)
GIS is also seen as a special case of information systems in general;
information is derived from the interpretation of data
Information is now a valuable asset and commodity with a high price (g-
commerce)
On the basis of the tasks performed, two types of information system
are present, i.e. transaction processing systems and decision support
systems (Maguire, 1991)

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Towards a Definition of GIS

Transaction processing systems focus on


recording and manipulating the occurrence of
operation. Examples: banking and airline
reservation systems

Decision support systems emphasize on


manipulation, analysis and modeling for
supporting decision makers (e.g. politicians,
government officials)

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Definisi GIS dari Beberapa
Sumber

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Definisi GIS (lanjutan)

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Key Points
All definitions have a single common feature, i.e. GIS are systems which deal
with geographical features

In GIS, reality is represented as a series of geographical features defined


according to two data elements: geographical (locational) and attribute
(statistical or non-locational)

Geographical data element is used to provide a reference for the attribute

Key features that differentiate GIS from other information systems include
spatial entities, relationships and spatial analysis

Check these terms: Geographical vs. spatial; aspatial vs. attribute data

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Relationships of GIS and other
Information systems

Maguire (1991)

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Sejarah Geokomputasi, dan Posisi GIS

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History (contd.)

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Three Views of GIS
Map, database and spatial analysis views

The map views focuses on cartographic aspects of GIS

Database view emphasizes the importance of a well-designed and


implemented database

Spatial analysis view emphasizes on the importance of analysis and


modelling in which GIS is seen more as science than technology.

Definition of spatial analysis: studying the locations and shapes of


geographic features and the relationships between them (Kennedy,
2001)

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Elements of GIS
Four basic elements: Computer hardware, software, data and
liveware

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Three Important Steps of GIS

Data preparation and entry

Data analysis

Data presentation or
visualization

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Spatial Data and Geoinformation
Data: representations that can be operated by a
computer
Spatial data: data that contain positional values
Geospatial data: spatial data that are
georeferenced
Information: data that have been interpreted by
human being
Geoinformation: specific type of information that
involves the interpretation of spatial data
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Real world and its representations
A representation of some parts of real world can be
considered a model of that part.

Models can come in many forms and in GIS the most


common model is a map. Map is a graphic representation of
real world at a certain level of detail.

Another model in GIS is database. Database is a repository


capable of storing large amount of data. Spatial database is
a specific type of database that stores representations of
geographic phenomena in the real world to be used in a GIS

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The Power of GIS
Its ability to organize and integrate multi datasets
together by geography (integrator)

Spatial analysis as a key functional power

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Compiled definitions of GIS

An integrated collection of hardware, software, data and


liveware which operates in an institutional context
(Maguire, 1991)

A computerized system that facilitates the phases of data


entry, data analysis and data presentation especially
when dealing with georeferenced data (ITC, 2001)

A collection of computer hardware, software, and


geographic data for capturing, storing, updating,
manipulating, analyzing, and displaying all forms of
geographycally referenced information (Kennedy, 2001)
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Tugas Minggu ini:

Searching di internet tentang aplikasi dari GIS


di dunia pertambangan serta akses Website
Tekmira dan Badan Geologi untuk mengetahui
level aplikasi SI pertambangan di Indonesia.
Tuangkan hasil studi dalam summary report
sepanjang maksimal 5 halaman, dan
dikumpulkan minggu depan

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