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# Learning Objective

## Student will be able to:

Determined the resultant of force and solving the problems
refering of the force system;
Understanding the phase of a typical Structural Engineering
Project.
Apply equations of rigid body equilibrium to solve a 2-D problem
Solved the problems of structural analysis in a simple beam
structure.
Clasified the static determinate, indeterminate and instability of
plane frame.
Solved the problems of stuctural analysis refering the static
determinate of plane frame.
Topics for Today
Definition of Force
Working Force Line
Force System:
Colinier
Coplannar
Space
Resultant of Force
Force
A force is any influence that causes an object to
undergo a certain change, either concerning its
movement, direction, or geometrical construction
Force is the interaction between objects that
affecting to their shape or displacement on the
object that involved.
Force is a Vector measurements
Magnitude (Besaran)
Direction and sense (Arah)
Point of aplication (Titik tangkap)
Unit of Force:
SI unit: N (Newton), kN (kilo Newton)
US unit: lb (pound), kip (k) = 1000 pound
Jenis-jenis Gaya
Gaya terapan, sebagai gaya yang dikerjakan
Gaya Reaktif, dimana gaya yang terjadi atau timbul
akibat pengaruh gaya lainnya
Gaya Kontak, suatu gaya yang terjadi akibat kontak
atau hubungan fisik secara langsung antara dua
benda
massa dan terjadi karena pengaruh gaya gravitasi
Gaya Terdistribusi, gaya yang bekerja pada suatu
luasan tertentu
Gaya Terpusat, gaya yang bekerja pada suatu titik.
Gaya Aksi Reaksi, gaya yang mempunyai nilai atau
besaran yang sama dengan arah yang berlawanan,
dan gaya ini selalu ada dalam satu garis gaya
Besaran
Besaran Skalar, yaitu besaran yang
hanya mempunyai nilai (harga) saja
contoh: massa, panjang, volume, waktu,
energi dll
Besaran Vektor, yaitu besaran yang
disamping memiliki nilai (harga) juga
mempunyai arah. Contoh: momen,
kecepatan, percepatan, gaya, dll
Vektor
Vektor merupakan pernyataan
matematis yang mempunyai besar dan
arah.
Dalam perhitungannya menggunakan
aturan atau hukum jajaran genjang
Vektor dapat dibedakan menjadi 3 yaitu;
Vektor Bebas
Vektor Tetap/Tertentu/Terikat
Vektor Geser
Vektor Bebas
Sebuah vektor yang aksinya tidak
seperti pada benda yang bergerak rotasi
akibat kopel atau bergerak translasi

V1 V2

V3
Vektor Tetap
Suatu vektor yang mempunyai titik tangkap/
kerja harus dipertahankan.
Apabila titik tangkap vektor mengalami
perubahan maka akan diperoleh perubahan
Vektor Geser
Suatu vektor yang dalam aksinya harus
mempertahankan garis kerja.
Proses pemindahan/penggeseran ini disebut
proses transmisibilitas dimana efek/akibat yang
Presentation of Force
Mathematically
Graphic:
Lenght of the line magnitude of foce
Direction of line direction of force
Working force line the unbound line in the
vector line of force

y
a
x
Working Force Line
Point of aplication a force can be
displacement to another point of
aplication along the working force line
with out changing the translational and
rotational effect to the structure
Force that work on the stable object, can
be seen as a force that works anywere
along the working force line
P
Force System
Collinier
Coplanar:
Concurrent
Parallel
Non concurrent non parallel
Space:
Noncoplanar, parallel
Noncoplanar, concurrent
Noncoplanar, non concurrent
Collinier

Concurrent
Parallel

Non-concurrent
Non-parallel
Force System in 3
Dimension (Space)
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
The parallelogram law for the addition of forces: Two
forces acting on a particle can be replaced by a single
force, called resultant, obtained by drawing the
diagonal of the parallelogram which has sides equal
to the given forces

R
P

Q
Cont..
The principle of transmissibility: A force acting
at a point of a rigid body can be replaced by a
force of the same magnitude and same
direction, but acting on at a different point on
the line of action

f2 f2

f1
f1
f1 and f2 are equivalent if their
magnitudes are the same and
the object is rigid
Force Resultant
Force resultant is combinaton from 2 or
more forces that is not in paralel position,
can be simplified as a force, with out
changing the translational or rotational effect
on the object or structure.
The effect on the combination of forces is
equal to the effect of a Force that called a
Force Resultant.
FORCE RESULTANT
The method to determined the Force
Resultant are:
Parallelogram Method /Jajaran Genjang Gaya/
Tirangle Force
Polygon Force Method
Algebra Method
Paralellogram
Parallelogram Method / Triangle Method:
Force resultant is a force that been made
by the diagonal of parallelogram that
made by the two of vector forces.

P P

= R = R

Q Q
To determined Resultant of force with
Parallelogram methods from 3 forces

f2 f2
= R1 =
f1 f1
f3 f3

R
R
=
R1
f1
Polygon Method
Each vector of force has to be draw (lenght
of line is represent the magnitude of force)
continuing each forces. The starting of
vector force is place at the end of previous
vector force. The sequence is not have an
influence.
Draw a line from the stating point of first
vector force to the end point of the last
vector force. The line that has been made
is a resultant of all vector forces.
f2

f1 f1
= R
= R

f2

f1
R R

f3
f2 = f2 =
f1
f3
Metode Aljabar
f2 f2 R
R q
q a
f1 f1

## Tan q = f2 / f1 R = f12 + f22 - 2 f1.f2 cos a

Komponen Gaya

F1 F1
F F F

F2 F2
Gaya = F Komponen Gaya: Komponen Gaya:
F1 dan F2 F1 dan F2
Mencari Komponen Gaya dengan Metode
Grafis
sistem komponen gaya yang berbeda-beda

F F1 F F1
F
F1 F2
F2
F2
F1 dan F2 adalah Komponen Gaya F
Mencari Komponen Gaya dengan Metode
Aljabar
There are four
concurrent cable
forces acting on the
bracket.
How do you determine
the resultant force
acting on the bracket?
Sample Problem
The two forces act on a
bolt at A. Determine
their resultant.

SOLUTION:
Trigonometric solution -use the triangle rule for
vector addition in conjunction with the law of
cosines and law of sines to find the resultant.
Step 1 is to resolve each force
F2 F1 into its components;

## Step 2 is to add all the x

F3
all the y components together.
F2 F2y
F1y These two totals become the
F1
resultant vector.
F2x F1x
Step 3 is to find the magnitude
F3x and angle of the resultant
F3y F3 vector
F2 F1 FR = F1 + F2 + F3

## FR = F1x i + F1y j - F2x i + F2y j

F3 + F3x i - F3y j
F2 F2y
F1y F1
FR = (F1x - F2x + F3x) i + (F1y +
F2x F1x F2y - F3y) j
F3x
FR = (FRx ) i + (FRy) j
F3y F3