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one-way spanning solid slabs

Learning out-comes
At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to:

a) Classify all types of solid slab(CO1)


b) Identify one way and two way solid slab (CO1)
c) Use a relevant Clauses in code of practice (CO1)
d) Design one-way slabs (CO2)
e) Details the slabs(CO1).
Reinforced concrete slab
Slabs are plate elements forming floors, roofs in buildings, and as
the decks of bridges which normally carry uniformly distributed
loads acting normal to the plane of the slab
Can take many forms such as in situ solid slab, ribbed slabs or
precast unit
Slabs may span in one direction or two direction and they may be
supported on monolithic concrete beams, steel beams, walls or
directly by structures columns (also called suspended slab)
Slabs which are not rectangular in plan or which support an
irregular loading arrangement may be analyzed by using yield line
method or Hilleborg strip method (which not covered in this
code)
Un general at a slab section, bending moments in two orthogonal
directions and twisting moment are present.
Slabs may be simply supported or continuous over one or more
supports and are classified as follows:
A. Spinning one way supported on two sides such
as between beams or walls
The way a slab spans its supports has a direct
impact on the way in which the slab will bend.

One-way slabs

Simple and continuous beam


B. Spanning two ways which are supported on all
four sides such as beams and /or walls

Two-way flat plates

Two-way flat slabs (with drop panels)


Flat plates
and slab
The slabs are presented in two groups: one-way slabs
and two-way slabs.
A slab in a framed building can be a one-way slab
depending upon its length-to-breadth ratio. A one-
way slab is designed for the spanning direction only.
Rectangular slabs can be divided into the two groups
based on the support conditions and length-to-
breadth ratios. The one-way slabs are identified as
follows.
One-way slab
1) When a rectangular slab is supported only on two
opposite edges, it is a one-way slab spanning in the
direction perpendicular to the edges. Precast planks
fall in this group.
2) When a rectangular slab is supported on all the four
edges and the length-to-breadth (L / B) ratio is equal
to or greater than two, the slab is considered to be a
one-way slab. The slab spans predominantly in the
direction parallel to the shorter edge.
The following sketches show the plans of the two
cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each
case is shown by the double headed arrow.
2-way slab
Other types of rectangular slabs and non-rectangular
slabs are considered to be two-way slabs, If a
rectangular slab is supported on all the four sides and
the length-to-breadth ratio is less than two, then it is a
two-way slab. If a slab is supported on three edges or
two adjacent edges, then also it is a two-way slab. A
slab in a framed building can be a two-way slab
depending upon its length-to-breadth ratio. A two-
way slab is designed for both the orthogonal
directions.
Identify whether the slab panel as shown is one way slab or two way slab?

1 2 3 4 5

3500 4500 4500 5000

6000 S1 S2 S3 S4
B

8000 S6 S7 S8
S5
C

6000 S9 S10 S11 S12


D

1ST & 2ND FLOOR PLAN (NTS)


Design of one-way slab
One-way slab is usually rectangular where the length is two or more times the
width. These slabs are considered to be supported along two long sides.
This design is for a typical suspended slab that has dimensions where one-
way action occurs. This occurs when one dimension is longer than the other
one so that the loads are supported in the long direction.
1.Idealization for design
(a) Uniformly loaded slab
Concrete slab are defined as members where the breadth is
not less than 5 x overall depth
One-way slabs carries uniform load are design on the
assumption that they consist of a series of rectangular
beams 1 m wide spanning between supporting beams and
walls.
The shear stress are usually low in a slab except when there
are heavy concentrated loads and
Compression reinforcement is seldom required
The sections can be a simply supported slab and a
continuous one-way slab
Simply supported slab
If the slab is poured separately from the supporting walls
then the slab can be considered a simple span.
The slab has positive moment across the complete span
with maximum moment occurring at mid-span and 0(zero)
at the supports.

Simple span
Moment diagram

Moment/main Distribution steel


steel
d
h

Simply supported slab


span
In this case the moment steel is placed in the slab bottom and extends
across the entire slab length. The steel in the other direction is minimum
steel, temperature and shrinkage steel.

Simple span Moment diagram


continuous one-way slab

Moment/main steel Distribution steel

span span

Continuous one-way slab


(b) Concentrated loads on a solid slab
If a slab is simply supported on two opposite edges
and carries one or more concentrated loads in a line
in the direction of the span, it should be designed to
resist the maximum bending moment caused by the
loading system
Depth, bending, shear and detailing
Deflection
1.Depth of slab
Estimate the percentage of steel required in slab for
bending (generally will be lightly reinforced, i.e. <
0.5%)
Calculate the span/depth ratio using;

Determine the effective depth; d,


Determine the overall depth, h
Moment steel Distribution steel
d
h

span
2. Bending
Design as if they consists of a series of beam of 1 m
breadth.
Consist of main steel in direction of the span and
secondary or distributed steel in transverse direction.
The main steel should form the outer layer of
reinforcement to give the maximum lever arm, z.
The calculation for bending reinforcement follow the
procedure for beam,
Calculate the area of tension reinforcement ( main
steel)
As = M/0.87fykz
Shear
Need to check not to fail in shear
Can be calculated as beams
The design shear force, VEd is less than the design of
shear resistance of the concrete alone, VRd,c , no shear
reinforcement is necessary.
Reinforcement details
a. Reinforcement area (Cl. 5.4.2.11)
Longitudinal steel
Maximum or minimum % of longitudinal steel;
0.26 f ctmbt d
As, min 0.0013bt d
f yk

and As 0.04 Ac

Transverse steel
The area of secondary steel; As ,trans,min 0.2 x As ,main
b. Spacing of reinforcement
The clear distance between reinforcing bar should not
be less than;
Maximum diameter bar
20 mm
dg + 5 where dg is the maximum aggregate
The maximum bar spacing , smax = 3h < 400 mm
generally and 2h 250mm in areas of maximum
moment where h is overall depth.
The maximum bar for secondary reinforcement; ,
smax = 3.5h < 450 mm in general and
smax = 3h < 400 in area of maximum moment
Detailing
Design of One-way Continuous Solid Slab
For continuous slab with ;

a) Substantially uniform loading

b) Permanent action, gk Variable action, qk

c) At least 3 spans that not differ by more than 15% of the longest span

The bending moment and shear forces may be calculated using the
coefficients given in this table below;
Bending
1. The main steel should form the outer layer of
reinforcement to give it maximum lever arm
2. The calculation for bending reinforcement follow a
similar procedure to that used in beam design
3. The lever arm, z is used to determine the area of
tension reinforcement is given by
As = M/0.87f ykz

4. Max bar spacing < 3h

5. As, min
0.26 f ctmbt d
0.0013bt d
f yk
6. As max 0.04Ac
Detailing bottom reinforcement is required
within the span and top reinforcement over the
supports.
Exercise ;

1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.Check deflection
Estimate the percentage of steel required in slab for
bending (generally will be lightly reinforced, i.e. <
0.5%)
Calculate the span/depth ratio using;

Determine the effective depth; d,


Determine the overall depth, h
Moment steel Distribution steel
d
h

span
Design service stress, s = 310/500 x fyk x Asreq/Asprov
= 5/8 x fyk x Asreq/Asprov
= 5/8 x 500 x 349/393
= 275.3 N/mm
Modification factor = 310/ s
= 310/275.3
= 1.12
= Asreq/bd
= 349/1000 x 140
= 0.0025 < o = fck x 10-
= 0.0025 < o = 25 x 10-
Use equation (7.16a) to calculate the basic span/effective depth ratio
K = 1.3 from Table NA-5 for end span of continuous slab
= 1.5 for interior span

l/d = 54.6

Allowable span/effective depth ratio = basic x modification factor

= 54.6 x 1.12
= 61.2
Actual deflection = l/d
= 4500/140
= 32 < 61.2

Therefore the deflection OK. The proposed slab thickness (170mm thick) is
sufficient.
EXERCISE 1
Variable loading = 2.0 kN/m
Grade of concrete, fck = 30 N/mm
Concrete cover = 25 mm
Thickness of concrete slab = 150 mm
Density of concrete = 24 KN/m
Characteristic of steel strength, fyk = 500 N/mm
Finishes = 0.3 KN/m
Diameter of main bar (assume) = 10 mm

a.) Calculate for slab panel s2:


(i) design load, (ii) area of steel, (iii) check deflection, (iv) sketch detailing
b) Using above data given, calculate the maximum uniformly distributed load
that the slab S2 can carry, if the main bar is provided with H10 125mm c/c.
1 2 3 4 5
5000 4500 3000 5000

8000 S1 VOID S2 VOID

GROUND FLOOR PLAN (NTS)


EXERCISE 2
Variable loading = 2.0 kN/m
Grade of concrete, fck = 30 N/mm
Concrete cover = 25 mm
Thickness of concrete slab = 150 mm
Density of concrete = 24 KN/m
Characteristic of steel strength, fyk = 500 N/mm
Diameter of main bar (assume) = 10 mm

1)Design the middle of end span of slab panel S1


2)Design the middle of interior span of slab panel S2
1 2 3 4 5
3500 3500 3500 3500

8000
VOID S1 S2 S3

FIRST FLOOR PLAN (NTS)