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Material Mutahir

MMF410801-2 SKS

Departemen Metalurgi dan Material-FTUI


September Desember 2008

Dr. Ir. A.Herman Yuwono, M.Phil.Eng.


Email: ahyuwono@metal.ui.ac.id
Tel: (+6221)7863510 ext 212
Fax: (+6221) 7872350
PENDAHULUAN

Mata Kuliah : Material Mutahir


Kode Mata Kuliah : MMF410801
SKS : 2
Semester : Ganjil 2008/2009
Staf Pengajar : Akhmad Herman Yuwono (AHY)
Donanta Dhaneswara (DD)
Sistem Kelas : Tunggal

Tujuan Pengajaran :
Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan perkembangan material teknik mutahir,
proses manufaktur dan aplikasinya.

Sistem Evaluasi :
Kehadiran : 5%
Tugas : 15 %
Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS) : 30 %
Presentasi : 15 %
Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS) : 35 %
SATUAN ACARA PENGAJARAN (SAP)
Pertemuan Tanggal Pokok Bahasan
1 2 Sept 2008 Penjelasan SAP dan Definisi dan ruang lingkup material mutahir
2 9 Sept 2008 Material-material logam terbaru; Metallic Glass
3 16 Sept 2008 Material-material sangat ringan untuk konstruksi pesawat
4 23 Sept 2008 Material-material cerdas
5 30 Sept 2008 Material nano komposit untuk aplikasi optik dan elektronik
6 7 Okt 2008 Material mesopori untuk aplikasi membran, katalis dan medikal
7 14 Okt 2008 Material-material magnet terbaru
8 21 Okt 2008 Material-material keramik terbaru
9 28 Okt 2008 UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER
10 4 Nov 2008 Polimer kristal cair (LCP)
11 11 Nov 2008 Biomaterial
12 18 Nov 2008 PRESENTASI TUGAS MAHASISWA
13 25 Nov 2008 PRESENTASI TUGAS MAHASISWA
14 2 Des 2008 PRESENTASI TUGAS MAHASISWA
15 9 Des 2008 UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER
INTRODUCTION
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Every segment of our everyday lives is influenced to one degree or


another by materials: transportation, housing, clothing, communication,
recreation or food production.
The development & advancement of societies are produced and
manipulate materials.
Earliest humans had access to only a very limited number of materials
that occur naturally: stone, wood, clay etc.
With time the techniques for producing materials were discovered:
pottery, and various metals.

Materials utilization was totally a selection process by virtue of its


characteristics.
Came to understand the relationships between the structural elements
of the materials and their properties.
Tens of thousands of different materials that meet the needs of our
modern and complex society: metals, plastics, glasses and fibers.
Improving the suitable materials is never ending process to meet
humans need.
Development of Engineering Materials
(after Ashby 1992)

10 000 BC 5000 BC 0 1000 1500 1800 1900 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Gold Copper
Bronze
Iron METALS
Cast Iron Glassy Metal
Al - Lithium Alloys Development Slow
Dual Phase Steels Mostly Quality
Steels
Micro Alloyed Steels Control and Processing
Wood POLYMERS, New Super Alloys
Skin ELASTOMERS Alloy Steels
Fibers
Glues
Light Alloys
COMPOSITES
Rubber Super Alloys
Straw-brick paper
High Temperature
Titanic Polymers
Stone
Bakelite Zirconium Alloys
High Modulus
Flint Etc Polymers
Nylon
Pottery Polyesters
Glass Exposies
PE
Cement PMA Arcrylics
CERAMICS Refractories PC PS PP
Portland Cement
Fused Tough Engineering
Cerments Pyro-
Silica ceramics (Al2O3,Si4,etc)
Ceramics

10 000 BC 5000 BC DATE


0 1000
(Year) 1500 1800 1900 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

The use of other competitive materials in replacement to metals and alloys
becomes prominent as technological development requires higher
performance of engineering materials
WHAT IS AN ADVANCED MATERIAL?

There are many different definitions of advanced materials and they


have become so commonly used that most tend to assume that
advanced materials are just materials. For a physical scientist
considers that advanced materials could just as easily have been
Polymers, for these are some of the most versatile advanced
materials in use today and often are confused as plastics by many
people.
WHAT IS AN ADVANCED MATERIAL?

Some scholars define advanced materials as those that


involve knowledge (and creation of materials) at the molecular
and/or atomic scale for the purpose of advancing technology
and improving the human experience. These might be
materials such as tiny carbon nanotubes that are being used in
new types of X-ray tubes that are more efficient and safer than
those now in use at airports and in doctors offices. These are
also new coatings and methods of manufacturing of Teflon,
which is an example of a polymer material made with chemical
processing methods that causes much less pollution and is
environmentally friendly. Other possibilities include materials
used in new diagnostic methods such as those for medical
biopsies.
WHAT IS AN ADVANCED MATERIAL?
Advanced materials research involves discoveries of
fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics and
Physics that can be applied to control the molecular-level
properties of new materials, and then fashioning materials
and/or nanostructures for real-life applications. It involves
knowing the conditions under which a material will be used
and identifying candidate materials for this purpose.
WHAT IS AN ADVANCED MATERIAL?

There is always a real need for better materials and/or


nanostructures - the issue is how much better and at what
cost. An applied scientist, with a particular application in mind,
will scour lists of known materials and/or nanostructures
looking for one that meets his or her needs. If existing
materials are unsuitable, the applied and basic scientist must
work together to develop new materials and/or
nanostructures. This synergism between what is available
and what needs to be developed reflects the important and
complementary roles of the basic and applied sciences in
Materials Science. Neither one takes precedence over the
other. Rather, they work hand-in-hand to fulfill our ever-
growing need for new materials.
ADVANCED MATERIALS:

Materials that are utilized in high-technology application


High-tech, a device or product that operates or functions using
relatively intricate and sophisticated principles
Electronic equipment, computers, fiber optic systems, spacecraft,
aircraft, and military rocketry.
They might be of all material types whose properties have been
enhanced or newly developed
Materials of the Future

A. SMART MATERIALS

A group of new and state of the art materials now being


developed that will have a significant influence on many
technologies.
Smart implies the ability to sense charges in environments
and then respond to the changes in predetermined
manners-traits that are also found in living organisms.

Component of smart materials (or system):


Some type of sensor (detect an input signal)
An actuator (perform a responsive and adaptive
function)
Materials of the Future

Four types of materials used for actuator:


1. Shape memory alloys; metals, after having been deformed,
revert back to their original shapes when temperature is
changed.
2. Piezoelectric ceramics; expand and contract in response to an
applied electric fields (or voltage); conversely, they also
generate an electric field when their dimension are altered.
3. Magnetostrictive; like piezoelectric but in magnetic fields
4. Electro-rheological & magneto-rheological fluids are liquids that
experience dramatic changes in viscosity upon the application
of electric or magnetic fields.

Example of Smart materials: piezoelectric inserted to blade of


helicopter to sensor noise computer feedback to generate
noise-canceling antinoise.
Materials of the Future

B. NANOTECHNOLOGY

To understand the chemistry and physics of materials by studying large


and complex structures to investigate the fundamental building blocks of
these structures that are smaller and simpler. Top-down sciences

By SPM (scanning probe microscopes) permits to observe the individual


atoms and molecules, and it has become possible to manipulate and
move atoms and molecules to form new structures, thus, design new
materials that are built from simple atomic level constituents (i.e.
materials by design)

It enables to carefully arrange atoms to develop mechanical, electrical,


magnetic, and other properties. Bottom-up sciences called
nanotechnology.
Nano = 10-9, nanotechnology < 100 nm
equivalent 500 atom diameters
Modern Materials Needs

The development of more sophisticated and specialized materials,


as well as consideration of the environmental impact of material
production.

Nuclear energy: many problem remain in materials, from fuel to


containment structures to facilities to the disposal of radioactive
waste.
Transportation: facing low operating temperature engine etc.
Fuel cell energy: facing low operating temperature for high
energy output.
Manufacturing process: facing toxic as a product of the process
Modern Materials Needs

Non renewable materials such as polymer, some of metals, oil will


be depleted for:

The discovery of additional reserves,


The development of new materials having comparable
properties with less adverse environmental impact, and/or
Increased recycling effort and the development of new recycling
technology
First assignment
Buatlah sebuah tulisan (essay) dalam bahasa Indonesia
sepanjang satu halaman A4, dengan huruf Times New Roman,
12 pt, satu spasi yang berisikan point-point berikut:

Definisi dan ruang lingkup material mutahir


Signifikansi material mutahir terhadap kesejahteraan umat
manusia.

Dikumpulkan minggu depan (8 september 2008).


Tugas yang terlambat tidak diterima.
Tidak ada praktek contek-menyontek.