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The Cell

Copy of: Lorenzo C. Llamas, Jr.


Types of Cells
Eukaryotic cells
Protozoa
Fungi
Prokaryotic cells
Bacteria
Lipid/
protein/
carbohydrate complex,
providing a barrier and
containing transport
and signalling systems

Plasma Membrane
Double membrane
surrounding the
chromosomes and the
nucleolus
Pores allow specific
communication with the
cytoplasm
The nucleolus is a site
for synthesis of RNA
making up the Nucleus
ribosome
Surrounded by a double
membrane with a series
of folds called cristae
Functions in energy
production through
metabolism
Contains its own DNA,
and is believed to have
originated as a captured
bacterium Mitochondria
Surrounded by a double
membrane, containing
stacked thylacoid
membranes.
Responsible for
photosynthesis, the
trapping of light energy
for the synthesis of sugars
Contains DNA, and like
mitochondria is believed
to have originated as a Chloroplasts (plastids)
captured bacterium.
A network of interconnected
membranes forming
channels within the cell
Covered with ribosomes
(causing the "rough"
appearance) which are in the
process of synthesizing
proteins for secretion or
localization in membranes

Ribosomes

Protein and RNA complex


responsible for protein
Rough endoplasmic
synthesis reticulum (RER)
A network of
interconnected
membranes forming
channels within the cell
A site for synthesis and
metabolism of lipids
Also contains enzymes
for detoxifying
chemicals including
drugs and pesticides

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)


A series of stacked
membranes
Vesicles (small membrane
surrounded bags) carry
materials from the RER to
the Golgi apparatus
Vesicles move between the
stacks while the proteins
are "processed" to a mature
form
Vesicles then carry newly
formed membrane and
secreted proteins to their Golgi apparatus
final destinations including
secretion or membrane
localization
A membrane bound
organelle that is
responsible for
degrading proteins and
membranes in the cell
Also helps degrade
materials ingested by
the cell
Lysosymes
Membrane surrounded
"bags" that contain
water and storage
materials in plants

Vacuoles
Produce and degrade
hydrogen peroxide, a
toxic compound that
can be produced during
metabolism

Peroxisomes or Microbodies
Cytoplasm fluid mosaic
Cell wall

Plants have a rigid cell wall in addition to


their cell membranes
The Prokaryotic Cell
Bacteria
Characteristics of Prokaryotic
Cells
Molecules surrounded by a membrane and cell
wall
Lack characteristic eukaryotic subcellular
membrane enclosed "organelles
May contain membrane systems
May have photosynthetic pigments like in
cyanobacteria ("blue-green bacteria")
Some have external whip-like flagella for
locomotion or hair like pili for adhesion
Come in multiple shapes: cocci (round),
baccilli (rods), and spirilla or spirochetes
(helical cells).
External layers

Capsule
Glycocalyx
Bacteria
Characteristics of Prokaryotic
Cells
Molecules surrounded by a membrane and cell
wall
Lack characteristic eukaryotic subcellular
membrane enclosed "organelles
May contain membrane systems
May have photosynthetic pigments like in
cyanobacteria ("blue-green bacteria")
Some have external whip-like flagella for
locomotion or hair like pili for adhesion
Come in multiple shapes: cocci (round),
baccilli (rods), and spirilla or spirochetes
(helical cells).
External layers

Capsule
Glycocalyx
Appendages

Flagella
Pili/Fimbriae
The Cell Wall
Cell envelope
Cell membrane and peptidoglycan layer
The cell walls of gram-positive bacteria are
made up of twenty times as much murein or
peptidoglycan than gram-negative bacteria.
These complex polymers of sugars and amino
acids cross-link and layer the cell wall.
The thick outer matrix of peptidoglycan,
teichoic acid, polysaccharides, and other
proteins serve a number of purposes,
including membrane transport regulation, cell
expansion, and shape formation.
Because gram-positive bacteria have more
layers of peptidoglycan in their cell walls than
gram-negative, they can retain the dye.
Gram Positive bacteria
(No cell wall)
Examples of mycoplasmic bacteria:

Mycoplasma pneumoniae - causes


bronchitis, pneumonia
Ureaplasma urealyticum - one cause of

urethritis
Inside the Cell Wall
cytoplasm
Nuclear Area
Not surrounded by membrane
Nucleoid or nuclear body
Ribosomes
- Combination of a special type of RNA called
ribosomal RNA or rRNA(60%) and protein(40%).
- Characterized by S, Svedberg units
Rates molecular sizes through centrifugation.
Bacterial rating:
70S
w/ 2 smaller subunits
30S
50S
Inclusion bodies
For food
For water
Endospore/Spore

Formed thru the process called: Sporulation


Metabolically inactive cell
Formed when cell is exposed to adverse
environment.
Reverting to active cell, the process is called:
germination
Ex. Gr (+) Bacillus anthracis anthrax
Clostridium tetani tetanus
Normal habitat: soil
Q fever G(-) _______
The primary function of
endospores
To ensure the survival of a bacterium through
periods of environmental stress.
They are therefore resistant to ultraviolet and

gamma radiation, dessication, lysozyme,


temperature, starvation, and chemical
disinfectants.
Endospores are commonly found in soil and

water, where they may survive for long


periods of time.
Endospore formation clip
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Forms: central, terminal
Plasmids
Extrachromosomal appendages
A characteristic acquired by the bacteria when

exposed to adverse environment.


Plasmids
Being in the
gene, the
characteristic
acquired is
passed to the
offspring.
Note the
danger of
irrational use
of
antibiotics.
Eucaryotic Cells Procaryotic Cells

Plant type Animal Type

Plant type Animal Type

Distribution All Plants/fungi/algae All animals and protozoa All bacteria

Nuclear Membrane Present Present Absent

Membranous Structures other Present Present Generally Absent


than cell membrane (photosynthetic membranes)
Cytoplasmic ribosomes 80s 80s 70s
(density)
Chromosomes Composed of DNA and Proteins Composed of DNA and Composed of DNA only
Proteins
Flagella or Cilia When present, have a complex When present, have a When present, have a simple
structure complex structure structure, do not possess cilia
Cell Wall Rigid, of simple chemical Absent Of complex chemical
composition(cellulose) composition containing
peptidoglycan
Photosynthesis Present Absent Present in cyanobacteria and
(chlorophyll) some other bacteria

Comparison Between Eucaryotic and


Procaryotic Cells
Sourc
End of a periods lecture
Bacterial Morphology
Study of form/shape
Major Bacterial shapes
Coccus/Cocci Bacillus/Bacilli Spirillum/Spirilla

Spherical rod Spiral


spirochete
Other shapes
Star
Square
Bacterial Arrangements
Singly
By twos

Diplo
In Chain
Strepto
In groups/bunch
Staphylo
Others
Tetrad
sarcinae
Bacterial Growth
Increase in number
Duplicates by binary fission
Terminologies
Colony increased bacterial growth that has
come visible to the naked eye, like pus.
Culture Bacterial growth made on a petri
dish(glassware with bottom and cover plates).
Pure Culture contains only 1 type of bacteria
Mixed Culture contains more than 1 type of
bacteria
Media/Medium prepared in the laboratory
as solid (w/ agar) or liquid ( broth) where
bacteria are grown.
Phases of Bacterial Growth
Lag
Log
Stationary
Death
Phase 1
Lag Phase
Introduction of bacterium
Inoculation of bacterium
Phase 2
Logarithmic
Surge of growth
Number of bacteria increase at a fast pace ( 1
becomes 2, 2 becomes 4, 4 becomes 8and so on)
Phase 3
Stationary Phase
Number of reproduced cells = number of dying
cells
Phase 4
Death
Number of dying cells is more than the number of
reproduced cells
140000

120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0
Day 1 - 2 Day 3 - 4 Day 5 - 6 Day 7-8 Day 9-10 Day 11
Bacterial Growth
Requirements
Physical
Optimal pH
Optimal temperature
Osmotic Pressure
Chemical
Oxygen
Carbon
Nutrients and Minerals
Optimal pH
Optimal means favorable
pH refers to the basicity or acidity of a

substance
pH must therefore be favorable to the

bacteria
Usual pH requirement: 7
Acidophiles survive acidic environ
Optimal Temperature
Usual temp for pathogens: normal body
temp37 deg C
Psychrophile cold
Mesophile body temp range (normal)
Thermophile hot
Extreme thermophile very hot
Osmotic Pressure
Iso osmotic: same pressure as body fluids
0.9% NaCl

Hyper osmotic (hypertonic) more than


Shrink/crenate
______ - can actually survive hyper osmotic environ
Staphylococcus aureus
Hypo osmotic (hypotonic) less than
Swell and burst