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Steam Turbine Governing

System

Prepared by: Nimesh Gajjar


DEFINITION OF GOVERNING
A SYSTEM WHOSE PURPOSE IS TO CONTROL A PRIME MOVER

OR

GOVERNOR IS A DEVICE TO CONTROL SPEED /LOAD TO A SET


POINT.
Why Governing is required?
The characteristics of an ungoverned
turbine is unsuitable for electric power
generation. The figure shows the
characteristics of an ungoverned and a
speed governed turbine.
The turbine output is controlled by
varying the steam flow by means of
throttling valves of the turbine .The
valves are controlled by the governor.
Governing system is required to
ensure that the system demand is
followed automatically without large
deviation in the nominal electric
frequency
The main purpose of the Governing System is to maintain:

* Constant speed at variable loads.

* Constant speed at varying steam inlet parameters.

* Constant speed at varying extractions and exhaust


steam parameters/conditions.
SPEED CONTROLLER
Principle methods of load reduction

Throttle governing
Nozzle control governing
Bypass governing
Combination of the above
Types of Governors
Mechanical Governors (CENTRIFUGAL FLYWEIGHT )

SPEEDER
SPRING

FLY WEIGHTS

SPOOL

ROTATING SLEEVE

SHAFT DRIVEN
BY TURBINE
SHAFT

Steam Turbine\Governing\Steam-Turbine-Training.swf
HYDRO- MECHANICAL GOVERNOR

CENTRIFUGAL
GOVERNOR
LINKAGE

] [

SERVOMOTOR
OIL
PUMP
D
B
PILOT
THROTTLE VALVE
VALVE
P0

C P1
A

GEAR
STEAM

EXHAUST TO CONDENSER
NOZZEL GOVERNORNING
By pass Governing

To produce more power ( when on over load) additional steam


may be admitted a by-pass valve to the later stage of the
turbine.
Hunting
Suppose, if the load on a turbine is suddenly reduced, the
machine begins to speed up. When the speed reaches a certain
value, the governor comes into operation and due to this the
steam supply is considerably reduced with the result that the
speed drops well below the normal value. Again the governor
acts after a period of time, which depends on a number of
circumstances such as friction, sensitiveness etc. and the steam
supply is suddenly augmented. Again the speed rapidly rises and
the cycle begins a new.

Fluctuating loads or a sudden change of load especially in case of


reduction of load, are more likely to produce hunting, but in
other cases it will persist even at fairly steady loads.